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Full text of "The Artizan"

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I SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY Q 




yiTED STATES PATENT OFFICE 



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ARTIZAN: 



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LIBRARY 



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OF THE PROGRESS OP 



U, S, PATl 



CIVIL AID MECHANICAL EMINEERIM 



SHIPBUILDING, STEAM NAVIGATION, THE APPLICATION OP CHEMISTRY 

TO THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS, &c, (fee. 



EDITED BY W JL SMITH, C.E. 



VOL. XVI., FEOM THE COMMENCEMENT. 
VOL. X., NEW SERIES. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED ^.T THE 

OFFICE OF "THE ARTIZAN" JOURNAL, 19, SALISBURY STREET, STRAND. W.G 

1858, 



I 









LONDON : 

KELLY AND CO., PRINTERS, OLD BOSTVELL COURT, 

ST. CLEMENT'S, STRAND. 



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~> 1 1 



Liunnii i 



U, S, PATENT 



INDEX TO VOL. XVI. 

THE AETXZA?s T JOUKNAL, 1858. 



Accidents from machinery, 22, 199, 229, 279, 317 

Address to readers, 1 

Agricultural (machinery, &c.) : Australian Agricul- 
tural Company, 73 j beet-root sugar, production 
of, 99 ; Boydell's traction engine, 70, 99 ; Bray's, 
99, 150, 229, 281; Fowler's steam plough, 229; 
grinding maise, improved method of, 22 ; Norfolk 
agricultural company, 73 ; Suffolk, 73 ; threshing 
machine, 256 ; steam ploughing, 256 

Air fog signal, 73 

Almeida's new stereoscope, 226 

Alloy of chromium, 47 

Alum shale, spontaneous ignition of, 47 - 

American flint glass factory, destruction of the, 199 

American trip, notes of an, 210, 235, 259 

Angular cam chuck, 149 

Annual subscribers, notice to, 11, 285 

Application of artillery to road-making, 201 

Applied mechanics, R. Armstrong on, 225 

Armoury at Albany, 98 

Army in India, medals for the, 267 

Artesian wells : Bourn, 255 ; Ostend, 202, 282 ; 
Swindon, 202, 282; Sahara, 97; Sunderland Dock 
Company, 317 

Art-manufactures, exhibition of, 199 

Art-treasures exhibition at Manchester, 150 

Assaying of coals by the blowpipe, E. J. Chapman 
on, 193 

Auger worm in timber, 177 

Australian postal service, 48, 12-3 

B 

Barracks, estimates for, 177 

Barometer, benefit of the, to fishermen, 71 

Bath at Elsecar, 71 

Batteries for coast defences, G. Rennie on the con- 
struction of, 303 

Bath, Oxley's Multum-in-Parvo, 236 

Beams, iron, and girders, an inquirv into the strength 
of, by T. Hughes, C.E., F.R.S., 3, 27, 79, 129, 158 

Bell-founding, 279 

Bellows nozzles, experiments on the form of, 195 

Belfry at Rouen, 176 

Birmingham School of Art, mastership of, 150 

Blast drill for the turnip fly, 200 

Blast furnaces, erection of,* at Jarrow, 150 

Blowing fans, J. Downie on, 295 

Blowing-engine, and rolling-inill, description of, 61 

Board of Trade returns, 199 

Board of Works, expenditure of, 199 

Boiler explosions : ironworks and factories, 46, 74, 
99, 100, 126, 152, 178, 184, 203, 230, 236, 283, 
317 ; steamers, 100, 283, 317 ; mines, 203 

Boilers: improved construction of, 35, 150; boiler 
explosions, remarks on, 7, 17, 148, 183 ; prevention 
of, 178 ; incrustation in, 100 ; low-water alarm 
whistles for, 122 ; Steam-boiler Assurance Com- 
pany, 203, 230 

Books, new, or new editions of, 16, 41, 70, 96, 144, 
223,249,276,310 

Boydell's traction engine, 70, 99 

Brass and iron tubes, G. Tosh, on the relative 
evaporating power of, 33 

Bray's traction engine, 99, 150, 229, 281 

Breweries, statistics of, 199 

Bridges : Chelsea new bridge, 99, 152, 178, 203 ; 
Saltash, 21, 97, 178, 203 ; suspension bridges, 21, 
47, 99, 256; Victoria bridge at Montreal, 47, 126; 
Westminster new bridge, 47, 203, 256 ; minor 
bridges, 22, 47, 71, 99, 107, 125, 152, 178, 186, 
203,230,256,317 



Bright, Sir C, 254 

British iron manufacture, statistics of, 22 

Bullet-casting machine, 201 

Bullets perforated by insects, 201 



Cagliari, compensation to engineers of the, 175 

Calculating machine for the registrar-general, 71 

Canada, new directory of, 46 

Canals : Suez ship, 21, 47, 99, 125, 177, 230, 283, 
317 ; Canadian canal traffic, 230 ; canal companies, 
255; Caledonian, 230 ; Crinan, 230; Euboea, 47; 
Great Rowley-hill, 229 ; French, 282; Gloucester 
and Berkeley, 317 ; Intere - oceanic, 177, 202, 
Isabella II., 203; Kensington, 255; method of 
navigating, 202, 237 ; railway and canal legisla- 
tion, 175 ; Scotch, 230 ; Spignone, 73; Venice, 178 

Cartridges : Gossamer, 177 ; Redfords, 282 

Cast iron for architectural purposes, 22 

Cast steel for the tilts of hammers, 150 

Chandelier, safety atlas sliding, 317 

Chatham Dockyard, appointment of Mr. Mayle, 123 

Chemistry : 

Acetate of alumine, 318 

Adulteration of wax, 257 

Alcohol from asphodel roots, 283 

Aluminium, 203, 318 - 

Arsenic in paperhangings, 74 

Artificial manufacture of coal, 100 

Black pigment from scliist, 100 

Carbon, photographic process, 257 

Clarifying sugar by soap, 74 

Copper and silver in sea water, 204 

Deodorising processes, 204 

Drying varnish, manufacture of, 257 

Dye for woollen goods, 283 

Electro -galvanic currents, 178 

Electricity and Dentistry, 257 

Electro-deposition system, 204 

Hardening copper-plates, 257 

Hydrated alumina for discolorising liquids, 74 

Indestructible ink, 178 

Indigo purple for dyeing - , 204 

Lubricating material, 100 

Manufacture of sulphurous acid, 204 

New material for alcohol, 178 

Oreide, ibrass, 74 

Photoglyphic engraving, 283 

Photographing on ivory, 178 

Indian rubber, 178 ; silk, 152 

Printing from veneers, 74 

Pyrito-bituminous schistus as a disinfectant, 231 

Silicate of lime for preserving stone, 283 

Spirit for blowpipe-lamp, 74 

Starch from horse-chestnuts, 74 

Tungstic acid, 231 

Uric acid, 257 

Waterproof paper for packages, 74 
Chimney at Thornham's saw mills, 71 

■ Dean Clough, 47 

Christiana, rebuilding of, 150 

Cleveland iron field, 150 

Clifford's boat-lowering apparatus, 98 

Coal : consumption of, 150, 175 ; traffic of, to 

London, 46; coal mines, 22, 101, 150, 230, 256, 

318 
Coal question, and the prosperity of Great Britain, 

233 
Coast defences, 47, 96, 99, 124, 255, 282 
Coating iron ships, 73 
Coke in smithies, 74 
Collapse of flues, 313 



College for the working classes, 47 

Colliery accidents, 178, 204, 226, 2-56, 283, 318 

Colt's repeating rifle, 285 

Compasses for iron ships, 171 

Copper, British, statistics of, 123 

Cultivating land, machine for, 150 

Curb bit for horses, 279 

D 

Danube, improvements for the navigation of the, 21, 
73, 99, 255 

Death of J. Henderson, 46, 97 

Dead weight in passenger train, C. Fay on the saving 
of, 58 

Decorative department of arts, 199 

Decimal system, adoption of the, 71, 150 

Decimal measures and weights, 150 

Decimal coinage for Canada, 150, 286 

Defective ammunition, 201 

Deleterious vapours from factories, 175 

Derrick, Bishop's patent boom, 163, 260, 281, 287 

Derwent ironworks, 97 

Desert of Sahara, artesian wells in the, 97 

Designs registered for articles of utility, 24, 50, 76, 
102, 128, 154, 180, 206, 232, 258, 320 

Diving-apparatus, 150, 201, 226; death in, 202 

Docks: at the Avon, 283; Birkenhead, 47, 282; 
Bahia, 21 ; Cardiff, 73, 99 ; Canada, 230 ; Chatham, 
99, 152, 255, 282 ; Cherbourg dock and harbour, 
152, 178, 203, 230 ; Dublin graving dock, 51, 79, 
259 ; East India, 203 ; Fulham dock (proposed), 
317; graving dock, Glasgow, 73; Jarrow, 73, 99, 
125 ; Kingston, 125 ; London, 152, 282 ; Liverpool, 
73 ; Newport, 99 ; new docks, Northfleet (proposed) 
255 ; Northumberland, 152 ; North Inlet dock, 
Portsmouth, 125, 255; Port Phillip, 177; slip 
dock for Alexandria, 229 ; Southampton, 73, 282; 
Sunderiand, 178; Swansea, 178; Thames Haven, 
230; Quebec, 99; Victoria, 177, 203 

Dock, G. Bayley on a floating, 299 

Dock bearing piles, pressure on, 255 

Dockyard economy, 317 

Drying oil for paints, 71 

Dublin, new works in, 186, 211, 223 

Duty off machinery, 279 

Dwelling-s for workmen, association for providing, 97 

E. 
Earthquakes at Naples, searches into the phenomena 

of, 71 
Eastern Counties transit company (proposed), 175 
Eastern Steam Navigation Company's great steam 

ship, 2, 20, 21, 46, 48, 72, 93, 124, 125, 181, 202, 

229, 254 
Electric telegraph, C. W. Siemens, on the progress 

of, 111 
Electro-magnets, strengthening, 74 
Electro-motive forces of various batteries, 196 
Embankment of the Seine, 186 
Thames, 203 



Enamelling, new process, 226 

Enfield small arms factory, 151 

Engines of screw steam-ships Scamandcr, Meander, 

and Araxes, 129, 156 ; oscillating double piston, 

174 
Engineering in Victoria, 97 
Engineers: society of foremen, 223 
Engines of steam-ships, C. Atherton, on calculating 

the propelling power of the, 173 
English produce, decline in, 175 
English artizans, education of, 176 
Enriched ceilings, 199 
Exhibition of Arts (proposed), 123, 175 



IV 



Index to Vol XVL, 1858. 



■ The Aetiz.vk, 
.January 22, 1859. 



F. 

Faibbain's experiments on box and plate beams, 65 

Fires, 08, 12-5, 150, 152, 175, 199, 226, 227, 252, 279 

Fire arms : Colt's revolver, trial of, 150 ; Colt's 
repeating 1 rifle, 285; Enfield and Wbitworth rifles, 
trial of the, 201 ; Lancaster and Enfield, trial of 
the, 177, 228, 255; Morse's breech-loading rifle, 
177 ; new French rifle, 228 ; rifle field battery, 255 ; 
Terry's breech-loading- rifle, 201, 278, 311 

Fire arms, J. G. Lawrie on pointing, 297 

Floating batteries, French, 124 

Floating college (proposed), 21 

Floating derrick, launch of a, 281 

Forts of the Pehio, 228 

Foul air, explosion of, 150, 199, 256 

Fountain at Holyrood, 317 

Fountains, public drinking, 202, 229, 255, 282, 316 

French mails, irregularity of the, 48 

French military works, 177, 201 

Friction windlass, Roberts's patent, 237 

Furnace, C. W. Siemens on a new construction of, 88 



Gabions, description of, 22 

Gas companies : Banff, 229 ; London, 202 ; Oriental, 
177 ; Parisian, 229, Seville, 177 

Gas companies accounts, analysis of, 55 

Gas : deaths from escape of, 282, 312, 317 ; explosions, 
202, 255, 278,317; lighting- coal-pits with, 178 ; 
Calcutta, 46, 177 ; Rome, 229 ; St. Paul's, 317 ; 
street lighting by, 317 ; metropolitan gas supply, 
175 ; new gasometer at Hackney, 255 ; Bury St. 
Edmunds, 123 ; new gasworks at Keynsham, 73 ; 
production of gas, 22, 202, 255 ; Soapstone gas- 
burners, 73 

Girders and beams, an inquiry into the strength of, 
by S. Hughes, C.E., F.R.S., 3, 27, 79, 129, 158 

Glass globes and cylinders, W. Fairbairn on the col- 
lapse of, 263 

Gold and silver watch-cases, 226 

Government patronage of art, 175 

Granitic Brescia stone company, 150 

Great Eastern steam ship, 2, 20, 21, 46, 48, 72, 93, 

124, 125, 181, 202, 229, 254 

Great Eastern and the Atlantic cable, 181 

Greenwich, time ball at. 313 

Gresham buoy, for recording the loss of ships at sea, 

J. Oldham on the, 300 
Guns: breach - loading, 316; Horsefall's, 255; 

Rifled, 255, 282, 316 ; Whitworlh's, 151 
Gun-boats : for India, 10 ; for the Brazils, 125 ; at 

Gosport, 98 
Gun-carriage department at Woolwich, 316 
Gun-foundry at Woolwich, 72, 124, 151, 201, 228, 

255, 282, 310 
Gun locks, Plan-is' safety, 255 
Gunpowder, preventing the explosion of, 22 
Gunpowder works, Devonport, 228 
Gunpowder mill explosion, 176 
Gwalior, fortress of, 228 

H. 

Hand heliostat, for flashing sun signals from on board 

ship, 301 
Harbours: at Blyth, 125; Devonport, 317; Dover, 

125, 178; Galway (proposed), 230; Galle, 255; 
Goderieh, 282; Greenses, 152; Holyhead, 73; 
Keyham, 230; Kaima, 152; Peterhead, 47 ; Har- 
bours of Refuge, 73, 99, 125, 152, 203, 230, 282; 
Ramsgate, 203; Sunderland, 47 

Heating steam boilers and other furnaces by means 
of gas, Dr. Rankine on M. Beaufume's system of, 
267 

Hemp and flax-spinning machinery, 25, 77, 155, 182 

Holyhead mail service, 98, 160 

Homogenous metal plates, 252 

Horizontal pumping engines, description of two pairs 
of, 187, 212 

Home's improved wood-planing machine, 57 

Horse nail-makers, strike of, 199 

Horse-shoe machinery, 252 

Hydraulic Machinery: 

Fire-engine for Russia, 316 ; hydraulic engine, 
description of an, 60 ; hydraulic shearing press, 
219; Miller's patent hydraulic purchase, 229; 
water-lift steam pump, 316; water power ap- 
plied to organs, 229, 302 



I. 

India, public works in, 71 

Inventions of the late Sir Samuel Bentham, K.S.G., 
list of the principal, 39 

Irish postal communications, 57 

Iron : British statistics of, 22 ; facing of batteries 
with, 124; beams, 42; cottages for workmen, 204; 
iron-ore, discovery of, 203;.~eonsumptioii of, 318; 
ironworks in Northamptonshire, 150 ; at Bedford,. 
150 ; iron for war ships, 98 ; puddling iron by means 
of wood gas, 256 ; railway consumption of, 283 ; for 
architectural purposes, 22 ; manufacture of, treatise 
on the. 150; warehouse roof at Rouen, 77 ; rails and 
pipes for Australia, 150 ; sands in Zealand, 74 ; 
trade in France, 203, 318; fused wrought, E. 
Riley on, 9 

Iron plates as a shot-proof defence, 316 

Isle of Dogs, buildings at the, 48, 254 



Jacquard loom, adoption of, 252 

Joint chair for railways, W. Johnstone on a, 294 

L. 

Lady Bentham, death of, 150 

Law :— 
Attorney General v. Barry, 46 
Betts v. Clifford, 123 

Bird v. Great Northern Railway Company, 198 
Blackwall Railway Company v. Thames Iron 

Shipbuilding Company, 198 
Breach of colliery rules, - 279, 312 
Bridge tolls liable to land tax, 312 
Cagliari Telegraph Company v. Brett, 254 
Colliery explosion, alleged negligence, 226 
Collision on the Ox-ford and Wolverhampton 
Railway, verdict of manslaughter against the 
guard, 278 
Cox v. Great Northern Railway Company, 198 
Crossing railway lines, accident through, 252 
Disobeying a railway signal, 17G 
Engine-drivers, liability of, 279 
Fielding v. M'Naught, 70 
Fireworks, manufacture of illegal, 312 
Gas-burners, conviction for stealing, 252 
Gray v. North Eastern Railway Company, 198 
Grounding of the Urgent, court martial, 312 
Hancock and others v. Ross, 96 
Higgs v. Hitchin board of health, 178 
Kerby v. North Western Railway Company, 198 
Lister v. Leather, 198 

Local board of health, action agaiust the, 175 
Myers v. Baker, 312 
Norton v. Nicholls, 198 
Obstructions on railways, convictions for placing, 

200, 279 
Overcrowding steamers, conviction for, 252 
Photography and the Building Act, 199 
Phillips v. Melen, 70 

Primrose pit catastrophe, inquiry into, 312 
Queen v. Macnee, 96 
Railway pointsmen, liability of, 226 
Regent's Canal Company v. Hare, 312 
Richards v. Cocking, 199 

Search v. South Eastern Railway Company, 198 
Smith v. Caledonian Railway Company, 312 
Smith v. Eastern Counties Railway Company, 198 
Smith v. Great Northern Railway, 198 
Smith v. Webster, 198 
Smoke-prevention Act, infliction of fines, 2-52, 279, 

312 
Thomas v. Fox, 46 
Vance v. Bond, 70 

Whitfield v. South Eastern Railway Company, 198 
Workman v. his Foreman, 197 

Laurie's improved laying-machine, 51 

Lead shot, manufacture of, 207 

Lead and composition pipes, improved unions for, 71 

Life-boats, 73, 177, 202, 229, 254, 281 

Lighthouses : Ireland, 134 ; in the Mediterranean, 
317; Port Jackson, 317; iron lighthouse for 
Russia, 177 

Lighting from ceilings, 252 

Lithography, improvements in, 252 

Locomotives : American, 197, 216 ; Beattie's smoke- 
burning, 97; consumption of coal in, 71, 253; 
for the Pacha of Egypt, 97; J. Lawrie on the sta- 
bility of, 218 ; J. Fenton on a new water connec- 
tion between locomotives and tenders, 35 

London sewerage and the River Thames, 161 



M. 
Machine belt saw, 150 

Machinery, A. Samuelson, on oil mill, 166, 191 
Machinery of the War Department, 3, 25, 316 
Mail route to San Francisco, 279 
Maudsley and Co., workmen, reading-room for, 46 
Marine engine governers, 162. 
Mass and weight, 92, 119 
Mechanical effect of force, the conservation of the 

121, 171, 224 
Mechanical mouth for postage stamps, 109. 
Mechanical science, 146 
Mersey Dock Board, 317 
Messenger anchor shackle, 254 
Metallic card-board for roofs, 199 
Metals: bronze aluminium, 203 ; export of metal.-,, 

178; lead and silver ore, loss of in washing, 74 ; 

oreide, 74 ; unoxidizable iron, 318 
Metropolitan Board of Works, 199 
Metropolitan sewers, 226 
Metropolitan water, analysis of, 229 
Mines : copper, 74, 126, 178, 283, 318 : gold, 101, 

150, 178, 203, 204, 256, 283, 318; lead, 126, 230 ; 

silver, 120 ; tin, 230 
Mining in Algeria, 204 
Mining disasters, prevention of, 178, 230 
Mining, improvements in, 204 
Mineral statistics of the United Kingdom, 318 
Molten substances, J. Nasmyth on, 10 
Monostereoscope, 176 
Mortars : Dodd's, 177 ; Mammoth's, 201, 228 ; 

practice at Woolwich, 282 
Multum-in-Parvo Bath, Oxley's, 236 

N 

National Gallery, proposed new, 226 

Nature printing, medal for, 71 

Nautilus diving apparatus, 150, 226 

Navigation of canals by screw-steamers, 237 

Navv: American, 177; Austrian, 202; British, 48, 
73", 98, 150, 151,254,281,315; French, 73, 125, 
177 ; Neopolitan, 21, 124; Russian, 254; Spanish, 
315; Turkish, 125 

Nelson column, 226 

Netherlands Land Enclosure Company, 71 

Newton's birthplace, 151 

New South Wales patent law, 151 

Newspaper articles, new laws in Denmark on, 40 

Niger, exploration of the, 175 

Nitre beds at Balica, 175 

North quay wall, Glasgow, failure of the, 283 

North Sea Fishing Company, 200 

Noxious trades and the public health, 200 

O. 

Officials at Woolwich arsenal, alleged misconduct of, 

175 
Oil can, Van Hagen's, 143 

Ordnance survey of the United Kingdom, 70, 223 
Oscillating engine, double piston, 174 

P. 

Paddle-wheel, Muntz's patent, 98, 108 
Paddle-wheel and screw-propeller, J. McGregor on 

the, 108 
Pantagraphic carving machine, 313 
Parisian system of sewers, 199 
Parquet floors, adoption of, 226 

Patents : — 
Provisional protection obtained, 23, 49, 75, 101, 

126, 153, 179, 204, 231, 257, 284, 318 
Applied for, with complete specifications deposited, 

24, 50, 76, 102, 128, 154, 180, 206, 232, 258, 

284, 320 
Patent Law Amendment Bill, 150 
Patent Laws, report on, 298 
Patent office, expenses of the, 200 
Patents, statistics of applications for, 226 
Paying-out machinery of the Atlantic telegraph, 233 
Peal of bells at Doncaster, 279 
Philadelphia iron manufacture, 150 
Phosphorus for poisoning purposes, 151 
Photographic reports of engineering- works, 97 
Pillar letter-box, explosion of a, 97 
Pistons, improvements in, 134 

Piers : 
Britannia, 125, 152, 230 ; Great Yarmouth, 125, 
152; Kingston, 317 
Piracy of trade marks, 199 






The Artizan, "I 
January 22, 1859. J 



Index to Vol. XVI, 1858. 



Plate Glass Company, 123 

Platform for heavy ordnance, 282 

Poisonous colours, copper, 252 

Postage, compulsory payment of, 46 

Practical engineers, meeting of, 47 

Preservation of stone, 199 

Printing machine for the " Times," 71 

Provincial schools of art, 199 

Public offices at Downing Street, 176 

Public works in India, 71 

Puddled steel, 204 

Pulley, J. Coombes on an expanding, 303 

Pump- valves, new mode of fixing the wood in, 123 

Pumping -engine valve, W. Neilson on a, 210 

R. 

Baw and manufactured material, value oi', 207 
Reading-room for Maudslay and Co.'s workmen, 

40 
Repairs of roads, expenditure for, 123 
Ribbon-weavers of St. Etienne, 175 
Rivers: purification of, 96: the Thames, 161, 199, 

202 ; Liffey, 56 
Rivington waterworks, appointment of engineer, 71 
Road-making, new material for, 279 
Road-paving, proposed new, 175 
Railways : 

Aberdeen and Inverness, 97 

Accidents on railways, 151, 176, 200, 227, 253, 280, 
313, 314 

Alencon to Argentan, 71 

Alexandria to Cairo, 200 

Algeria to Blidah, 71, 176 

Alicante and Madrid, 314 

American railways, traffic of, 176 

central, 70 

expenses of, 279 

accidents on, 311 

Amoor to the Gulf of Castries, 313 

Andover, 47 

Asia Minor central railway, 176 

Athens railway, 176 

Athenian railway, 47 

Australian railway, 71, 313 

Austrian railways, 314 

Bahia and San Francisco, 280 

Ballarat line, 253 

Belfast and County Down, 71, 253 

Berlin and Kbnigsberg, 97 

Berra and Fulda, 124" 

Besancon and Belfort, 1 76 

Black Sea railway, 151 

Border Counties Extension, 47, 176 

Bordeaux and Cette, 97, 176, 177 

Bordeaux to Verdon, 71 

Bourne and Essendirie, 97 

Brakes: Newall and Fays, 71 

Bray's patent, 47 

■ ■ Guerin's, 47, 57 

Brentford and Richmond, 47 

Bridge over the Culaz, 253 

Bristol and South Wales, 124 

Buffalo and Lake Huron, 280 

Busigny to Sommain, 227 

Caen to Cherbourg, 71, 151, 176 

Caledonian, 47, 253 

Cape Town railway, 71, 124, 176, 227, 313 

Carriages for the Pope, 314 

Carron, 47 

Cherbourg railway, statistics of the, 227 

Chilian railways, 314 

Cloones to Cavan, 313 

Communication with guard, 21, 71, 176, 200 

Colne Valley and Halstead, 71, 97, 253 

Cologne and Coblentz, 314 

Cork and Kinsale, 151 

Cow-catching on the Midland railway, 227 

Dartmouth and Torbay, 71 

Dover Heights, tunnel at the, 124 

Dublin and Wicklow, 71 

Dublin and Meath, 124, 313 

Dungarvon and Clonmel, 313 

Eastern railway of Austria, 124 

East Kent line, 47, 71, 97 

Eastern Union Companies, 71 

East Suffolk, 97 

Eden Valley, 227 

Elvin to Inverness, 124 

Euphrates Valley, 151 

Exeter and Exmoutb, 151 



Railways : 
Fife and Kinross, 124 
Foreign railway shares, 176 
Formartine and Buchan, 151 
French railways, extent of, 176 
French railway traffic, 176 
Gauge of the American railways, 279 
, Geelong to Ballarat, 200, 280 
Geelong and Melbourne, 124, 227, 253, 314 
General Roman Railway Company, 21 
Geneva and Martigny, 200 
Geneva railway, 71 
German lines (proposed), 124 
Glasgow and South Western, 97 
Godalming to Haslemere, 124 
Graissesac and Beziers, 253 
•Grand Trunk of Canada, 124, 227, 280 
Great Luxembourg-, 71 
Great Northern of Ireland, 227 
Great Russian railway, 200, 209, 253, 280 
Great Western of Canada, 280 
Great Western Railway Company, 227 
Greenwich to Woolwich, 151 
Guard and driver alarum, 280 
Hainault and Flanders, 97 
Heights of railways, 314 
Heme Bay and Faversham, 227 
Hudson's Bay Company, 280 
Indian railways, 21, 42, 72, 124, 151, 170, 200, 

227, 253, 313, 314 
Italian Railway Company, 47 
Jativa to Valentia, 21 
La Cava and Salerno, 97 
Lichtervelde to Furness, 151 
Llanelly, 71 

London and Blackball, 71, 230 
London and North Western, 47, 227 
London and South Coast, 47 
London and South Western, 21 
Lowestoft and Beccles, 97 
Lucca and Pisa, 314 
Luxembourg railway, 313 
Lyons to Burgoin, 200 
Lyons and Geneva, 97, 124, 200 
Madrid and Alicante, 71, 97 
Madrid to Saragossa, 253 
Madrid and Valence, 314 
Manchester and Retford, 47 
Marne to the Rhine, 71 
Marseilles and Toulon, 97 
Melbourne to Sandhurst, 200 
Melbourne to Williamstown, 200 
Merthyr-Tydvil, 47 
Metropolitan, 123, 151, 226, 252, 313 
Mid Kent, 97 
Milan and Venice, 227 
Monoghan to Clones, 313 
Mons and Menage, 280 
Mons to Hautmont, 71 
Mont Blanc and Reus, 314 
Mount Cenis, cutting of, 71, 97, 176 
Nairn to Keith, 200 
Namur and Liege, 280 
Naples to the Adriatic, 314 
New Brunswick and Canada, 280 
Newton to Compstall, 47 
Northern railway of the Tyrol, 124 
Northern railway of Spain, 71 
North and South London, 313 
North. Western of Prance, 176 
North Western railway, 47, 151 
Orebo to Arboga, 124 
Palencia and Corunna, 314 
Panamar railway, 200 
Paris and Mediterranean, 151 
Paris to Mulhouse, 47, 97 
Paris to Cherbourg, 227 
Pernambuco, 97 
Petersburgh and Warsaw", 97 
Pimlico Railway Bill, 200 
Pio Central Railway, 71 
Portuguese railways, 200, 227 
Portsmouth Railway Company, 227 
Prussian railways, 253 
Rainford to Ormskirk, 71 
Railways in the United Kingdom, 280- 
Railway Companies Association, 280 
Railway competition, 226 
Railway departure indicator, 176 
Railway writer, 176 



Railways : 

Recife and San Francisco, 71, 230 

Rennes to Brest, 227 

Ribinsk and St. Petersburgh, 124 

Riga and Dunaburg, 71, 176 

Roanne and La Palisse, 47 

Rolandseck to Remagen, 71 

Salisbury and Yeovil, 97, 124 

Samsoun Sivas line, 97 

Severn Valley, 97 

Seville and Cadiz, 124 

Sheerness' Dockyard, branch to, 151 

Smyrna and Aiden, 279, 314 

South Durham and Lancashire, 71, 124 

South Wales, 47, 97 

South Western Railway, 21 

Spalding and Holbeach, 151 

Spanish railways, 253 

Spriclberg Tunnel, 97 

Staffordshire and South Wales, 124 

State railway carriage, 176 

Strasbourg, 97 

Strearastown to Clara, 71 

St. Dizier to Gray, 176 

St. Denis to Creil, 253 

Stockport and Hayfield, 47 

Stockton and Darlington, 71, 200 

Suez railway, 280 

Sunderland and Hartlepool, 71 

Tarras to Mauresa, 97 

Thiouville and Luxembourg, 124 

Traffic returns of the United Kingdom, 176, 227 

Trinidad, 97 

Toledo and Madrid, 151, 170 

Toulon to Nice, 253 

Tunnel near Lyons, 21 

under the Alps, 124 

United States and Mississippi, 97 
United States and Canada, 71 
Vale of Clwyd railway, 280 
Venetian Railway Company, 253 
Wells and Fakenham, 97 

West End Railway Terminus, 47, 71, 123, 200 ■ 
Worcester and Hertford, 47, 71 
Yeovil and Exeter, 71 
Reviews and Notices op Books : 
Abridgements of the Specifications relating to 

Marine Propulsion, 67 
A Century of Suggestions addressed to the Sleepy, 

41 
Carpenter's and Joiner's Assistant, &c, 15, 119, 

248 
Chapman, R. A. — Treatise on Ropemaking, 248 
Clark, D. K. — Recent Practice in the Locomotive 

Engine, 308 
Deane's Manual of the History and Science of 

Firearms, 246 
Delamotte, F. — The Book of Ornamental Alpha- 
bets, Ancient and Modern, 168 
Dove, A. — The Revolver ; its Description, 41 
Engineer's and Contractor's Pocket Book, for 

1858. 67 
Grantham. J. — On Iron Shipbuilding, 16, 41. 68. 
Hughes S. — Metropolis Management; or, a Few 

Words on the present Position of Local Boards 

and the Public generally, in reference to Gas 

and Water Companies, 15 
H umber, W. — A Practical Treatise on Cast and 

Wrought Iron Bridges and Girders, &c, 16 
Hunt, H. — Memoirs of the Geological Survey of 

Great Britain, &c, 15 
Letters on Practical Subjects, 41 
Laxton's Builder's Price-Book for 1858. 41 
Main,T. J. — Questions on Subjects connected with 

the Marine Steam Engine, and Examination 

Papers, 168 
Murray, R.— Rudimentary Treatise on the Marine 

Engine, and on Steam Vessels, 15 
Nicea, J. L. — Turners' and Fitters' Pocket-Book 

for Calculating the Change Wheels for Screws 

on a Turning-lathe, 276 
Nollotb, M. S., R.N.— On the Submergence of the 

Atlantic Telegraph Cable, 119 
Parsons, W. T.— The Geologist ; a Popular Monthly 

Magazine of Geology, 41 
Ramsay, A. C. — A Descriptive Catalogue of the 

Rock Specimens in the Museum of Practical 

Geology, 68 
Rankine, W. J. M.— A Manual of Applied Me- 
chanics, 168, 248, 274, 307 , 



VI 



Index to Vol. XVI, 1858. 



■ The Abtizan, 
..January 22, 1S59. 



Reviews and Notices op Books: 
Rogers, S. B. — An Elementary Treatise on Iron 
Metallurgy, up to the Manufacture of Puddled 
Bars, 168 
Rudimentary Dictionary o'f Terms used in Archi- 
tecture Civil, Architecture Naval, Building-, and 
Construction, &c, 348 
Scoffern, J.— Projectile Weapons of War and Ex- 
plosive Compounds, 67 
Telegraph Cable,— New Process for Layingthe, 119 
Walker, W.— Facts for Factories: being Letters 
on Practical Subjects, suggested by experience 
in Bombay, E. I., 41 
Williams, C. W.— An Elementary Treatise on the 
Combustion of Coal and the Prevention of 
Smoke, 168 

S. 
Safety valves, Ritchie's, 173 
Sanitary furnaces, Gurney's, 199 
Scottish industrial museum, 150 
Screwing-machine, S. M'Cormack on a, 239 
Seaward J., memoir of, 123 
Sebastopol, model of, 177 

Self-detaching hook, Captain Talbot's patent, 288 
Sewage in London, report on, 150, 199, 279 
Sewing-machines adopted at Woolwich, 313 
Shells, flight of, photographed, 201 
Shells thrown at Napoleon, description of, 70 
Shipbuilding : 

Chatham dockyard, at, 47, 125 

Improvements in, 73 

Iron in Greenock, 152 

Liverpool, at, 20 

New York, at, 72 

Philadelphia, at, 48 

St. Petersburgh, 72 

Steel for, 177 

Wave line, system of, 05 
Ship Launches: 

Asia, 98 

Bremen, 73 

Broadside ship launches, 48 

Collins IT. S. mail steamers, 98 

Cologne, 254 

Donegal, 101 guns, 281 

Edgar, 315 

Edith Moore, 73 

Emperor Alexander, 98 

General Admiral, Russian frigate, 288 

Havelock, 125 , 

Hero, 91 guns, 125 

Hudson, 163 

Icarus, 11 guns, 281 

Launches on the Weir, 48 

Mersey, 40 guns, 220 

On the Wear, 47 

Orlando, 177 

Paramatta, 315 

Princeza de Joinville, 151 

Simla, 229 

Vianna, 152 

Ville de Nantes, 229 

Weser, 281 

Windsor Castle, 254 
Ships (Steam) Dimensions of: 

Adriatic— Stillman, Allen and Co., 9 

Bremen— Caird and Co., 219 

Cardenas— C. H. Cramp and Co., 149, 197 

Challenger— Woolwich dockyard, 73 

General Concha — Lawrence and Faulks, 98 

Habana— C. H. Cramp and Co., 149 

Harriet Lane— W. H. Webb, 143 

Huntsville— J. Westervelts and Sons, 149 

Independence— S. Sneden, 23 

Isleman, 240 

Japanese— W. H. Webb, 143 

Leopard— Denny and Sons, 98 

Le Voyageur de la Mer— G. A. Stone, 197 

Manjoor— P. Curtis, 149 

Montgomery — J. Westervelts and Sons, 149 

Northam— Summer and Days, 124 

William Cory— C. Mitchell and Co. 69 
Ships, Trials of: 

Aboukir, 80 guns, 98, 315 

Admiral, 163 

Avon, 72 

Benares, 202 

Ceylon, 281 



Ships, trials of: 

Challenger, 125 

Duke of Wellington, 315 

Hero, 315 

Marlborough, 131 guns, 151 

Melpomene, 315 

Meeanee, 80 guns, 73 

Omeo, 287 

Pera, 228 

Renown, 91 guns, 98 

Royal Sovereign, 229 
Ships, Accidents to : 

Ariel, 47 

Collision in the Channel, 315 

Progress, the, 72 

Royal yacht, the, 228 

Urgent, 6 guns, the 315 
Ships, Losses of: 

Admiral Miaulis, 281 

Austria, 281 

Ava, 98, 202 

Hudson, 315 

Maria Isabel, 98 

New York, 202 

Orient, 315 

Penelope, 16 guns, breaking up of the, 202 

Sarah Sands, 202 

Times, screw steamer, 254 

Vaddinia, 73 

Ships: 

Agamemnon, new boilers for, 282 

Dreadnaught, hospital ship, 202 

Emperor Alexander, 98 

Fire Damper for, 282 

George, arrival of the, 125 

Imperador, passage of the, 73 

Leopard — Denny and Sons, 98 
Shipping, British statistics of, 229 

Life light for, 229 

Trade of France and England, 313 

Watertight compartments for, 281 
Ship news, monopoly of, 177 
Silk-spinning by machinery, treaty for, 71 
Silkworms in Australia, 200 

Silt in the harbour of New York, report of the re- 
sult of observations upon the deposit of, 84 
Silver medal presented to W. Williams, 71 
Slate quarry lighted with gas, 123 
Slide-valve, illustration of the action of the, 142 
Smoke-consuming furnaces, 100 
Smoke-prevention in kilns, 22, 226 

Societies, Proceedings of: 

British Association, 9, 123, 150, 262, 298 

Institution of Civil Engineers, 11, 31, 57, 85, 115, 
134, 192, 245, 305 

Institution of Engineers in Scotland, 89, 123, 211, 
237, 207, 289 

London Mechanics' Institution, 199 

National Association, 150 

Royal Institution of Great Britain, 64, 140, 163, 
222, 246 

Royal Scottish Society of Arts, 39, 139 

Royal Society of Arts, 105, 150, 175, 199 
Stamp law, new, 97 
Steam : 

Coal, explosion of, 123 

Communication with India, 48 

Engines, the expansion of steam in, 274, 292 ; 
combined, 72 ; for the Portuguese Government, 
73 ; governor, Weallen's parabolic, 288 ; pump- 
ing, 213 

Engine and boiler, 228 

Expansively, on employing, 244, 270 

Fire-damper for ships, 282 

Hammers, shipment of, 213 

Line between Virginia, U.S., and France, 98 

Mills' description of, 70 

Safetv in the use of, 230 

Screw propeller, Phillips', 315 

Ship capabilities, 20, 42, 45, 66, 94, 119, 122, 144, 
146, 168, 223, 249, 310 

Ships for the Amoor river, 48. 

Ship resistance, 18, 52, 92, 93, 95, 174, 225 

Sledges, 200 

Superheating steam, apparatus tor, IZo, lol 

Tugs for India, 315 

Vessels, on calculating the propelling power of, 
122, 277 



Steam : 

Vessels, on the performance of, 264 

Yachts (sail), 202 
Steam Navigation: In Southern Russia, Qd; in 

England, 177 

Steam Navigation Companies : 
African, 281 
Anglo-French, 152 
Australian, 48 
Bavarian, 72. 
Continental, 73 
European, 152 
French Maritime, 177 
Mail line between England and America, 177, 

202, 229, 254 
New line to the Azores, 201 
Oriental, 73 
Progress in, 201 
Red Sea, 152 
Russian, 315 

Screw steamer for the Oriental Company, 177 
Suez and Sydney, 73 
Transatlantic Steam-packet Station, 281 
Tehuantepec route, 315 

Steamers: 

Admiral, 163 

Adriatic, sale of, 72 

Adriatic (mail) steamer, 9 

Collins', sale of, 124 

Dr. Livingstone's launch, 72, 98 

For the Niger expedition, 202 

Himalaya, inspection of the, 315 

Holyhead and Kingston mail, 100 

Jointed, 254 

Method of propelling, 177 

New line of, to the Azores, 201 

New, for Rock Ferry, 125 

Russian depot for Villafranca, 315 

Screw, for the Indian service, 202, 281 

Steel, for the Ganges, 281 

For Turkey, 152, 177 

Victor Emmanuel, 48 

Winans, 289 
Steel, wrought or puddled, W. Clay on the manu- 
facture of, 36 
Stereoscope, Almeida's patent, 220 
Stockholm, new works at, 98 
Strata or auriferous soil, 47 
Submarine blasting, 316 
Sunken vessels at Sebastopol, 99, 202, 229, 2-52 
Suspension bridges to sustain railway trains, C. 

Vignoles on the adaption of, 25 



. T. 

Telegraph Engineering : 
Adelaide and Melbourne, 254 
Adelaide to Melbourne, 314 
Alexandria to Aden, 228 
America to Plymouth, 151 
American Telegraph Company, 124 
Atlantic tele°Taph, 47, 72, 98, 124, 151, 170, 201, 

208, 227, 228, 254, 281, 314 
Australian telegraph lines, 72, 176, 201 
Autographic telegraph, 176 
Bavaria and Switzerland, 314 
Boston to Trinity Bay, 253 
Buoyant cables for deep seas, 280 
Calais and Dover, 314 
Calcutta and Madras, 72 
Candia telegraph, 314 , 

Cape Hellas to Alexandria, 227 
Cape St. Elia to Malta, 21 
Ceylon to India, 254 

Channel Islands telegraph cable, 201, 228 
Communication with India, 151, 227 ; England 

and the Hague, 253; England and Holland, 

281 ; England and Jersey, 254 
Compensation to Mr. Morse, 151, 253 
Constantinople to Bussora, 72, 201, 228, 314 
Constantinople to Cape Hellas, 314 
Continental Telegraph System, 315 
Dunwich to Zandwoort, 254 
Dutch Indies telegraph, 72 
East India House telegraph department, 315 
Electric telegraphs, discovery of, 254 
Electric Telegraph Company of Ireland, 314 
France and Algeria, 98 



The Artizan 
Januavv 22, 1S59, 



59. | 



Index to Vol. XVI., 1858. 



Til 



Telegraph Engineering : 

French harbours, telegraphic communication be- 
tween, 201 

French telegraphs, 814 

Greece to the Ionian Islands, 47 

International Telegraph Company, 201, 227 

Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company, 314 

Liverpool (proposed telegraph) 72 

London Electric Company, 315 

Malta to Corfu, 47 

Navan and Kells, 314 

Newfoundland, 2-53 

Over-house telegraph, 254 

Penzance and Plymouth, 124 

Persia, 72 

Police station telegraphs 97 

Portland and Alderney, 151 

Portland to Jersey, 124 

Ragusa to Alexandria, 201 

Recovery of lost electric cable, 201 

Red Sea" telegraph line, 151, 228 

Red Sea telegraph route, 176 

Russian telegraph line, 228 

Russia to United States, 98 

Siberian Telegraph Company, 281 

Smyrna to Aden, 280 

Submarine cables, M. Bandin on, 97 

Submarine Telegraph Company, 281 

Sydney to Port Jackson, 124 

Tasmania to Australia, 47 

Telegraphic congress, 253 ; extension, 228 ; hemp 
for marine cables, 254; map of Europe, 254; 
music, 253 ; wires and powder magazines, 315 



Turkey and Egypt, 314 

Turkey and Greece, 97 

Varna and the Crimea, 280 

Weymouth and the Channel Islands, 227 
Telegraph, Morse's new, 197 
Telegraph and post-office badges, 220 
Thames Tunnel, amount of tolls, 252 
Timber wharves, Dublin, 133 
Torres straits, 47 

Town-hall, Leeds, room for specifications, 151 
Traction engines : Bray's, 99, 150, 229, 281 ; Boy- 
dell's, 70, 99; shipment of, 123 
Trellis girders and iron roof of the Royal Italian 

opera, 103 
Tunnel-boring machinery, 7 
Tunnels : between England and France (proposed), 

21, 71 ; near Lyons, 21 
Turbine water-whim, model of, 150 
Turkish ordnance, 228 

V. 

Valve, Bodmer's improved safety, 266 ; Haste's self- 
acting, 230 

Vancouver's Island, exploration of, 71 

Ventilating barrack-rooms, apparatus for, 279 

Vessels and tonnage, statistics of, 177 

Viaducts : The Boyne, 134 ; Hounes Gill, 200 

Victoria bell, Houses of Parliament, 150, 175, 178, 
279, 313 

Victoria tower, contract for ironwork of, 123 

Voltaic pile, improvements in the, 101 

Vortex wheel at Stamford, 123 

Vulcanized india-rubber, 96 



W. 

War department, machinery of the, 3, 25, 316 

Water in London, consumption of, 202, 229 

Water, modern appliances for raising, 304 

Water seer, 255 

Water-shoes, or podoscaphs, 252, 313 

Water supply : Bombay, 177 ; France, 202 ; Glou- 
cester, 317 ; Manchester, 177 ; Madrid, 317 ; Paris, 
202, 229; Scotland, 229, 282; Stirling, 229; St. 
Petersburg, 317 

Waterworks: Holme, 177; local, 255; Oldham, 255; 
Reigate, 123; Yan Yean, 123 

Watt, premium medal, 199 

Wave-line system of shipbuilding, 65 

Winding apparatus, J. Robertson on, including 
mining hoists, 242 

Wolframic steel, 230 

Wood embossing, 199, 312 

Wood-planing machine, Home's improved, 77 

Wood-shaping machinery, 62 

Working man's college (proposed), 150 

Wrecks, statistics of, 48 

Wrought-iron beams, on the coefficient of strength 
for, 44 



Yacht, steam, Fantaise, 9, 125 

Z. 

Zinc roofing, 97 



LIST OF PLATES. 



115. Gun Boring Machine for the Gun Foundry and Boring Mill, Woolwich 

Arsenal. 

116. Gun Boring Machine for the Royal Foundry and Boring Mill, Woolwich. 

117. Hemp and Flax Spinning Machinery — Second Preparing Machine. 

118. Lawrie's Improved Laying Machine. 

119. Hemp and Flax Machinery — Plan of Second Preparing Machine. 

120. Engines at Dowlais Iron Works. 

121. Horn's Wood-Planing Machine. 

122. Trellis Girder and Roof, Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden. 

123. Example of Inventions at the Society of Arts Exhibition. 

124. Engines of Screw Steam-ships Scamander, Meander, and Araxes. 

125. Oil Mill Machinery. 



126. Hemp and Flax Spinning Machinery. 

127. Horizontal Pumping Engine. 

128. Hemp and Flax Spinning and Rope-Making Machinery. 

129. Shot Tower and Shot-Making Machinery. 

130. American Locomotive Engines. 

131. Paying-out Machinery of Atlantic Telegraph Cable. 

132. Great West of Scotland Fishery Company's Steamer Ilesman, Screw 

Lighter Thomas, &c. 

133. New Graving Dock in Dublin Harbour. 

134. Colt's New Model Repeating Rifle. 

135. Illustrations of British Associations Papers, new Inventions, &c. 



TO THE BINDER. 
Plate CXV., Gun Boring Machine, to face title page. 



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life 




THE ARTIZAN. JAN Y l? T 1858. 




W ■, ■!■ < I. J,,;., 



THE ARTIZAN. 



No. CLXXX.— Vol. XVI.— JANUARY 1st, 1858. 



"ARTIZAN" ADDRESS, 1858. 

" According to ancient custom," we again avail ourselves of the 
opportunity annually afforded us of thus addressing a few words to our 
Readers ; and pleasurable as are our ordinary duties in relation to them, 
such opportunities as the present — which " Old Time " in his onward 
inarch affords us — are doubly pleasant. 

Upon the present occasion — the passing away of the year 1857 — we 
regret our inability to record it as a 3-ear of great plenty, of commercial 
prosperity, or of extraordinary progress in the arts, the sciences or 
manufactures; nor as a period which can be recorded on the Scroll of 
Time as one in which great mechanical and scientific achievements have 
been successfully performed to the astonishment of the world, for the 
material advancement of science, or for the lasting benefit of mankind ; 
and hence the extent which our observations might otherwise have 
occupied is necessarily thereby limited. 

Without stopping to detail all the disappointments and failures con- 
nected with those branches of Science, Art, and Industry, to which our 
Journal is devoted, we will merely allude to the two most prominent — 
viz., the want of success which has attended the attempts, to lay the 
Atlantic Telegraph Cable, and to launch the Great Eastern steam-ship 
(named by mistake — we mean by Miss Hope — the Leviathan), and then 
pass on to other events of the year, which must, as a whole, be taken as 
a set-off to these disappointments. 

We have taken advantage of the opportunities which the termination 
of the war with Russia gave us, of accumulating national strength, and 
are preparing ourselves against future events, and in the mechanical and 
material resources requisite for both army and navy, we are making 
rapid strides for the purpose of placing ourselves as a nation in advance 
of all others in the extent and power or capabilities of our armaments, 
naval and military. Although in these departments disappointments or 
failures to a greater or lesser degree have occurred in connection with 
great guns, monster mortars, and fast frigates, yet the knowledge we 
have thus acquired, has, we hope, been made available for substantial 
progress and practical improvement ; and we are glad to find that at 
least one department of the Government — the War Department — has 
treated inventors of reputation and known ability in a more liberal and 
encouraging spirit than heretofore ; and it is only, by holding out suitable 
inducements that men who are not visionary schemers and speculators, 
can afford to expend time and money in following out scientific investi- 
gations and experiments on a large scale, which alone are of any 
practical value in connection with works of naval or military defences. 

We last year referred to the improvements which had been introduced 
into the Public Works' Department in the East India Company's Ser- 
vice, by the appointment of civil instead of military engineers in each 
of the Presidencies, and we have been much gratified to learn that the 
system has been found to answer admirably ; and it is much to be re- 
gretted, that the outbreak of the Sepoy mutinies should have paralysed 
the progress of public works throughout India. The construction of rail- 
way works has been very materially interfered with, and for a time, to a 
great extent, ceased. The extension of the telegraph system within 
India, the construction of roads, the building of bridges, the cutting and 
construction of anicuts, canals, and other such works, and even the 
maintenance and improvements of existing canals and water-courses, 
lias for some time past ceased to employ the attention of the officers 
charged with such works, and an immense amount of labour has from 
this cause been thrown out of employment ; indeed, works of im- 
provement have, for the present, almost entirely throughout India, 
been suspended : but we trust this interruption to the great schemes of 
improvement which have been sanctioned will very shortly cease, and 
that these important works will be speedily resumed ; for we feel 

1 



assured that it is only by opening up the country throughout its length 
and breadth, and connecting every station with head quarters, by im- 
proving its numerous rivers and navigations, and by intersecting it with 
available canals and lines of railway communication, that we can hope 
to hold India without a ruinously extensive and expensive army. 

There is, however, an extensive engineering work in India which is 
nearly completed, and has recently had public attention called to it, as 
possessing not only a local importance, but as serving also to mark the 
advent of a new era in the management of India : we allude to the 
extensive works for the supply of Bombay with water; works which are 
said to reflect great credit upon Mr. Conybeare, C.E. 

The result of the approaching completion of the symmetrically propor- 
tioned but enormously large specimen of iron shipbuilding, the Great 
Eastern, has, as we anticipated in our Address last year, given a 
strong impetus to the desire for ships of considerably greater carrying 
capacity and power than those ordinarily employed for long voyages; 
and we have recently witnessed in our waters, the last great specimen 
of naval architecture and engineering which our Transatlantic cousins 
have produced, and which, in turn, it is said, will be eclipsed by a vessel 
about to be laid down for employment between the same ports. 

The rivalry between iron and wooden construction for commercial 
ships, progresses steadily; and it is anticipated that during the year 1858, 
considerable headway will be made in the construction of iron ships of 
large tonnage : and as there is some probability of Captain John Ford's 
proposal for the establishment of a line of Australian, India, and China 
steam ships of large tonnage, being carried out, we hope to see another 
step taken in the right direction, and the practical experiments made 
which will settle the question of the advantage of large ships over small 
ones, for the Eastern and other long voyage trades. 

The construction of screw steam colliers is increasing rapidly, both as 
to number and size of the ships ; and it is gratifying to observe the great 
strides which have been made in improving the construction of this class 
of vessel. 

It is seriously to be hoped that iron shipbuilders will in future guard 
themselves against the charge of using inferior iron to that which they 
contract to supply, and that only materials of the best quality, bearing 
the name and mark of the actual maker upon every plate and bar shall 
be used in the construction of iron ships ; for, upon this will depend the 
favour in which iron ships will in future be held, and the chances of the 
extension of this system of construction will be materially impaired by a 
want of this honesty and proper conservative principle. 

Whilst dealing with the subject of naval architecture, and the kindred 
questions, we would note the recent trials of the Diadem screw steam 
frigate, 32 guns; and take this opportunity of suggesting to the De- 
partment of Naval Construction at the Admiralty, that the principles 
upon which private contractors for steam ships and engines conduct 
their business, might be advantageously adopted by that department of 
the Admiralty, and a proper association of that department with the steam 
branch would doubtless prevent the disappointments which constantly 
arise upon their attempting anything which has not been already done. 
It behoves the designers of intended fast steaming screw war- vessels to 
acquaint themselves with the particular forms of both fore and after 
lines suited to the application of the screw as a propelling agent, and 
that bow lines, at least as fine as those now commonly given to screw 
colliers, should belong to such a vessel as the Diadem, but wanting which, 
the Steam Department of the Navy, and the constructors of the engines 
and machinery have not been permitted a fair opportunity for the dis- 
play of the exact knowledge which science and practice combined have 
enabled them to bring to bear upon that in which they engage. 

We notice with pleasure the adoption by the East India Company of 
iron gun -boats of very light draft of water, propelled by high-pressure 



"Artizan " Address, 1858. 



r The Artizan, 
L January l, 1858. 



engines and screws; and in the trials of the first of these, which we record 
in the present Number, no disappointment has been felt in the results ; 
and in this respect, too, tbej r bear honourable comparison with the want 
of success which ordinarily pertains to this class of Admiralty experi- 
ments ; and we hope very shortly to hear that the projected steam 
flotilla of gun-boats will be actively employed on the Indian rivers and 
inland waters. 

The most interesting event of any moment connected with high speed 
steam propulsion will, we anticipate, take place during the summer of 
1858, when it is expected that two of the new express steamers will be on 
their stations, running between Holyhead and Kingstown; and we trust 
that the new boats will be able successfully to comply with the require- 
ments of the service, and perform the distance at least a quarter of an 
hour within the time in which the run is to be made. 

The Holyhead and other harbour works, and similar engineering 
undertakings in Great Britain, have progressed slowly but steadily 
during the past year. 

In bridge building, amongst those abroad, we notice that the progress 
made in connection with the Great Victoria Railway Bridge in Canada is 
said to be very satisfactory, and that the Cologne Railway Bridge for cross- 
ing the Rhine is being proceeded with rapidly. Amongst the construc- 
tions of this kind in course of erection in Great Britain, we have to notice 
that the works have recently been recommenced in connection with the 
new Westminster Bridge, and they are now being pushed on with vigour. 
The elegant suspension bridge, which spans the Thames at Chelsea, is 
nearly completed, and its appearance reflects credit on all concerned. 
Mr. Brunei's combined suspension and elliptical tubular girder bridge, 
consisting of two main spans of 455 ft. each, for carrying the Cornwall 
Railway over the Tamar at Saltash, is approaching completion, one of 
the tubes having recently been successfully got into place. 

Descending from the great to the small — we cannot resist the inclina- 
tion to write " from the sublime to the ridiculous" — we notice the abor- 
tion, which, under the name of a suspension bridge, is a disgrace to its 
designers and a disfigurement to St. James's Park, over the canal in 
which it has receutly been erected. 

The excavation of Mount Cenis Tunnel is being proceeded with; and 
we may in the course of a few months be better able to judge of the 
advantages attendant on the employment of machinery for excavating 
or cutting tunnel galleries and similar works; and it is expected, 
should success attend the present experiments, that the employment of 
machinery for this purpose will materially iufluence the extension of the 
railway system in various parts of the world. 

In the construction of the permanent way of railways, progressive 
improvements are being effected ; and whilst cast-iron sleepers and 
chairs find favour, and the direction which such constructions are 
taking, show the importance of a perfectly framed and combined system 
of iron construction, it is evident that it can only be made perfectly 
successful by the interposition between the chair and the sleeper of some 
permanently elastic material, which .will be unaffected by changes in the 
atmospheric condition and influences which tend to destroy by render- 
ing rotten most of the materials which have heretofore been employed 
for the purpose. The introduction of such a material, beyond rendering 
the road comparatively noiseless, would give to it a character of per- 
manence which no timber-sleepered road can by possibility attain, and 
also remove entirely the objections which belong to the various systems 
of iron sleepers. 

The application of steam power to hauling goods on canals has not, 
during the past year, received as much attention as it deserves ; for, 
although high speeds can never be advantageously obtained upon the 
narrow and shallow canals of this country, the economy of steam power, 
as compared with animal power for hauling goods on canals, has not yet 
been properly developed. 

The Great Suez Ship Canal scheme continues to meet with the 
dogged opposition of the Great Politicals of this country, who have by 
some means or other induced a great engineering celebrity, who stands 
at the head of the profession, to express an opinion, unfavourable to the 
project in an engineering sense. This is much to be regretted, as it is 
not by obstructive policy, and the expression of unfairly-grounded 
opinions, that any great engineering work has heretofore been supported 
and successfully carried out. 

The extension of the Submarine Telegraph system throughout the 
world, particularly in the Mediterranean, has been progressing rapidly 
during the year ; and although the attempt to lay down the Atlantic 
Telegraph Cable has disappointed the expectations expressed in our 
Address for 1857, we still hope that the means which the engineers 
entrusted with that operation have now adopted will insure the suc- 
cessful completion of the great link which is alone wanting to enable 
those in almost any part of the great continent of North America to 
communicate with every part of Europe, or vice versa. 

The Indian Telegraph system, it is confidently expected, will shortly 
be in communication with the European network of telegraphs, by 
means of submarine cables extending from Suez to Kurrachee. The 
Mediterranean portions of the system are being rapidly completed. 



Agricultural engineering has, during the past year, received consider- 
able attention; and the employment of steam power for the tillage and 
treatment of land is being very fully tested under a variety of systems, 
and with marked success. Boydell's Tractive Engine, with its continuous 
and self- carrying system of shoes or rails, as improved by Messrs. 
Tuxfords, now bids fair to realize what was anticipated from its intro- 
duction. 

The extension of the system of draining agricultural lands is telling 
beneficially upon the productive capabilities of this country; and it is 
worthy of note, that the labours of Mr. Josiah Parkes.C.E., in thus improving 
West Indian properties, are likely to be eminently successful in render- 
ing highly productive land which, for want of complete and systematic 
drainage, was previously not available for growing sugar crops, or, if 
under cultivation, was liable to inundation, and the destruction of the 
crops thereon. And it cannot be too strongly impressed upon the pro- 
prietors of British West India-estates, that it would be much more credit- 
able for them to avail themselves of the advancement which science has 
enabled agricultural engineers to make in the modes of rendering avail- 
able and fertile the most unpromising of soils, instead of continually 
complaining of the competition of the slave-holding sugar growers, and 
sighing for a return to the system of importing slave labour, which 
practice, it is to be hoped, will never again disgrace British rule. 

The attention of locomotive engine builders have for a long time 
past been called to the importance of constructing the furnaces of loco- 
motive boilers that coal may be substituted for coke as a fuel, wherein 
perfect combustion could be effected, and with a view to avoid the 
objections to which the use of coal in locomotive boilers is open ; and this 
object has, to some extent, been effected; but we suggest that it is 
worthy of the attention of those who are engaged in the construction of 
locomotive boilers for coal-burning engines, to consider more fully the 
effect which the combustion of coal has upon the parts of boilers as 
ordinarily constructed ; and we think it would amply repay those who 
are interested in the introduction of coal-burning locomotive engines to 
study fully the cause of the boiler explosion which a short time ago occurred 
on the South Western Railway. 

The Great Metropolitan Drainage Scheme, after twelve months of 
wordy passages between the Chief Commissioner of Works and the 
Greek Street Board, seems to leave the question very much in the 
same position in which it formerly was, and the chances of the general 
scheme being commenced during the year 1858 appear somewhat 
remote. 

The award of the premiums offered for designs of subways for the 
Metropolis does not seem to have given satisfaction, although the invita- 
tion was responded to very extensively, and produced many excellent 
designs. 

Notwithstanding the monetary crisis which has been felt throughout 
the whok of Europe and America, and that its effects may, for another 
month or two be perceptible in England, as affecting the projection of 
new undertakings involving large amounts of capital, civil engineers 
will find ample employment during the year 1858. 

Mechanical engineers should, during 1858, look to the Continent of 
Europe for orders, and prevent their going into other channels. The 
pressure in monetary affairs exists chiefly amongst commercial circles, 
and will very soon pass away, and money be again plentiful. Some of 
the foreign Governments are, however, actively engaged in increasing 
the number of their steam war ships. 

English locomotives, too, are in high favour and request abroad; but it 
has been remarked, " that engineers do not travel as much as formerly." 

We have already far exceeded the limit which we proposed for the 
extent of our Address upon the present occasion, and must now take 
leave of our Readers. Before doing which, however, w.e take the oppor- 
tunity of adding a few words with reference to The Artizan; and to 
economise space, we would refer to the concluding paragraph in our 
Address, 1857, and merely repeat, that, whilst we hope for not only 
a continuance, but also an extension of that support which has been 
afforded to the Journal, more particularlyduring the last year, we desire 
to call the attention of our Readers to a notice which was addressed to 
them by the Proprietor in The Artizan for December last, and also to 
a further notice which will be found elsewhere in the present Number; 
and we should be wanting in our duty, and in the respect we have for the 
interest alike of the Proprietor of The Artizan and its Readers, if we 
did not strongly recommend the suggestions therein made for their 
immediate adoption, as being eminently advantageous to Subscribers. 

THE "GREAT EASTERN" STEAM-SHIP (OR 
"LEVIATHAN"). 

The efforts which were last made to force this ship down the ways 
having, unfortunately, been unsuccessful, a cessation of the attempts 
occurred about a fortnight ago, since which time various additions 
have been made to the means before employed, and additional abutments 
have been piled in closer to the ship, and numerous powerful hydraulic 
presses have been put into position, and it is expected that all the 



;iB Artiz 
January 1, 1858 



sss' ] " Great Eastern " Steam-Ship. — Machinery of the War Department. 



arrangements will have been completed by the time — or shortly after — 
our present Number is in the hands of our subscribers. We have, there- 
fore, determined again to postpone the publication of our notice of the 
arrangements employed for launching the ship, to admit of the necessary 
alterations and corrections being made in the drawing and the textual 
matter, which are alone required to render complete the description 
of the ship, her machinery, and arrangements, which have, from time to 
time been published in The Artizan, which is the only published work 
that contains a reliable, accurate, and scientific description of this novel 
and extensive undertaking. 



MACHINERY OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT. 

THE NEW GUN-BORING LATHES ERECTED AT WOOLWICH FOR BORING 

LARGE IRON ORDNANCE. 

(Illustrated by Plate exv.) 

When we last month gave a description of the brass cannon turning 
and boring lathes, which a few years ago were introduced into Woolwich 
Arsenal, and which are now employed, we promised to describe the large 
gun-boring lathes which are now being erected in the New Gun Foundry 
and Boring Mill at Woolwich, for boring the large pieces of cast-iron 
ordnance which the War Department have decided in future to cast for 
themselves, instead of being entirely dependent upon contractors as 
heretofore. 

It will be in the recollection of most of our readers, that scientific 
Commissions, composed of civil and military engineers, mechanics, and 
chemists, were, during the last five years, sent by the Government to 
various foreign countries to investigate the systems of founding cannon, 
and the manufacture of ordnance and small arms, followed in those 
countries respectively. The valuable results of the investigation of the 
latter of the subjects mentioned, have been the establishment of a very 
extensive and complete Small Arms Factory at Enfield ; and more 
recently, the valuable collection of data resulting from the investigations 
connected with the former, has been productive of a similar advantage 
to the Ordnance Department of the Government and to the country, in 
obtaining the erection of an extensive iron foundry, wherein the ex- 
perience thus gained may be practically and profitably applied in the 
production of ordnance of the largest and most powerful description, and 
of a quality greatly superior to the ordnance heretofore cast in this 
country. 

Since the several scientific Commissions returned home, a vast number 
of practical experiments have been performed with various qualities of 
English iron, and with other irons, the productions of various countries, 
and in the compounding or mixing of various qualities of iron, in various 
proportions, with the view of ascertaining the respective merits of such 
metals and their compounds, for the purpose of casting ordnance of a 
maximum strength for a given weight of metal, and capable of resisting, 
for the longest time, the effects of use and the damage to which the per- 
cussive force of the powder, at the instant of explosion, had upon the 
breech or chamber portions, as also its resistance to the damaging action 
of the passage of the projectile along the tube, and to the other influ- 
ences to which ordnance is subjected in actual warfare. 

These experiments, it is anticipated, will prove of great practical 
advantage, not only in the manufacture of ordnance, but also in throwing 
considerable light upon the questions involved in the use and appli- 
cation of cast iron in very many branches of the iron industry of the 
world; and we are mainly indebted to the scientific and practical attain- 
ments of the Inspector of Machinery to the War Department, Mr. John 
Anderson, and the Chemist to the War Department, Mr. F. A. Abel, of 
Woolwich Arsenal, for the very important results which have already 
been derived from these investigations. 

We present our readers this month with a drawing of the Gun-Boring 
Tiathes which are being introduced into the new boring mill lately 
erected in the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. 

Eighteen of these lathes are now in course of construction in the Gun 
Factories Department. 

The general arrangement of the lathe will be seen by reference to 



Figs. 1 and 2, Plate cxv. Fig. 1 is a plan and Eig. 2 an elevation; 
these, with the several other views which will hereafter be given,* 
render it almost unnecessary to offer any description. 

The bed, a, is bolted to cast-iron girders, which are placed trans- 
versely under the boring lathes ; the upper surface of the bed, a, is 
flush with the floor line, and is filled iu with concrete both within and 
without the beds. 

The spindle of the driving headstock, b, carries the breach end of the 
gun by means of a piece cast beyond the cascable; this piece is pre- 
viously prepared in another machine so as to fit into a cone in the end of 
the lathe spindle : between this prepared extremity and the gun there is 
also a square cast, upon which is placed the carrier. 

This carrier is made the weakest part of the lathe, in order that it may 
break in the event of any obstruction arising calculated to damage the 
machine or the boring apparatus. 

The collar frame, c, which carries the muzzle, is provided with a verti- 
cal adjustment; to it also is fastened an adjustable bearing for the boring- 
bar, as will be seen by Figs. 3 and 4. 

The boring apparatus, d, consists of a lathe-bed, which is secured to 
the bed, a, by means of three standards. Both the frame, c, and the 
apparatus, d, are adjustable on the bed, a, by means of a self-acting 
arrangement of the boring apparatus, so as to suit guns of different 
dimensions. 

The gear-box, e, which is bolted to the end of the bed, a, contains all 
the motions required for the boring bar; and the countershaft, a, which 
is placed above, contains the driving pullies for the several motions. 

The motions to be given to the boring-bar are threefold. 

1st. A very slow but extremely powerful movement ; this is obtained 
by means of a worm on the shaft, b, which works in a box of oil, and is 
placed under the worm-wheel, c; this is the boring medium. A change 
of the rate of boring is secured, by the cone pullies, and also, if necessary, • 
by changing the spur gear, d. 

2nd. A quick motion to run the boring-bar out of the bore ; and, 

3rd. A similar motion to run it back again to prepare for boring. 

These two movements are secured by the ordinary three-pulle3 r and 
three-bevel wheel arrangement, similar in action to the gear of Mr. 
Whitworth's planing machine ; both the worm-wheel and the bevel- 
wheel are provided with a socket and clutch, which runs loosely on the 
shaft, e; and placed between them is a double clutch, sliding on feathers. 

The various movements to be given to this double clutch, as also the 
shifting of the three-pulley strap, are effected from that \)art of the lathe 
where the workman may be supposed to be generally stationed, namely, 
at the muzzle of the gun-, the arrangements being such that the handles 
are always in the same position with regard to the muzzle, whatever the 
length of the gun. The two spindles, g and h, are hollow, and are fitted 
with the requisite handles at their extremities next to the gun; into 
these hollow tubes are fitted the two shafts, i andj, both having a groove 
through their entire length, these grooves corresponding with feathers 
in the end of the tubes; so that as the boring apparatus is shifted to suit 
guns of different lengths, the shafts draw out or in, and are right in any 
position. 

It will be seen by reference to the Plate, that the boring-bar, k, is a round 
parallel rod, accurately turned, so as to work freely through the bearing 
on c, while the other end is held fast in a couple of bearings on the 
boring-saddle, r, which are pinched sufficiently for the work required, by 
means of a lever on the screw handles. 

By having round bearings throughout, the axes of the main spindle of 
the gun and of the boring-bar, are got into and kept in a line without 
any difficulty. 

The saddle, r, which carries the end of the boring-bar, k, is actuated 
by a long screw placed within the bed, d (but which is not seen in any 
of the figures) ; and an arrangement is also provided for working this 
screw by hand with the lever, m, and rachet-wheel, n, during the opera- 
tion of finishing the bottom of the bore. 

These lathes are so powerful that they will bore from the solid a hole 
12 in. in diameter. 



AN INQUIRY INTO THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS AND GIRDERS 
OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS, FROM THE MOST SIMPLE AND 
ELEMENTARY FORMS, UP TO THE COMPLEX ARRANGE- 
MENTS WHICH OBTAIN IN GIRDER BRIDGES OF WROUGHT 
AND CAST IRON. 

By Samuel Hughes, C.E., F.G.S., &c. 
(Continued from page 271., Vol. xv.) 

Strain on Girders caused by Loads acting Transversely. 
This is a term very commonly made use of, and though not usually com- 
puted on very strictly mathematical principles, it yet furnishes a ready 
method of comparing girders with each other. The following expla- 



Plate cxvi., containing these other views, irill appear in our next Number. 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders. 



|~ Tiir. Abtizas, 
L January 1, 1858. 



nation, showing what, is meant by the strain on a girder, will render 
tolerably clear the simple method of calculating the strain, as commonly 
practised : — 

When a beam is loaded by a weight pressing from above, or suspended 
from it, the top part of the beam is acted on by a force or strain of com- 
pression, and the bottom part by a tensile strain or strain of tension. 

It is usual to calculate the amount of these strains per square inch of 
section, both for the top and bottom flange : thus, if S be the whole 
strain in tons, a the area of the top flange, and a' the area of the bottom 
flange, both in inches, then 

g 

— = strain of compression, in tons per square inch, and 

a 

c 

-^ = strain of extension, in tons per square inch. 

a 

The amount of the whole strain on a girder, or the value of S, is thus 
found. 

Let W be the whole maximum load that can act on the centre of the 
girder, plus half the weight of the girder itself. 

I = length of the girder in inches between supports, or clear span of 
the bridge ; also, d = depth of the girder in inches in the centre. 

D 






When a beam is loaded with any weight in the centre, the weight on 

W 
each support is, of course, = ■=■ ; but, in order to find the strain at the 

centre of the beam, as at c and d, we must consider tin weight W as 
acting at the end of the bent lever, acd; and hence, the strain at 

/ W 

d and c is increased in the ratio of c d to a c, or as d : — ; and, as -5- is 

the weight acting on a, we have the strain on c and r> 1 y this propor- 



tion d 



I W 



a 



x 



2 

W" 
2 



— : S, the strain required; or,- in other words, S = 






/ W 
id' 



In any beam where a is the area of the top or bottom flange in square 

inches, the strain per square inch is, of course, -. ; and, where the 

4 a d 
weight is acting downward, the strain is one of compression on the top 
flange, and is a tensile strain or one of extension on the bottom flange. 

In the construction of a beam it is of course useless to strengthen one 
part and leave another weak ; other circumstances being alike, a chain 
supporting a weight will break, if at all, at the weakest link ; and if one 
be weak, it matters not how strong are the others. So with a beam, if 
either the strain of compression or extension be more than the section 
will sustain, the beam will give way, unless the resisting force be made 
disproportionately strong, in order to counteract this weakness. It is, 
therefore, the practice, so to arrange the material in beams, — in other 
words, so to apportion the top and bottom flanges that, theoretically, 
each will be equally strong, and if broken at all, each will give way at 
the same moment. Thus, experiments having shown that cast iron 
resists compression with about six times the force with which it resists 
extension, the theoretical cast-iron beam, based on this consideration, has 
its bottom flange six times the area of the top. Again, it has been found 
that wrought iron is more easily compressed than extended— that it 
resists extension better than compression in the ratio of 6 to 5 ; and 
owing to this property in wrought iron, it has been usual to make 
wrought-iron beams with the bottom flange one-sixth less in area than 
the top flange, while, in tubular structures, the same rule is followed of 
making the bottom part of the tube bear the same ratio to the top. In 
some tubular girders the bottom part has been made with only half the 
area of the top. 



We have seen that S : 



IW_ 
4d- 



, where I is in inches ; from which it fol- 
37W 



lows, where I is in feet, that S = —j— ; or, in words, the strain both of 

compression and extension in the centre of the girder, is equal to the 
weight in the centre multiplied by three times the length in feet, divided 
by the depth. 



Example. — Required the strain on one of the four girders of a bridge 
on the Great Northern Railway, in which the span is 44-J ft., depth d = 
45 in., the area of top flange 1 7 J in., area of bottom flange 60 in. 

Assume a rolling load of 2 tons per foot for a single line, including the 
weight of the girders and platform, then the distributed load =88^ tons 

The load on one girder = 44J n 

The load in the centre, or value of W = 22-125 „ 

3 X 44-25 X 22-125 



Hence, ' 



45 



65-7 tons. 



So that compressive strain = 



65-7 
17-5 



3-75 tons per square inch, and 



tensile strain 



65-7 



= 1-09 tons per square inch. 



Now, the force required to compress or crush cast iron is seldom less 
than 40 tons per square inch, so that the strain is less than ten times 
the actual strength. 

Again, the ultimate tensile strength of cast iron, according to Mr. 
Hodgkinson's experiments, is never less than 6 tons per square inch; so 
that the strain here is less than five times the actual strength. 

If W be the weight distributed, and I' be the length in terms of the depth 

I W'l' 

or value of — , then Ave have S = — » or if W be the weight in the centre, 



S = 



W/'. 



We have seen that where I is in feet the value of S is 

3w; 



3 w / 



and the 



strain per square inch of section is S = 



Ad 



n A d 



We have also seen that the breaking weight W is = — - — Hence, v 



W I 



= , or one-third of the strain, so that the strain per square inch, 

A d 

when the breaking weight is applied, is merely three times the value of 
the constant for breaking weight. 

In the Hodgkinson beam the strength has been roughly computed 
from the power of the bottom flange to resist a tensile strain. Thus 
cast iron will bear a tensile strain of about 6| tons per square inch ; 

hence, — - = 2-167 tons, thevalueofn, in the form W = 2Jil, where a is 

3 - 2 

the area of the bottom flange. 

This calculation supposes no strength derived from the resistance 
either of the top flange or middle rib, these being merely confined to the 
office of keeping the beam stiff and rigid, while the bottom flange is 
resisting the tensile strain brought on it by the weight. 

W I 

Where I represents the length in inches, S = — ; in which case the 

4 
value of n for a length in inches is four times the tensile strain, or 6-5 X 
4 = 26, which is the coefficient proposed by Mr. Hodgkinson for a length 
in inches, and corresponds, as we have seen, with 2-167 for a length in 
feet. 

Mr. Clark shows how a very simple expression for the strain may be 

derived in all girders which have the length about sixteeen times the 

depth, a common proportion, both in tubes and ordinary girders. Tak- 

W V 
ing V in inches, we have S = , and if V = 16, S = 2 W, or simplj- 



1-5W/ 



twice the weight. If I be in feet, -5 = 1-33, and as S = — -3 — , if we 

Z 
substitute 1-33 for -j, we have S = 1-5 X 1'33 W = 2 W, or equal to 

twice the weight as before. 

If a beam be fixed at one end, and loaded at the other, the strain at 
the fixed end is double the strain in the centre of a beam supported at 

W I 

both ends ; hence, where I is in inches, S = — -, or, if W be the weight 

2 d 

,. . ., . , Q W'l , 7 . ' • f . 6 W I ZW I 
distributed, S = — ; where I is m feet S = — — = — r- . 
4d d d 

It has been asserted by some writers on mechanics, that an arch may 
be considered as a beam, whose depth is equal to the versed sine, and 
that a chain bridge in the same way may be considered as a beam, whose 
depth is the versed sine of the chain, measured from the level of the 
line of suspension to the lowest level of the curve. Hence, if / be the 
span of an arch or suspension bridge, d the depth or versed sine, both in 
feet, a the area in square inches at the key stone, or the area of the 

suspension chains, then S = 2— 5— , and the strain per square inch = 

d 

3 W I 
a d 
The following table is a compendium of the preceding formulas, show- 



The Artizan, 
January 1, 1858. 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders. 



ing in a simple form the value of the strain in the cases which most 
commonly occur in practice : 

Table, shewing the Strain in Tons on Girders, Arches, and Suspension 

Bridges. 





W = weight on the centre 
in tons. 


TV = weight in tons dis- 
tributed. 




Value of S, 
or total 
strain. 


Value of 
strain per 
square inch 
of section. 


Value of S, 
or total 
strain. 


Value of 

strain per 

square inch 

of section. 


Where Z = length in inches 

Where Z — 16 d 


3WZ 

d 

WZ 

4 

4W 


3 W Z 
a d 
WZ 
4<z 
4 W 
a 


1-5 WZ 

d 

WZ 

8 

2W 


1-5 WZ 
a d 
Wl 
8« 
2W 




a 



General Summary of Results on the Transverse Strength of 
Wrought and Cast Iron. 
Whilst writing the earlier articles on this subject, and endeavouring 
to show that the coefficient for transverse strength should in all cases be 
applied to the whole area of the beam, whether of wrought or cast iron, 
and whatever its form, whether rectangular, flanged, or tubular, I had 
not attentively examined Mr. Edwin Clark's valuable work on the 
" Britannia and Conway Bridges," in which are many experiments and 
formulae relating to the strength of beams. I have since had the 
pleasure of observing that Mr. Clark takes the same view which I have 
already so often expressed relative to applying the coefficient in all cases 
to the whole area of the beam, instead of applying it to a small part of 
this area only. 

When the coefficient is applied to the whole area, it gives a direct 
method of comparing the weight of material in beams of different forms 
or different metal ; whereas, if the coefficient be applied to a flange, 
which is sometimes two-thirds of the whole area, and sometimes less 
than one-fburth, it is obvious this is productive of great confusion, unless 
the proportion of flange to whole area be always known and borne in 
mind. Unquestionably the most useful form of coefficient is that which 
applies in all cases to the whole area. 

The following values of n in the equation W = — - — , are taken from 

Mr. Clark's book, with this simple alteration, that I have adjusted the 
values which he gives for a length of inches to those corresponding with 
a length in feet. The reason of this is obvious, as the values thus 
correspond with those which have been used throughout these articles. 

Wrought Iron 

Value of n in 
Tons. 
Eectaugular tubes with thick top and bottom plates 
and thin sides, as in the large model of Britannia 
and Conway Bridge, or in the tubular bridges 

themselves 2-225 

Wrought-iron welded tubes without rivets. 

Rectangular tubes of uniform thickness 1-958 

Elliptical tubes of uniform thickness 1-858 

Circular tubes of uniform thickness 1 -742 

Round rivetted tubes 1-086 

Oval rivetted tubes 1-275 

Rectangular rivetted tubes 1-506 

New round bars '750* 

New rectangular bars 1-275 

Rectangular bars previously strained 1-858 

Cast Iron. 

Uniform rectangular tubes -913 

Uniform elliptical tubes 1-008 

Uniform circular tubes *952 

Uniform square tubes 1-139 

Small rectangular bars l-133f 

Large rectangular bars - 750t 

Round bars, small -667 

Miscellaneous. ■ 

Rectangular beams of deal -121 

* I can find no experiments producing so small a coefficient as this for wrought-iron 
bars : the page to which Mr. Clark refers for the experiments, contains nothing' on the 
subject. 



Coefficients of various Authors and Experimenters already quoted in The 

Artizan. 
Wrought Iron. 

Value of n in 

Tons. Page. 

Drewry for rectangular bars 1-428 217 

Lillie for rectangular bars 1-275 218 

Eairbairn for flanged beams 1-240 218 

Eairbairn for plate beams 1'727 219 

Eairbairn for rectangular tube (model of 

Britannia tube) 1-710 220 

Experiments on Cast-iron Bars by various Authorities, transferred for 
comparison from page 171 of The Artizan. 

Value of n in 
Tons. 

Fairbairn's strongest cold blast 1*167 

Eairbairn's weakest cast iron ' *717 

Eairbairn's best anthracite 1-044 

Fairbairn's worst anthracite - 787 

Reynolds 1-013 

Tredgold 1-137 

Templeton , 1-151 

Rennie '. 1-163 

Beardmore 1-191 

Banks 1-300 

Trotter 1-459 

Humber -760 

Barlow 1-130 

Experiments by Hodgkinson and Fairbairn on Flanged Cast-iron Beams, 
transferred for comparison from p. 174 of The Artizan. 

Beam with equal flanges -928 

Beam with only bottom flange 1-131 

Hodgkinson Beams. 

Flanges as 1 to 2 1-006 

„ 1 to 4 1-072 

„ 1 to 4 , 1-269 

1 to 4i 1-247 

1 to 5| 1-312 

1 to 6 1-597 

„ 1 to 6-73 1-402 

1 to 6-72.... 1-522 

Fairbairn's selected or average experiment 1-498 

Before proceeding to consider the various other forms of iron bridges, 
it will be necessary to examine more particularly both the crushing and 
the tensile strength of iron. 

The following table, showing the result of experiments by Mr. Eaton 
Hodgkinson, on the relative tensile and crushing strength of cast iron, is 
a valuable contribution to our knowledge on this subject : — 

Hodgkinson' s Experiments, made for Railway Comm'ission in 1849, on 
the Comparative Tensile and Crushing Strength of Cast Iron. 



1 These are from experiments by Mr. Eobert Stephenson. 



Description of Iron. 


fcn 

'5 

c 


3 

£ -1 

II 

°l 

d 


5 "u 

1 Ȥ 

« 3 


~ si 

©J- 

s 
d 3 
"A 


5 3 

ill 




— * 
C.2§ 
= || 

i|S 


Low Moor, No. 1 


7-074 
7-043 
7-051 
7-093 
7-101 
7-042 
7-113 
7-051 
7-025 
7-024 
7-071 
7-037 
6-989 
7-119 
7-034 
7-013 
7-165 
7-108 


5 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


3 
3 
3 

5 
3 
3 
5 
3 


5-667 
6-901 
7-198 
•7-949 
10-477 
6-222 
7-460 
6-380 
6-131 
6-820 
6-410 
6-923 
6-032 
6-478 
6-228 
5-959 
11-502 
10-474 


6 
5 
6 
6 
6 
4 
4 
6 
4 
4 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 


27-003 
42-824 
40-537 
47-326 
47-338 
38-263 
49-109 
30-600 
33-075 
45-091 
33-591 
34-172 
33-507 
43-635 
36-198 
34-038 
54-640 
64-403 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
l 
1 
l 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


: 4-756 
: 6-205 


Clyde, No. 1 


: 5-631 


Do. No. 2 


: 5-953 


Do. No. 3 


: 4-518 


Blaenavon, No. 1 

Do No. 2 


: 6-149 
: 6-577 


Do. No. 2 ■ 


: 4-796 


Calder, No. 1 


: 5-394 
: 6-611 




: 5-210 


Do No 3 


: 4-936 






Ystalyfera Anthracite, No. 2 . . 
Ynyscedwyn Anthracite, No. 1 . . 
Yny3cedwynAnthracite,No2. . 
Morries Stirling, 2nd quality. . 
Do. do. 3rd quality. . 


: 6-735 
: 5-811 
: 5-712 
: 4-751 
: 6-149 



Sir. Hodgkinson had previously determined, in experiments on eleven 
different kinds of cast iron, that the mean ratio of the tensile to the 
crushing forces was 1 : 6 - 595. 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders 



I" The Autizaj,-, 
L January 1, 1858. 



The mean ratio of the same forces in the above Table, is 1 : 6603. In 
deriving this mean, Mr. Morries Stirling's iron is omitted, it being a com- 
pound one. 

The Modulus of Elasticity. 

This is the quotient arising from dividing any weight W in lbs. by tlie 
extension in inches of a bar of iron 1 in. square and 1 in. long, when the 
weight W is suspended from it. 



Thus 



W 



W 
M,and_ = e. 
M 



Hence, if / be any length in inches, W any weight in lbs., and a any 

area in inches, we have * = e, the extension in inches. The. value 

M 

of M for cast iron varies from 14,000,000 to 18,000,000, and for wrought 
iron is about 28,000,000, or nearly double. 

From the equation — -^- = e, we find where e is 1 in. W I a = M, 
M 

and if I and a be also 1 in. W = M. Hence the modulus of elasticity 
may be defined as the weight which will extend a piece of iron an inch 
square to double its length. 

The preceding explanation will show that the modulus of elasticity is 
not the same as tensile strength, with which it has been sometimes con- 
founded. Some modern writers scarcely make use of the term modulus 
of elasticity; and it is probable it will go entirely out of use as we get 
more correct expressions for the tensile and compressive strength of iron. 

At p. 1 73 of The Aetizan will be found the modulus of elasticity or 

value of M in the equation = e, as determined by Mr. Hodgkin- 

son for several different kinds of cast iron. 

It was found, however, in subsequent experiments, that cast iron, when 
acted on as by a tensile force, did not follow the same law of proportionate 
extension as wrought iron. 

Compression and Extension of Cast Iron. 

The Commissioners of 1849 caused very accurate experiments to be 
made on this subject. The extensions were determined by attaching a 
bar 50 ft. in length and 1 in. square to the roof of a lofty building, and 
suspending weights to its lower extremity. 

The compressions were ascertained by enclosing a bar 10 ft. long and 
1 in. square, in a groove placed in a cast-iron frame, which allowed the 
bar to slide freely without friction, and yet permitted no lateral flexure. 
The bar was then compressed by means of a lever loaded with various 
weights, and every possible precaution was taken to procure accuracy. 
The following formulae were deduced for expressing the relation between 
the extension and compression of a bar of cast iron 10 ft. long and 1 in. 
square, and the weights producing them respectively: 

Extension w = 116117 e —201905 e 2 ... (33) 
Compression iu = 107763 d — 36318 d 2 ... (34) 
where w is the weight in lbs. acting on the bar, e the extension, and d the 
compression in inches. 

And the formulas deduced from these for a bar 1 in. square and of any 
length are, — 



Eor extension w — 13934040 _ — 2907432000 



Eor compression w 



12931560 ~ 



522979200 



(35) 
.(36) 



where I is the length of the bar in inches. 

These formulas were obtained from the mean results of experiments 
on four kinds of cast iron. 

Equations 33 to 36 take the form of quadratics, and may be solved 
for the value of e. Thus, for bars 10 ft. long, and 1 in. square, we de- 
rive from equation 33 — 



e = -287554 — 



•082687 



(37). 



s/ 201905 

Also, for a bar or rod of any length, and 1 in. square, we derive from 
equation 35 — 



e' = -0023961 I — / -00000574 P ■ 



wP 



138). 



2907432000 

Eor the compression of a bar 10 ft. long, and 1 in. square, we derive 
from equation 34 — 



1-483603 



(39). 



/ 2-201078 — w 

s/ 36318 

And for the compression of a bar of any length, and 1 in. square, we 
derive from equation 36r— 



d! 



•012363 I — 



V 



•0001529 / 2 . 



top 



522979200 



(40). 



Examples, showing the Use of the preceding Formulae. 
Example 1. — What weight will extend a bar of cast iron 4 in. in area, 

120 
and 10 ft. long, to the extent of ^th of its length. Here e = - — = 

600 
•2 in. ; and by equation 33, w = 116117 X -2 — 201905 x - 2 2 = 23223-4 
— 8076-2 = 15147-2 lbs., the weight which will thus stretch a bar 1 in. 
square. Hence a bar 4 in. square will require 15147-2 X 4 = 60589 lbs. 
to stretch it one-fifth of an inch. 

Example 2. — Let us now reverse the case, and inquire what extension 
will be produced by a weight of 15,147 lbs. suspended from a bar of cast 
iron 10 feet long and 1 in. square. Here, by equation 37, we have — 



•287554 — 



•082687 — 



15147 



•287554 — „y - 076 



or 



v/ 201905 

one-fifth of an inch. 

Example 3. — Eequired the weight which will produce an extension of 
J in. in a bar of iron I in. square, and 25 ft. long. Here, by equation 35, 
•25 



we have 13934040 X = 

300 



And 2907432000 X 



•0625 
90000 



11611-7 
2019 

9592-7 lbs. 



The difference 

being the weight which will produce this extension. 

Example 4. — To find the converse of this problem, or the extension 
produced by 9,593 lbs. 

Here; by equation 38, we have -0023961 X 300 = .... -7188300 

•00000574 X 90000 = -51660000 

9593 X 90000 -29694000 

•2907432000 ~~ "21966 sj -21966 -46S6811 



Difference -2501489 

the extension required, or value of e'. 

EoRStuL.3E for Compression. 

Example 5. — What weight will compress a bar 10 ft. long and 1 in. 
square to the_ extent of § in. when acting on it in the direction of its 
square ? 
Here we have by equation 34 — 

107763 X -75 80822-25 

and 36318 X -75 2 20428-87 



The difference 60393-38 

is the weight in lbs. which will produce a compression of £ in. 

Example 6. — Eequired the compression that will be produced ou a 
10-ft. bar 1 in. square, by a weight of 60,393 lbs. 

By equation 39, we have 1-483603 



Less J 2-201078 



60393 



36318 



•733 and 



the 



The difference -750 is 

compression required. 

It is unnecessary to continue these examples any further, as the 
weight and compression for bars of any length can be readily ascertained 
from equations 36 and 40. 

It will be observed that equations 33 and 34 apply to bars 10 ft., or 

120 ins. in length. Now in the corresponding equations 35 and 36, for 

e d 

bars of any length, the coefficients of - and - are respectively 120 times 

the coefficients of e and d in equations 33 and 34 ; also, the coefficients 

e 2 d 2 

of j2 an< i j2" are respectively equal to 14,400, or 120 2 times the coefficients 

of e 2 and d 2 . Hence equations 35 and 36 must give corresponding results 
to 33 and 34. Again, in equations 37 and 39, the numbers -287554 and 
1-483603 are respectively 120 times the coefficients of I in equations 38 
and 40. Also, in equations 37 and 39. the numbers -082687 and 2-201078 
are respectively 14,400 times the coefficients of P in equations 38 and 40; 
and the same proportion holds between the denominator of w in equa- 
tions 37 and 39, and the denominator w P in equations 38 and 40. 

It will be seen from examining the preceding formulas, that no greater 
extension can be calculated than about j^th of the length. Eor instance, 
in equation 38, when the extension exceeds -0023, or a little more than 
jjL, the expression becomes negative ; and as the quantities after the minus 
sign are all to be subtracted, the value of e' may be equal to, but can 
never exceed -0023961?. In the same way the compression calculated 
by the formulas may be equal to, but can never exceed -01 2363 1, or a 
little more than j^th part of the length. 

(To be continued.) 



The Artizan, "1 
January 1, 1858. J 



Remarks on Boiler Explosions. 



A FEW REMARKS ON BOILER EXPLOSIONS, AND THE 
CAUSES TO WHICH THEY ARE ATTRIBUTED. 

By Edward Strong. 

There is a mystery in connection with hoiler explosions which en- 
gineers have not yet heen able satisfactorily to solve. In reading evidence 
given in connection with the most of these accidents, we nearly always 
find allusions made to explosive gas being generated in the boilers by the 
decomposition of water, through the plates of the boilers having become 
heated from the water having been allowed to fall too low. Now, 
is not this theory too often made use of when there is really next 
to an impossibility for such to have been the case ? I think to this 
more particular attention should be called ; and, before this theory be 
allowed to bear on the particular case, it should be first proved that there 
was a possibility of the water having become decomposed, and also of 
the hydrogen gas thus liberated having become inflammable or explosive 
by an admixture of air or oxygen gas. 

As an instance of this we will take — say the case of a locomotive 
boiler having burst; and where there is, as usual, a difficulty of tracing 
the true cause of accident, it is said, " the water may have been too 
low." The theory of decomposition of water is then brought forward, 
and it is allowed that the boiler has most probably burst from an 
explosion of hydrogen gas. Now, in this case, is there in reality any 
grounds for such a conclusion ? " Iron heated to redness will decompose 
water ;" but the fire-box and tubes of a locomotive boiler, which are the 
parts likely to become heated from want of water, are made — the fire- 
box of copper, and the tubes of brass. " Copper does not decompose 
water at any temperature," and the water in this case could not have 
become decomposed. The cause of explosion must therefore be attri- 
buted to some other cause — most likely weakness in construction of 
boiler, or some defect in the safety-valve or spring balance. Now, could 
it be made an established law that a locomotive boiler with copper 
fire-box and brass tubes will not decompose water when these parts are 
heated to redness from the water being too low, it would very much 
facilitate the investigations as to the causes of explosions, by bringing 
the inquiries within narrower limits. The strength of boilers and state 
of safety-valves would then command more attention. That locomotive 
boilers of this construction do not decompose water, I may state posi- 
tively, as I have seen an engine-driver endeavouring to pump water 
into the boiler of the engine he was working when the top of the fire-box 
and top rows of the tubes had become heated to redness, from the water 
having previously been too low. There was no water in the tender tank 
(of this he was not aware) ; and such being the case, the pumps would 
be forcing air instead of water into the boiler. Now could anything have 
been more favourable to an explosion of hydrogen gas (had the water 
really become decomposed) than this ? and yet no such accident took 
place: the copper of the fire-box was injured, and also the top rows of 
tubes, but nothing beyond thi^. 

The heating of the top of the fire-box and top rows of tubes from 
shortness of water, is a more common occurrence than many imagine ; 
and this occurs without any damage beyond injury to the metal of these 
parts. The result in most of these cases is, that one or more of the 
tubes in the top rows give way from weakness caused by over heat, 
and the fire is extinguished by the rush of steam from the burst tube. 
The means of preventing this uudue heating of the fire-box from want 
of water is so simple that I cannot account for its having been so often 
neglected : I mean by the proper use of the fusible, or what is commonly 
termed, " lead plug." Many engineers say it is useless ; but when is it 
so? — only when neglected, when any other mechanical contrivance would 
become the same. In too many cases the lead plug, put in when the 
engine is built, is left to remain for years, if it will do so : thus it is 
certainly useless, as a crust forms in time, which effectually prevents 
the lead from escaping when melted, and which crust the pressure of 
steam will not overcome ; but where, as on well-managed railways, the 
lead plug is properly attended to, that is, renewed monthly, I can state 
from experience that I have never known it fail, and every dependence 
may be placed upon it. 

The steam escaping from the orifice from which the lead has been 
melted may not, where the fire is very large, be sufficient to extinguish 
it; but it damps it, and gives the driver time and warning to draw the 
fire. I would recommend larger plugs being used — say lin., which would 
thus extinguish the largest fire ; and these being fitted as lead washers, 
secured by a nut, would be preferable to the form of a plug. My reason 
for giving so much importance to the proper use of the lead plug in 
connection with boiler explosions is, in the first place, that they would 
prevent effectually the heating of the fire-box and tubes from the water 
being allowed to fall too low, and thus prevent the possibility of hydrogen 
gas being generated, from which such serious results appear to follow ; 
and, secondly, that, after an explosion lias taken place, the lead plug 
being found not melted, would be positive proof that there had not been 
a scarcity of water. The use of the lead plug, and its being kept in 
proper working order, should be enforced. By proper working order, I 



mean its being renewed monthly, and also of its being of sufficient 
size. 

I have confined my remarks at present to locomotive boilers fitted 
with copper fire-box and brass tubes : there are a few exceptions to 
this, a few being fitted with iron tubes — I may say, very few. With a 
boiler of this construction, the tubes having become heated to redness 
from the water being too low, hydrogen gas would be generated by the 
decomposition of the water from this cause ; but, before attributing the 
bursting of a boiler to the explosion of the hydrogen gas thus present, 
there should be first a reasonable supposition that air was also present 
in the boiler. Now the greater number of these accidents occur when 
the engine is stationary, and when air could not be gaining admittance 
into the boiler. The only circumstances under which air could be forced 
in would be when the engine was working — either when the tender tank 
was empty, or by the feed-pipes being broken or disconnected ; then air 
would be forced in. In investigating the cause of a boiler explosion, 
it should be considered as necessary to look for the possibility of the 
presence of air as for the possibility of the shortness of water. When 
the parts of a boiler are heated to redness, there is more danger to be 
apprehended from pumping in air than cold water : this does not seem 
to be generally known. 

Copper being a metal which does not decompose water, 1 have classed 
the brass of which locomotive tubes are made, as the same, the propor- 
tion of zinc and tin being small. I think experience also proves this. 

From the remarks I have made, I wish it to be thoroughly understood 
that I do not for a moment mean to assert that boilers may not have 
burst from an explosion of hydrogen gas. I simply have endeavoured 
to show that boiler explosions are in too many cases attributed to this 
cause, when there is really no grounds for such an opinion, and that it 
is thus often made an obstacle to further inquiries. 



TUNNEL BORING MACHINERY. 

(Illustrated by a Diagram of the Apparatus. 

Invented by Messrs. Grattoni, Grandis, and Sojijieiixer, for boring the Mount C'enis 

Tunnel.) 

Various mechanical arrangements have been invented of late for the 
expeditious boring of tunnel galleries. The occasion of the proposed 
piercing of the Alps, which divide Piedmont from France, offered an 
opportunity for the employment of such means. The chief difficulties 
attending this work are (besides the extent and importance of the 
undertaking referred to, which have called for the application of 
mechanical means) the impossibility of sinking shafts for beginning the 
excavation at several points, and the direction of the incline of the tunnel 
itself, which, offering on one side a natural exit to the natural springs 
(on the Savoy side), precludes the possibility of extracting them on the 
other side of the Alps, but by pumping. 

Mr. Mans, after three years of study, brought forward a new excava- 
tor, which, acting by percussion, separated the masses of rock into 
smaller fragments, with the help of wedges ; and so, though working at 
a slower rate than by common blasting with powder, evaded the difficulty 
of the strong ventilation necessary to carry out the gasses arising from 
the explosions. This he put in motion by two water-wheels, which, 
through ropes and pulleys, work as in the inclined plane on the railway 
at Liege, constructed by the same inventor. This excavating machine 
was proved at Valdous, before the Government Commission, and was 
thought satisfactory; but it was afterwards objected to and rejected on 
account of the unsatisfactory transmission of movement, and the insuf- 
ficiency of the ventilating means, which were to be in this case a number 
of fans. 

After him, Mr. D. Colladon, Professor of Engineering in Genoa, 
obtained on the 30th June, 1855, a patent for a new method of excavating 
galleries. In his specification he says, " The chief mechanical means 
used or proposed heretofore for giving motion to tools at the bottom of 
a mine, are the application of cables, ropes, or chains acting either by a 
continuous, or an alternating motion ; the use of steam acting directly ; 
that of the vacuum by means of a suction-pipe, or that of a water-power 
engine. The new process proposed by me differs essentially from them, 
not only in its principle, but also, and above all, by a useful arrangement 
by which the chief desiderata, when mines are to be excavated, can be im- 
mediately obtained ; that is, ventilating and regulating the temperature, 
making a reserve of motive power when the tools are stopped, and 
abridging the work of tools by new appliances." 

The chief features of Mr. Colladon's invention consists in the use of 
compressed air for transmitting power to a boring or excavating machine 
in the gallery itself, the action of the engine or motor being outside. 
The air compressed by a water-wheel or steam-engine, or any other 
motor, and sent into the galleries by a pipe was to give motion to the 
excavating tools, as well as to the boring tools for blasting and such like 
purposes, and at the same time was to renew by a jet of fresh air that 
vitiated by respiration or the explosion of mines. 



8 



Tunnel Boring Machinery. 



r The Abtizajt, 
L January 1, 185H. 



Upon the same day that Mr. Colladon took out his patent another was 
granted to Mr. Thomas Bartlett for a kind of locomotive engine and 
apparatus, with the adjunction of the tools proper for working the 
gallery. The piston-rod of the steam-cylinder has fixed to its head a 
second piston-rod and piston working in a second cylinder (in a line 
with the first), which may be called the pneumatic cylinder. In this 
one works a third piston, which has attached to its rod a mining tool. 
Between the two a certain quantity of air is compressed by the action 
of the first piston, and acting as a spring, drives with force the tool 
against the rock at the end of the motion, and at the return stroke a 
part of the compressed air escapes through a valve. The third piston 
is acted upon by the vacuum then obtained, and retrogrades ; but at the 
end of the stroke a small opening gives again admission to a quantity 
of air equal to that which has escaped. All this is so rapid that the 
tool strikes 200 to 300 blows per minute. 



GRATTONI & CO.'S TUNNEL BORING APPARATUS. 




Messrs. Grattoni and Co.'s machine consists in the application of Mr. 
Colladon's invention to give the motion to Mr. Bartlett's excavator, as 
in long galleries the use of steam is not practicable. Tor this the in- 
vention of a new engine, at once simple and effective for compressing 
the air, was necessary, and this is effected by the application of water 
power. 

A vertical pipe, several feet in diameter, say 50 or 60 ft. high, is con- 
nected at its foot with a short horizontal tube of the same diameter, 
which itself opens into the bottom of a cylindrical vessel in the shape of 
a hollow column closed at the top, say about 15 ft. high. A valve inter- 
cepts at will the communication between the vertical and the branch 
pipe. This forms, it will be seen, an inverted syphon; the longer branch 



opens on the top, the other being closed. This valve is called the feed 
valve. 

When the operation begins, the column being full of air, the water 
descending through the vertical pipe, acts by its own weight, compresses 
the air, and if the area of the feed valve differs little with the section of 
the tube, the descent of the column of water becomes very rapid, and by 
its force-viva, or impetus, compresses the air contained in the air-vessel 
long after the moment when both the pressures of the water and the air 
have become equalised. The air-vessel not being entirely close, but 
with a large and light valve in communication with an air reservoir, the 
air by the reaction due to its elasticity, opens the exhaust valve and 
escapes before the motion of the column of water has ceased. 

If besides, at the moment the action of the water is complete, an escape 
valve at the foot of the vertical pipe, and an admission pipe in the air- 
vessel open simultaneously, the water contained in the vertical column 
escapes and the air-vessel is filled again with air. The machine will have 
then finished a stroke, a blow, or rather a pulsation, and will be ready 
for the compression of a new volume of air. The motions of the feed 
and escape valves are self-acting. This is the hydro-pneumatic pres- 
sure engine for boring and tunneling designed by Messrs. Grattoni, 
Grandis, and Sommeiller. The air being compressed at a pressure of 
100 lbs. or so to the square inch, they applied their motor or engine to 
driving Mr. Bartlett's excavator; a side elevation of which complete 
apparatus is shown in the accompanying illustrations. 

The following is a Beport of some official experiments recently 
made : — 

The mechanical compresser was erected at the foot of the St. 
Benigno Pass, near San Pierdlaune, Genoa. It was fed by one of the 
mains of the water supply works of the town, the water of which was 
conducted into two reservoirs, at about 80 ft. above the level of the dis- 
charge-valve. 

A third reservoir, about 165 ft. above the same valve, contains the 
water intended to maintain the pressure in the vessels or air-holders, 
so as to give motion to the water-power engine for effecting the self- 
acting motion of the valves. The pipes, vertical and horizontal, and 
the air-vessel were uniformly of 18 in. diameter. 

The feed-valve was of the double beat Cornish description, and was 
constructed so as not to reduce in any manner the area of the tube, and 
so as to be worked without unnecessary loss of power. 

The air-valve, which is of equal area with the tubes, divides the top 
of the compression-column from a bell or head, which receives at each 
blow the compressed air, and sends it to the reservoirs through a large 
copper pipe. These last consist of two chambers of boiler-plate, half an 
inch thick, and capable of containing each 150 cubic ft. These reservoirs, 
constructed like steam-boilers, communicate at the bottom with the 
water-pressure tank, from which they are filled before setting the ap- 
paratus in motion. When the machine works, at every blow or pulsa- 
tion a certain volume of air passes, from the compression-column into 
the air reservoirs, driving out an equal volume of water, which re- 
ascends into the tank. By this means the air in the reservoir is main- 
tained at the pressure corresponding to the height of the tank, added to 
the atmospheric pressure. In this case, this height being 165 ft., the air 
pressure was equal to six atmospheres — or say 80 lbs. per square inch 
effective pressure. Three glass gauges, similar to those for steam 
boilers, indicated at each moment the level of the water in the air 
reservoirs, as well as the augmentations or diminutions of the volume of 
the compressed air. 

It was found that the results of experiments gave — loss of air in the 
reservoirs 2 to 3 per cent. only. 

The force necessary to reduce six litres to the volume of one litre, so 
as to compress it at six atmospheres, was measured at 59 - 37 kgm. for 
the compression itself, and 51 - 63 kgm. for sending it up to the reservoirs, 
in all 111 kgm. which is the power it can exert or give up in returning 
to its former volume. 

The useful effect of the machine was calculated thus : — In 35 blows 
of the engines 2,682-86 litres of compressed air were obtained with a 
volume of 23,478 litres of water descending 23 - 95 metres, and 237 - 5 
descending 5T5 metres, equal to 562,298 kgm., when the useful effect of 
the machine was 297,764 kgm. This is equal to a duty of 53 per cent. 

The modifications to Bartlett's perforator, as invented by Messrs. 
Grattoni, Grandis, and Sommeiller, are : — 1st. The new machine has one 
cylinder only, there being between the end of the cylinder and the only 
piston two cushions of compressed air in communication with the air- 
vessels. 2nd. The distribution of air is independent of the piston, and 
effeeted by one or two cylinders with self-acting mechanism. 3rd. The 
diameter of the piston, as well as the dimensions of the fly-wheel, and 
other parts, are much reduced. 4th. A self-acting forward motion is 
given to the machine as the work proceeds ; and this is regulated ac- 
cording to the hardness of the rock to be perforated. 5th. The machine 
can easily be disposed to work in inclined positions, as necessary for 
blasting in the best direction. 



The Abtizan, "] 
January 1,1858. J 



United States Mail Steamer "Adriatic" — The Yacht "Fantasie" 



THE UNITED STATES MAIL STEAMER "ADRIATIC." 

The arrival of this long-looked for steamer, which was expected by 
our American cousins to " lick all creation," was announced on Thurs- 
day, the 3rd December, Bfter a run of 10 days 21 hours, from New York, 
where she left 23rd November, 12-30 p.m.; and although this perform- 
ance would be a great disappointment to the zealous advocates for the 
superiority of American naval architecture, yet it is due to the com- 
mander and owners to state that, in consequence of a slight fog and 
strong westerly gale blowing during the night, Captain West considered it 
advisable to lay off Point Lynas, to which point he ran in 10 days 4 hours, 
which would give for this her entire voyage, 10 days 8 hours mean time; 
a performance that has been repeatedly excelled upon the first voyages 
of both Cunard and Collins' steamers. 

"We do not, however, attach much importance to the speed falling so 
considerably short of the expectations of her designer upon this occasion, 
as, notwithstanding the repeated trials of her steam machinery, the 
alterations which have from time to time been made in connection there- 
with, and also the series of delays which have occurred in consequence 
thereof, the engines had not a fair chance of performing efficiently ; and, 
moreover, Captain West is known to be an exceedingly careful navigator, 
and a judicious commander; and it is to be hoped that upon the next 
voyage to Liverpool the Sickel's cut-off apparatus will have been satis- 
factorily arranged and connected, and the engines and machinery thus 
have the opportunity of performing in accordance with the desire of the 
owners. 

In The Aetizan for September, 1856, page 212, will be found the 
principal dimensions, &c, of the ship and engines ; and, on reference to 
The Aktizan of February, 1855, page 32, a description of Pirsson's 
Surface Condenser will be found. 

It will be remembered that the Adriatic and the Niagara, United States 
steam frigates, were designed by the late Mr. George Steers. The 
Adriatic was launched on the 7th of April, 1856, and has been fitted 
with engines by Stillman, Allen and Co., of the Novelty Iron Works, 
New York. The extraordinary delay which has occurred in completing 
this vessel for sea has, it is said, arisen entirely from the difficulties 
which have been found in adapting Sickel's cut-off apparatus to these 
large oscillating engines ; and certainly, if we may judge by the disfigure- 
ment of the engines, framing, and engine-room arrangements, by these 
alterations, this would appear to have been the case. 

It has been erroneously stated that the diameter of each of the oscil 
lating cylinders is 100 in., whereas they are 1 in. larger ; and the follow- 
ing dimensions and particulars, which we collected when visiting the 
ship at her moorings, on Tuesday, the 8th December, will doubtless 
prove of interest: — 

The engines consist of two oscillating cylinders, each 101 in. in diameter; 
stroke, 12 ft. ; the weight of each, with top and bottom cover, 101,324 lbs. ; 
they are fitted with brass pistons, 12 in. deep, with cast-iron packing 
rings, 6 in. deep, and weigh 11,015 lbs. each; the piston-rods are 14 in. 
diameter, and weigh 17,118 lbs.; the main shafts are 26J in. diameter, 
and 35- ft. 6 in. long, weigh 64,550 lbs.; the two air-pumps 42 in. dia- 
meter, 5 ft. stroke; and condensed water-pumps, each 30 in. diameter, 
with 5 ft. stroke. There is a direct-acting horizontal donkey engine and 
feed-pump; the steam cylinder is 16 in. diameter, and the pump 8 J in. 
diameter, and 12 in. stroke. The donkey engine is worked from a boiler 
which is exclusively used for giving it steam. There are eight boilers, 
of Martin's vertical tubular construction, with six furnaces in each; the 
dimensions of each boiler are 20 ft. 1J in. long, by 1 1 ft. 3 in. wide by 14 ft. 
high. The fire-grates are each 8 ft. long x 33 in. wide. The number of 
iron tubes in each boiler we could not ascertain ; but their diameter is 
2 in. inside, and about i in. thick ; they are fixed without ferrules, the 
thickness of the iron tube plates being at the top § in., the bottom plate 
rather thicker. The shell of the boiler jj in. iron, and are fully stayed. 
The weight of the eight boilers, without water, is estimated at 710,074 lbs. ; 
and, according to the measurements given by the chief engineer, the 
total heating surface should measure 30,000 square feet. The boilers 
were tested at 50 lbs. to the square inch. The working pressure is 
calculated at 25 lbs., and the consumption of coals on trial shows about 
90 to 95 tons per day of twenty-four hours. 

There are two of Pirsson's surface condensers (vacuum), a modification 
of those described in The Artizan, February, 1855. We were informed 
that the surface in each was equal to 12,000 sq. ft.; and the number of 
brass tubes (tinned inside and out), is 5,000, their diameter inside J in. 
bare, and the thickness about No. 17 iron wire gauge. 

The smoke from the eight boilers is conveyed by two funnels, each 
40 ft. high by 7 ft. diameter, one fore and the other aft of the engines. 

The paddle-wheels are each 40 ft. diameter, the floats each 12 ft. long, 
24 in. deep. 

It has been stated in some of the English newspaper reports that on 
the voyage here, the consumption of coal being greater than was antici- 
pated, they ran short of fuel ; this was not a fact, as the quantity of coal 
taken on board was stated by the vendor's account to be 1,368 tons of 
Pennsylvanian Anthracite, and at the time of her being moored at the 



Collins' buoy, above the Eock Perry, she had 250 tons of coal in her 
bunkers. 

Amongst the disadvantages under which the ship laboured was that 
the boilers primed very much, and the coals were not perfectly suited 
for the most economical combustion in the boiler furnaces; but when the 
priming has been checked, and every part of the machinery in good 
working order, it is expected that with easy firing, amply sufficient steam 
will be got to ensure a working pressure throughout the voyage at 23 to 
25 lbs. per square inch, the steam being cut off in the cylinders at \ of 
the stroke. 

With reference to the vessel, we have already stated she was designed 
by the late Mr. George Steers, and has some of the peculiarities of the 
Niagara U.S. Prigate, and like all the Collins' steamers, has an upright 
stem, or straight cut-water, and without a bowsprit; her lines are con- 
sidered good ; her draft was 22 ft. when we saw her, and we believe she 
was on about an even keel ; and on referring to the particulars given in 
The Artizan for September, 1856, we find that her displacement at the 
21 ft. 6 in. water-line was given at 5,800 tons, and the average displace- 
ment per inch between 17 ft. 1J in. light load line and 20 ft. draft, was 28| 
tons (per inch). She has two masts, the foremost only being square 
rigged; she is not too heavily masted or rigged, and is certainly, when 
under steam and sail, a very " ship-shape craft ;'' and we hope that before 
we go to press with The Artizast for February, we shall be able to 
report the second arrival of this splendid ship in the Mersey, after a 
much more rapid voyage than that we have just recorded. Until then 
we take leave of the subject, and defer the publication of a number of 
details which we have prepared relative to the arrangements and internal 
fittings of the ship, which are on a scale of magnificence and completeness 
quite unequalled by any ship in this country. 

We had well nigh omitted to state that Silver's Patent Marine 
Governor is applied to the engines of the Adriatic ; and Captain West 
speaks in the highest terms of the invention, and expressed his surprise 
that the Government and steam-ship owners in this country should be 
so blind to their own interest as not to insist upon marine-engine builders 
fitting governors on board every sea-going steamer. 



THE YACHT "FANTASIE." 

On Thursday, the 1 7th Dec, a beautiful yacht was launched from the 
yard of the Thames Iron Works, Blackwall. This vessel is 180 ft. 
long, 18 ft. beam, and 6 ft. draft ; to be fitted with paddle-wheel engines 
of 120 H.P. She has been constructed under the directions of Messrs. 
George Rennie and Sons, the engineers, for the use of the Imperial 
Family of Austria. Several distinguished gentlemen from the Austrian 
Government were present at the launch, and were much pleased with 
the appearance of the vessel. When the trial trip of this vessel is made, 
we hope to give more details of her performance. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE. 

Section G. 
ON FUSED WROUGHT IRON. 
By E. Riley, Escj., Dowlais Ironworks. 

The fusibility of wrought iron and its properties is a subject upon which 
little has been written : some even doubting its fusibility. The following ex- 
periments were made to determine its properties : — 

First,— Black plate from tin works was cut in pieces about three-eighths 
of an inch square, covered with the cinder from an old iron assay, placed 
in a wind furnace with a strong draught lor two hours. The iron was 
perfectly fused, and formed a smooth even button (weighing 1,638 grains) 
under the cinder, which was of a dark green color. On attempting to cut 
it with a cold chisel it broke, with a very crystalline fracture, in the direc- 
tion of the planes of cleavage of the crystals. The pot was taken out hot, and 
allowed to cool on an iron plate. Half of the button was worked out by a 
smith into a bar ^-inch square. The iron was very soft, and had a fine 
face and sharp even edges like steel ; two pieces were welded together; — 
whilst at a welding heat the iron worked very well; on cooling to a red 
heat it became very cracky, and broke ; the fracture of the iron not exposed 
to a welding heat was very silky, and it was readily bent back double 
without cracking — the smith stating it was some of the toughest iron he 
ever worked. This experiment was repeated, and another, with 7 oz. of 
black plate, part of which ran out of the pot ; the properties and character 
of the iron were precisely similar to those above detailed. In the second 
experiment shale and lime were used to form a cinder. 

An experiment with the best -^-inch cable-bolt (veiy fibrous). Tlus bolt 
was cut in small pieces whilst hot, varying from ^-ineli to j-inch long ; and 
8 oz. of bolt, o gr. red ore, 300 gr. lime, and 260 gr. mine shale, were placed in 
a pot. In two to three hours the fire burnt down, the pot was taken out hot, and 
cooled on an iron plate; the iron was perfectly fused, and covered with a dark 
green cinder, the button being very smooth, and free from cavities ; on trying 
to break it with a blunt tool, the button being laid hollow, it broke in several 
directions, all being planes of cleavage of the crystals, which extended tlirough 



10 



British Association : Fused Wrought Iron. — Molten Substances. 



T The Abtizak, 
L January I, 1858. 



the button, and had the appearance of galena. The properties of this iron 
were precisely similar to the fused black plate — viz., very tough and fibrous 
when worked cold, in this respect working very similar to copper. The 
smith, after having welded two pieces together, could not work it after it had 
cooled to a red heat, as it invariably cracked, and broke to pieces. 

Six ounces of the same cable-bolt were fused per xe. The iron ran down 
into a flattish button, with some olive cinder at the sides; the button broke 
with a crystalline fracture, the crystals not however so large as in the last 
experiment. It worked precisely similar to the previous button, and was use- 
less after it had been exposed to a welding heat. 

Half a pound of the same bolt was fused per se into a flattish button, the 
fusion being quite perfect; it broke with a very crystalline fracture, and proved 
in every respect similar to the last button. 

Experiments were also made with |-lb. and 1 lb. of the same bolt, the iron 
running through the pots on the bars. On testing the burnt iron taken from 
the bars the properties were found to be the same as in the previous experi- 
ments. Did not succeed in obtaining a button more than J-lb. weight, owing, 
probably, to the pressure of the melted iron against the soft sides of the pot. 
The pots used in these experiments were of Cornish clay, about 3 inches high, 
clay-lids being luted on. 

Fused Wrought Iron made direct from the Ore. — Experiment No. 1, with 
calcined Welsh mine, the following proportions were used : — 

Mine 2500 

Lime 450 

Anthracite 360 

3,310 

Weight of button, 1,241 grains. The cinder was dark green, and the button 
quite solid ; it worked exceedingly tough and soft, like lead ; on putting heat 
on the iron it cracked and broke like copper, and would not, in fact, take a 
higher temperature. This button was found on examination to contain no 
silicium, and - 29 per cent, of phosphorus. The following is an analysis of the 
calcined mine used : — 

Silica 8-38 

Alumina 5-79 

Peroxide of iron . .. . : 76-61 

Oxide of manganese 1-21 

Lime 313 

Magnesia 3 - 96 

Phosphoric acid - 57 

Potash 0-87 

Sulphur 0-06 

100-58 

Experiment No. 2, on 

Mine 2,500 

Lime 460 

Anthracite 375 

3,335 

Weight of button, 1,311 grains. The cinder was a little lighter in colour 
than the last; the button had a small cavity in the centre ; a piece drawn out 
would not stand a welding heat, but crumbled to pieces like copper. 
Experiment No. 3, on 

Mine 2,500 

Lime 460 

Anthracite 390 

3,&50 

Weight of button, 1333-5 grains. Cinder, olive green, not very dark, with a 
few black wavy lines. The button broke like cast steel, one half of it was found 
to stand no heat, the other portion worked into a small chisel, hardened on 
chilling, and broke with a tolerably close fracture. 
Experiment No. 4, with red ore from Lynmouth Comham Ford lode. 

Silica 1-01 

Peroxide of iron 98-41 

Alumina (traces) 

Peroxide of manganese 0-29 

Magnesia 0'16 

Phosphoric acid 0-12 

Moisture 0-13 

Oxide of copper 0-04 

100-16 

Mixture used — 

Mine 2,500 

Shale 160 

Lime 260 

Anthracite 430 

3,350 

Cinder, dark green ; iron, very tough and soft, but stood no heat, and was in 
every respect similar to iron made in Experiments 1 and 2. The anthracite 
used was from Glyn Neath, and of the very best quality, being nearly free 
from sulphur ; and to show that it had no influence on the quality of the iron ; 
it may be mentioned that large quantities of very good welding cast steel 
was made from the Comham Ford ore, this anthracite being used as the 
reducing agent. In some experiments on steel made from CornhamFord ore, 
too small a quantity of wood charcoal was used ; the result was a very dark 
cinder with a metallic face, and a button of very soft iron, which would not 
stand a welding heat, but crumbled to pieces. 

An experiment was made with a small amount of binoxid'e of manganese, 
added to J-lb. of cable bolt, with a little shale and lime to form cinder, a 
small portion of carbon insufficient for the complete reduction of the oxide 
being added. The iron was similar to that obtained in other experiments, 
except that it stood the welding heat a little better. 
Experiments were made with iron turnings from best cable bolt mixed with 



fine sand from pounded conglomerate ; the object being to ascertain whether 
the iron took silicium from the pot. Three oz. of fine iron turnings, and 2 oz. 
of sand were mixed together intimately, and heated for two or three hours at 
a temperature sufficient to melt wrought iron. The turnings were fused into 
small buttons varying in size; the sand fritted together quite hard, especially 
at the bottom. On dissolving these buttons in hydrochloric acid, no silicium 
was detected; they could be readily flattened by hammering into thin plate. 

Another experiment was tried by mixing iron turnings with sand and carbon; 
it was then found that the silica was reduced and combined with the iron, 
which fused into hard brittle buttons, containing from 1 to 2 per cent, of sili - 
ciura (silica obtained in analysis was found to contain some iron). 

The property of becoming useless after exposure to a welding heat appears 
from the above experiments to be a special character of fused wrought iron. 
The experiments have not been earned far enough to lead to any explanation of 
this ; it may probably be due to the absence of a small portion of carbon usually 
present in wrought iron. In Bessemer's iron Mr. Riley believes there is no 
carbon, yet it certainly welds, but not very well. Wrought iron made directly 
from the ore appears to be rather worse than the fused bar or plate iron, as it 
crumbles to pieces when subjected to a great heat. 

Mr. Riley intends continuing these experiments during the winter, and 
trusts eventually to be enabled to give some reason for the peculiar proper- 
ties of fused wrought iron above described. 



ON MOLTEN SUBSTANCES. 

By J. Nasmyth, Esq., C.E. 

Paper read before Section G, British Association. - 

The author's object in this paper is to direct the attention of scientific men 
to a class of phenomena which, although in their main features they might 
be familiar to practical men, yet appeared to have escaped the attention of 
those who were more engaged in scientific research. The great fact which he 
desired to call attention to is comprised in the following general proposition — 
namely, that all substances in a molten condition are specifically heavier than 
the same substance in an unmolten state. Hitherto water has been supposed to 
be a singular and special exception to the ordinary law — namely, that as sub- 
stances were elevated in temperature they became specifically lighter ; that is 
to say, water at temperature 32° on being heated does on its progress towards 
temperature 40° become more dense and specifically heavier until it reaches 
40°, after which, if we continue to elevate the temperature, its density pro- 
gressively decreases. From the facts which Mr. Nasmyth brought forward, it 
appears that water is not a special and singular exception in this respect, but 
that, on the contrary, the phenomenon in relation to change of density (when 
near the point of solidification) is shared with every substance with which we are 
at all familiar in a molten state, so entirely so that Mr. Nasmyth felt himself 
warranted in propounding, as a general law, the one before stated — namely, 
that in every instance in which he has tested its existence he finds that a molten 
substance is more dense or specifically heavier than the same substance in its 
unmolten state. It is on account of this that if we throw a solid piece of lead 
into a pot of melted lead, the solid, or unmolten metal, will float in the fluid or 
molten metal. Mr. Nasmyth stated, that he found that this fact of the floating 
of the unmolten substance iii the molten holds true with every substance on 
which he has tested the existence of the phenomenon in question. As, for 
instance, in the case of lead, silver, copper, iron, zinc, tin, antimony, bismuth, 
glass, pitch, resin, wax, tallow, &c; and that the same is the case with respect 
to alloys of metals and mixtures of any of the above-named substances. Also, 
that the normal condition as to density is resumed in most substances a little 
on the molten side of solidification, and in a few cases the resumption of the 
normal condition occurs during the act of solidification. He also stated that, 
from experiments which he had made, he had reason to believe that by heating- 
molten metals up to a temperature far beyond their melting point, the point 
of maximum density was, as in the case of water, at 40° about to be passed ; 
and that at such very elevated temperatures the normal state, as regards reduc- 
tion of density by increase of temperature, was also resumed, but that as yet 
he has not been able to test this point with such certainty as to warrant him 
to allude further to its existence. Mr. Nasmyth concluded his observations 
by stating that he considered this to be a subject well worthy of the attention 
of geologists, who might find in it a key to the explanation of many eruptive 
or upheaving phenomena which the earth's crust, and especially that of the 
moon, present — namely, that on the approach to the point of solidification 
molten mineral substances then beneath the solid crust of the earth must, in 
accordance with the above-stated law, expand, and tend to elevate- or burst up 
the solid crust — and also express upwards, through the so cracked surface, 
streams more or less fluid of those mineral substances which we know must 
have been originally in a molten condition. Mr. Nasmyth stated, that the 
aspect of the lunar surface, as revealed to us by powerful telescopes, appeared 
to him to yield most striking confirmation of the above remark. He con- 
cluded by expressing a hope that the facts which he had brought forward 
might receive the careful attention of scientific men, which their important 
bearing on the phenomena in question appeared to him to entitle them to. 

GUN-BOATS FOR INDIA. 

The Hon. East India Cosipany, seeing the advantage which a flotilla 
of gun-boats, of small dimensions and light draft of water, would be to 
keep the water communication completely in the possession of the Indian 
Government (and thus, should any disturbance arise, the main and 
natural means of transport and conveyance would be always available), 
have ordered Messrs. George Rennie and Sons to construct several small 
gun-boats on their patent principle. 

The dimensions of these vessels are as follow, namely:— Length, 70 ft.; 



The Artizan, "I 
January 1, 1858. J 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



11 



team, 1 1 jl£. ; draft of water, 2 ft. forward, and 2 ft. 6 in. aft, with from 
5 to 6 tons of coal on board. 

There are two engines, each of 10 H.P., horizontal and direct-acting, 
each engine being entirely independent of the other, and driving a sepa- 
rate screw propeller, one under each quarter, the intended number of 
revolutions of which are 320 per minute. 

The gun is a long brass 12-pounder, 18 cwt., and pivotted so as to 
allow the gun to traverse in a circle, and thus command both sides of 
the river. 

During the last month several trials and experiments have been made 
with the first of these vessels, under the superintendence of a Govern- 
ment engineer. The average speed of six runs was found to be 9 knots, 
or 101 miles, the engines making an average number of 350 revolutions 
per minute. 

The indicated power being 76 horses 

Pressure in boiler 50 to 60 lbs. 

These vessels were found to turn in a very narrow compass, from the 
facility of backing or stopping one engine while the other went a-head, 
which it is considered will be of great advantage in some of the small 
creeks and narrow parts of the upper rivers. 

These vessels are divided into three water-tight compartments, the 
after part being fitted with a deck-house, adapted for the hot climate 
of India, in which the crew, as well as the captain, who has a separate 
cabin, are accommodated. The fore part of the vessel is arranged for 
the powder magazine, shell-room, store-rooms, and cooking galley, &c, 
and the centre part for the engine, boiler, and coals. 

Several of these vessels are now in course of shipment; and from the 
facility of putting the parts together, it is expected that in a few days 
after their arrival in India they will be fit for service. 

A few of these boats would be of infinite service up the narrow creeks 
and turnings of the rivers beyond Canton, where Captain Keppel so 
distinguished himself in the row-boats of the ships ; and we cannot but 
think that the Government would do well by sending some such boats 
out before the China war is over, more especially as we see the President 
of the United States mentions, in his message, the intention of his 
Government to send out ten gun-boats of shallow draft for the Chinese 
service. 



NOTICE TO ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS. 

Ik accordance with the notice addressed by the Proprietor to the 
Readers of The Artizan in the December Number, inviting them to 
send in their names as Annual Subscribers, very many have promptly 
responded to the invitation, and it is hoped that the number of Annual 
Subscribers will be very materially increased during the month of 
January, that the improvements which have been contemplated in con- 
nection with the Journal may be fully carried out. 

Evert Annual Subscriber will in tutube be entitled each tear 
to receive free a proof impression, printed on thick plate paper, 
op ant one of the engravings "which have been published during 
the last three tears, or of ant which mat hereafter be pub- 
LISHED in " The Artizan ;" and they may also obtain any additional 
number of proof impressions at the following prices : — 

Quarto Plates, Is. each ; double quarto, 2s. ; and any larger size, at 3s. 
each. India Proofs will be charged double the above prices. 

Annual Subscribers, to whom these privileges are alone extended, in 
availing themselves thereof, must, at the time of applying, produce the 
receipt for his subscription, or supply the printed consecutive number 
of his receipt, whereupon the Plate which he may have selected will be 
delivered to him at the Publishing Office. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

November 24, 1857. 
Eoet. Stephenson, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 

The proceedings were commenced by the reading of an appendix to 
Mr. G. L. Molesworth's Paper On the Conversion of Wood bt 
Machinert. 

The manufacture of casks by machinery was cited as an example of 
a branch in which many failures had occurred, in consequence of the 
machines having been frequently designed without a view to effecting 
economy of material, so that the waste of valuable wood was not coun- 
terbalanced by the saving of labour. The best machines in use for per- 
forming the following processes in the manufacture of casks were briefly 
described. 



The process of cutting up the " blanks " into staves, either by circular, 
or by reciprocating saws, and of converting without waste irregular and 
twisted " blanks " into staves, by the use of weighted rollers pressing 
the work against an adjustable fence in the saw frame. — The cutting 
out "tonguers" and "doublets" by a travelling template, which deter- 
mined the position of the fence ; and the plan adopted at Her Majesty's 
Dockyard, at Deptford, for irregular " blanks," " tonguers," and "doub- 
lets ;" as well as the American mode of cutting staves for dry casks. — 
The process of jointing by moving the stave through a curved path in 
the direction of its length against circular saws. — Robertson's mode of 
backing staves, by passing them on a travelling platform under cutters ; 
and Green's mode of passing them over a pair of cutters arranged on 
each side of a guide collar, whilst the stave was pressed down by a heavy 
fluted feed roller. — The processes of " trussing " on Rosenborg's princi- 
ple, by a series of radial forcing levers, actuated simultaneously by 
screws, and on Kobertson's principle by means of strong cones, into 
which the staves were forced by hydraulic pressure. — The plan of " crozing 
and chining " by turning the cask up on a vertical lathe, after trussing ; 
or by passing each stave separately under cutters. — And the process of 
finishing the heads with an oval motion, to allow for shrinkage of the 
wood across the grain; thus completing the different processes in manu- 
facturing casks. 

Hamilton's machine for sawing curved ship timbers was described as 
having an inner gate, and the blade so hung as to allow of a transverse 
as well as a swivelling motion, for curvilinear work, the log being so 
arranged as to be turned on its axis whilst travelling, and to be cut to 
any desired bevel. Green's method of adapting an indicator roller to 
this machine, for cutting variable bevels from a small scale diagram, 
was also mentioned. 

The largest circular saws were stated to be those used for cutting 
veneers from the log; their size, velocity, and mode of action were given, 
as well as the attempt to supersede them by a revolving knife edge, with 
the causes of its failure. The Russian method of cutting veneers was 
briefly touched upon, as well as the reasons for its non-adoption in Eng- 
land ; and the French method, with a reciprocating knife edge, was also 
described. 

A description of Jordan's wood carving machinery was given, with 
his method of producing a species of floating movement in the table 
carrying the pattern and the work, under a frame furnished with a series 
of drill cutters and a tracing knob, so as to produce several copies simul- 
taneously from one pattern ; — the plan of carving under-cut parts by 
swivelling the pattern and work simultaneously, was also described. 

The appendix concluded with an account of Messrs. Ransome and 
May's manufacture of compressed railway keys and trenails, and also of 
the mode adopted in Her Majesty's Dockyard, Portsmouth, of shaping 
trenails cleft from timber of irregular or twisted grain. 

A description was given of Wilson's machinery at the Midland Counties 
Timber Company's Works at Banbury, for the conversion of wood into 
mop and broom handles, of which very large quantities were manufactured. 
Cylindrical gouge cutters were used, so that by turning them gradually in 
their sockets, they always presented a cutting edge, which would work 
for sixteen hours without sharpening; and a tool would last three months. 
The surface produced was excellent, and the machine was now about to 
be used for making pencils. 

The carving machinery invented by Mr. Jordan, and used for the 
decorations of the New Palace, at Westminster, was alluded to ; and a 
description was given of the ingenious machines, also invented by him, 
for making the frames of school slates, at Colonel Pennant's Quarries, 
near Bangor. The logs of American birch were first cut up by frame 
saws; the planks were then seasoned for six months, and were afterwards 
cross cut to proper lengths — passed over a series of circular saws and 
grooving cutters alternately fixed on the same shaft— the mortises and 
tenons were cut in two other machines— the end mortises, tenons, and 
shoulders, were then cut, and the slates encircled by four of these pieces. 
The frame thus formed was then laid against two stops, and a pair of 
drills descended upon the opposite corners, making two holes ; it was 
then reversed, and another pair of holes were made in the other two 
corners ; pegs were inserted, and the work was completed. Up to that 
point the result was excellent, but it had been found impossible entirely 
to finish the work with the delicacy with which the human hand 
could do it. In all such machinery the vital importance of high speed 
and perfect balance were insisted upon, and many curious instances of 
failure, resulting from neglect of these points, were given. 

Messrs. Eansome and May's trenail and key machines were further 
described, and the advantages of the pendulum saw for cross cutting 
were strongly insisted on. 

Green's stave-cutting machinery was explained, and the great quantity 
of work which could be executed by it was shown. 

Gibson's Self-acting Railwat Signals. 

After the meeting a model was exhibited of Gibson's self-acting Signal 
and Telegraph for Railways. This apparatus was described as being 
intended to supply the want of a system of railway signalling, which 



12 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



The Abtizan, 
, January 1, 1858. 



should be efficient, and, whilst answering every purpose for which rail- 
way signals could he required, should be simple in construction, and not 
liable to be misunderstood, or to get out of repair ; being, at the same 
time, independent of the attention or the neglect of servants. 

The apparatus consisted of a continuous arrangement of signalling set 
in motion by the engine, which, in passing over a lever placed close 
withinside the rail in any desired situation, caused a signal-post (No. 1) 
to rotate partially, and so to indicate to the following train the close 
proximity of a preceding train. The signal post (No. 1) remained in 
this position until the engine arrived at the next signal post (No. 2), the 
lever opposite to which, when depressed by the engine, caused it to 
rotate similarly to the signal-post (No. 1) previously passed, which was 
at the same time replaced in its original position. The engine then 
reached signal-post No. 3, and it and No. 2 would be simultaneously 
acted upon as were Nos. 1 and 2. Then No. 4 received the responsibility, 
and released No. 3, and so on. It answered equally well by night and 
day, and the present signal-posts could be adapted to it. 

By the same motion of the horizontal levers audible or visible tele- 
graphic communications could be made with any station, or stations, 
either in advance or in the rear of the moving train ; thus indicating, by 
the continual ring of a bell, if necessary, the approach, departure, pre- 
sent position, or passage through a tunnel, or over any dangerous part 
of the line. On foggy or stormy nights, or where there were sharp 
curves, &c, this would be found very valuable. 

Another important part of the system was the contrivance for the 
self-acting contraction and expansion of stretched wire, by means of 
which hand signals, &c, could be acted upon at a distance of 2,000 yards, 
being far beyond the present working distance, and the wire, both in 
summer and winter, would always be at the same degree of tension. 

The whole apparatus was described as having been in efficient action 
for some time at Binn's Junction, on the North Eastern Railway, where 
thirty trains ran daily over it, to the perfect satisfaction of the engineers 
and the officers of the line. 

December 1, 1857. 
Eobt. Stephenson, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 

The Discussion upon Mr. Molesworth's Paper On the Conversion or 
Wood by Machinery, was continued throughout the evening. 

Exception was taken to the Author's preference for the wood framing 
generally used in America. It was admitted, that whilst it was new it 
might be sufficiently steady, and might absorb or neutralise the vibra- 
tion: but it was asserted that the screws soon worked loose, the joints 
became slack, and the framing trembled. On the other hand, however, 
cast-iron framing was more durable, the joints continued firmly attached, 
and the whole fabric remained steady, it was easy to neutralise the 
vibration by inserting beneath the plummer blocks, sheet lead, or strips 
of wood, which prevented any jarring, and the shafts continued to run 
evenly for a greater length of time. 

The timber most worked in America was soft, and did not require 
such careful working or such a smooth surface as that worked in 
England, where, on account of the higher price of the material, it was 
necessary to avoid cutting any timber to waste. 

Great difficulties had been originally experienced in setting circular 
saws, so as to make them run truly ; but since a soft packing had been 
adopted they could be run at much higher speeds, and the larger plates 
could be made much thinner. It was asserted that none of the American 
circular saws could produce such a good surface on flooring boards as 
could be given to them by the fixed planes, under which the boards 
travelled. It was only necessary to keep the planes in good order, and 
to make the boards travel sufficiently quick. Straight-planing could be 
performed at the rate of 50 ft. to 60 ft. per minute, by fixed planes ; 
whilst the edges of the boards could be worked off square, or be ploughed 
and tongued by circular cutters. The speed of the circular saws in this 
country rarely exceeded 7,500 revolutions per minute; at that speed thin 
saws were worked, whilst those used in America were much thicker. 

A description was given of a simple mode of planing on the timber 
sleepers the seats for the iron railway-chairs. The sleepers were fastened, 
with their faces downwards, upon a carriage, travelling on a small rail- 
way; and two revolving planes, working upwards, cut the seats simul- 
taneously, with perfect precision, both as to depth and parallelism. 

With respect to the forms of the teeth of saws, it was asserted that 
the gullet tooth, with the throats filed bevel alternately on either side, 
did the best work; but on the other hand, it was shown, that although 
that form was excellent for uniform timber, the ordinary " peg" tooth 
was a better form, in case of meeting with any knots or nails ; as, if a 
portion of the peg tooth was accidentally broken, it continued to do its 
work almost as well as before.. 

The " parrot's bill " tooth was generally preferred for circular saws, 
and when cutting soft timber the number of teeth should be reduced. 

At the large establishment of the late Mr. Thomas Cubitt, all the 
sawing was performed by circular saws, and beautiful specimens of work 
were exhibited. The timber could be cut to any angle by saws fixed in 



rising and falling spindles, some of which made as many as 6,000 revolu- 
tions per minute; the men, however, generally preferred about 3,000 
revolutions. Any vibration was very prejudicial to the work, and it 
was essential that every part of the high-speed machinery should be 
perfectly balanced. The question of speed resolved itself into the con- 
sideration of quantity against qualit3 r ; the greater the speed the coarser 
would be the quality of the work done. 

On behalf of American tools it was urged that they were found suffi- 
ciently strong and steady for the work they had to perform. They were 
cheaper, and the wooden frames could be easily and cheaply renewed 
when they became unsteady. The bearings lasted longer than upon iron 
frames. The American saws had fewer teeth than the English, and were 
found to cut cleaner. The teeth were generally filed in triplets, the first 
with a bevel to the left, the second straight, and the third with a bevel 
to the right ; thus they cleared themselves the more readily, and cut 
much cleaner. The rotating cutters were found to take less power for 
a given quantity of work than the stationary planes. 

To this it was replied, that whilst the rotating cutters were sharp, 
they did good work, but they were much sooner worn down than the 
stationary plane, and then the surface produced was ragged. The 
common carpenter's plane was very nearly a perfect instrument, and the 
great object was to produce a machine which should, as nearly as pos- 
sible, imitate its action, and by habit the workmen, in feeding the sta- 
tionary planes, presented the wood to the tool in the manner best suited 
to the quality, and so as to accommodate the cut to the knots. Between 
30,000 ft. to 40,000 ft. of flooring boards could be produced per week with 
a good stationary plane. 

Smart's circular saws were originally about \t\\ in. thick, thus wasting 
much timber. The late Sir Isambard Brunei then introduced the large 
veneer saws, put together in segments ; Holland invented the system of 
packing the saws, and now they could be worked at very high speeds, 
when 36 in. diameter, and only 14 gauge in thickness. It was found 
advantageous to leave a space of 2 in. between the teeth, when the saw 
had its full diameter of 36 in. and when by constant sharpening the 
diameter of the saw decreased, the space between the teeth diminished in 
a regular proportion. 

It was urged that the production of high finish by machinery was a 
difficulty but not an impossibility. Hitherto the study had been to pro- 
duce quantity, and quality of work had been sacrificed to it. It was 
argued that the practice of wood working was not perfect, and that much 
might be done by due attention to the subject. The points which required 
the greatest care were undoubtedly high speed and perfect balance; and 
it was stated that the correct proportion of the speed of travel of work 
to that of the cutters was too generally overlooked. The American 
speed of ^th of an inch travel for each stroke of the cutter, was given as 
applicable for ordinary purposes, but was far too slow a speed for high 
finish. The system of reducing the work, by sawing, as nearly as pos- 
sible to its finished dimensions, was recommended; and the adoption of 
roughing cutters in some cases, and also cutting with the travel of the 
work, instead of against it, were stated to be conducive to high finish. 
The advantages of a solid bed, the proper angles of cutters, steady 
bearings, and cutters highly tempered and kept well sharpened, were 
insisted upon as indispensable to finish. It was urged that the Americans 
had made much more progress than the English in the appliances of 
machinery, and Mr. Whitworth's report was quoted as confirming this 
view ; at the same time it was conceded that the machines which were 
manufactured by Worssam and McDowall were superior in workmanship 
to those of America. 

A case of failure in the wooden frames, constructed in England, was 
said to have arisen from their not having been properly constructed ; 
and it was urged that attention should be given in constructing them, to 
the quality and seasoning of the wood, as well as to the formation of the 
joints, which should not only be dependent on a mortise and tenon, but 
should be shouldered in and firmly secured. If properly constructed 
they were very durable, and they absorbed much of the vibration ob- 
servable in the machines constructed with iron frames. 



December 8th, 1857. 
Robert Stephenson, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 

The paper read was, Account of the Steam Eerry over the Eiver 
Nile at Kaefke Azzayat, Egypt, by Mr. T. Sopwith, M. Inst. C.E. 

This ferry was situated on the line of railway extending from Alex- 
andria to Cairo, and was about midway between those places. It was 
intended to convey, temporarily, until a more permanent and fixed 
structure, now in course of erection, could be completed, the railway 
trains and engines between Kaffre Lais and Kaffre Azzayat, towns 
situated on opposite banks of the Biver Nile. After describing the 
general course of the line from Alexandria to Kaffre Lais — a distance of 
about 65 miles — the author proceeded to delineate the peculiarities of 
the site occupied by the ferry. The river, at the point in question, was 
in a horse-shoe form of about 3 miles in length, and included a tongue 



The Artizan, "1 
January 1, 185K. J 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



13 



of land, little more than a mile in width, along the middle of which the 
Tailway passed. The distance between the fixed platforms, or jetties, at 
the opposite sides of the river was 1,100 ft. 

Ferry-boats guided by chains were in use in several parts of England, 
having been first adopted on a large scale by the late Mr. Kendel. The 
peculiarity of that over the Nile consisted in its having a moveable 
platform to receive the railway trains. 

The several mechanical arrangements of the ferry were directed to 
facilitate the placing on the platforms the engine and carriages com- 
posing a train, with the passengers conveyed by it; to provide sufficient 
power for taking the ferry and its ponderous load across the river in a 
direct line from one jetty" head to the other, and so to arrange the level 
of the ferry platform, as to enable it to coincide, at all times, with the 
line of rails at either side of the river — the variations of level of the 
waters of the Nile amounting to 27 ft. between the high and low Nile. 

The framework rested on a flat-bottomed and shallow barge of oblong 
form, with the corners taken off, no attempt having been made to give 
it the form of a ship. The length of this barge was 80 ft., width 60 ft., 
and height 60 ft. ; the draft of water when loaded was 3 ft. 6 in., and 
when unloaded 3 ft. It was worked by two steam-engines, each of 
15 H.P., placed horizontally on each side, which sufficed to take the ferry 
and its load across the river in about six minutes. The two chains were 
28 ft. apart, and passed just outside the standards. The wheels were 
9 ft. in diameter, and twelve strokes of the engines gave one revolution 
of the wheels. The barge was entirely of wrought iron, and consisted 
of eight transverse main ribs, turned up at each end against the sides of 
■the vessel, and two longitudinal ribs extending from end to end of the 
vessel. Upon these ribs was erected the framework which contained 
the moveable platform, consisting of iron standards, corresponding in 
■number and in position with the ribs, supported, with the exception of 
those at the extremities, on the outer side by diagonal braces, forming 
flying buttresses, resting on the turned-up ends of the cross ribs of the 
barge. These standards were strengthened by horizontal beams and by 
diagonal bracing. The whole framework was surmounted by a rigid 
platform or deck of timber, at an elevation of about 60 ft. above the 
water; and intermediate between this deck and the boat was the move- 
able platform. This platform was composed of eight wrought-iron 
beams, one opposite each standard of the outer frame, covered by timber, 
having upon it a double line of rails, laid on longitudinal sleepers, exactly 
corresponding with the fished extremity of the railways on the jetties. 

The arrangements for effecting the vertical movement of the middle 
platform were very simple : — To the front of each standard there was a 
cast-iron frame, extending from near the bottom of the boat to about 
20 ft. below the top of the great frame. This frame had three vertical 
recesses — the two outer ones having teeth cast in them at intervals of 
6 inches, so as to form racks — and being fixed in position alternately. 
In the middle recess was a strong wrought-iron ladder, with wrought- 
iron rungs at intervals of 3 inches. This ladder moved freely up and 
down the central recess, and was attached at the top to a screw operated 
upon by a capstan. A strong bolt sliding in a cast-iron socket at each 
end of the cross beams of the middle platform was so arranged as to 
work easily into the rack-like recesses. At the end of each beam there 
was also a strong rod jointed at the bottom, and terminating at the top 
in a hook, so as to lay hold of the rungs of the ladder. Whilst one man 
on the middle platform worked the bolts and adjusted the hooked rod, 
another on the upper ptatform turned the capstan, and thus the platform 
was raised or lowered, by intervals or steps, of 3 inches at a time. The 
last length of rails on the jetties was placed on a hinged platform, so 
that an exact coincidence of level could always be ensured. Simple 
means were adopted to ensure the simultaneous action of all the cap- 
stans, so that the intermediate platform should be moved uniformly. 

The ferry had been in operation for the last eighteen months with 
perfect success. It was designed by the Engineer-in-Chief of the line, 
Mr. R. Stephenson, M.P., President, and the several parts of the 
structure were manufactured at the works of Messrs. Stephenson and 
Co., at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and afterwards fitted together on the spot 
for Mr. Edward Price, the contractor for the railway. 

' In the discussion further details were given of the construction and 
method of working the ferry; the cost was stated to have been £18,000, 
including the jetties at both ends, carried on Mitchell's screw piles, with 
projecting cylinders at the extremities; the method of sinking the 
cylinders was by Hughes' pneumatic plan of using a " plenum " instead 
of a vacuum; the mode of attaching the chains on the two shores was 
by having weights rising and falling within a cylinder at each extremity, 
to compensate for the drag upon the chains. The plain parallelogram 
form had been adopted because it was the best for giving great flotation, 
and affording that stability which was so necessary when the weight 
was at times raised high above the surface of the river, as at the times 
of low Nile. Speed was not an object when the traversing could be 
effected in six minutes which, in a line of 140 miles in length, was a 
mere fraction of the duration of the journey. Objections had been raised 
to delays which had occurred at the ferry, but it was shown that they 



were not to be imputed to any defects in the construction of the machine 
or in the manner of working it; but they were due entirely to the 
obstinacy and want of practical knowledge displayed in the general 
arrangements for the goods and passenger traffic of the railway — defects 
which, in fact, pervaded everything in Egypt. 

It was for some time the custom on the arrival of the train at the 
ferry to make the passengers alight from the carriages, to put them into 
a steam-boat, convey them across the river, and oblige them to climb up 
the muddy banks to rejoin the railway carriages, which had meanwhile 
been conveyed across by the steam ferry in " empty grandeur." This 
was only equalled by the too common custom of obliging thousands of 
" fellahs " and their families, carrying all their worldly gear with them, 
when on their compulsory migrations as labourers on Government works, 
to walk for days parallel with the railway, along which they could have 
been so cheaply, and certainly more humanely conveyed. If the human 
race was not much considered in the Egyptian Railway arrangements, 
the goods traffic was not more attended to when cotton, which could 
be carried for two pence per ton, was charged fifteen pence, in order to 
force it to be still brought down by the Nile boats. As an illustration of 
the mode of management of the line, it was stated that at one period 
there was only one train each way every other day, although the natives 
had evinced a great desire to travel, and the line connected towns con- 
taining large populations. A hope was expressed that contact with the 
energetic engineers, in the service of the Pacha, would in due time break 
down such dilatory habits and perverse adherence to antiquated customs, 
and that the benefits anticipated from the establishment of the railway 
would be realised. 

In the construction of the machinery of the ferry great credit was 
awarded to the late Mr. C. H. Wild and Mr. Dempsey for the details of 
the machinery; to Mr. George Robert Stephenson for the method of 
lifting the platforms; and to Mr. Rouse and Mr. McLaren for putting 
together and erecting the whole and making it work so thoroughly well. 

Before settling the design, the floating bridges invented and con- 
structed by the late Mr. Rendel, at Plymouth and at Portsmouth, were 
carefully studied, and the parts most suited for the conditions of the 
Nile ferry were copied; these conditions were, however, so peculiar, that 
they rendered necessary a design of an entirely novel character, in which 
it was imperative to guide and control the passage across a rapid river 
with such precision as to bring the extremities of the rails together to 
pass the heavy railway carriages without difficulty. Such conditions 
were very different from those of floating bridges into which road car- 
riages were drawn by their own horses, or were easily pushed by a few 
men, and of passengers who walked on board and on shore again. Thus 
no parallel could be established between the two adaptations of the same 
principle. 

It was urged that these floating bridges were well adapted to certain 
positions in India, and a hope was expressed that when tranquillity was 
restored, these and other similarly useful works would be authorised by 
the Government. 

It was objected that these steam ferries, although they were adapted 
for this precise position, could not be advantageously employed in India, 
where the rivers were numerous, and were frequently crossed by the 
railways ; it was, therefore, contended that it would be undesirable that 
this Institution should appear to recommend the system generally. To 
this it was replied that good engineers did not adopt or apply systems 
of this kind indiscriminately, but used special machines for the situa- 
tions to which they were fitted. The objections to the employment of 
these steam ferries, as not being adapted to the rivers of India, were 
easily shown to be ill-founded; it had not been contemplated to use them 
on the numerous small rivers, or on those which became torrents during 
the rainy season and were dry during the summer, but the system was 
well adapted to very wide rivers, where there was always plenty of 
water, and where the construction of permanent bridges would be dis- 
proportionately expensive — in this early stage of Indian railways. 



December 15, 1857. 

Robert Stephenson", Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

The Report of the Council for the past Session, which was read, 
stated, that the Indian mutiny had, for the moment, interrupted the 
progress of public works in that country, whilst the monetary crisis 
throughout Europe and in the United States had arrested nearly all pro- 
fessional occupation. Under these circumstances there were, compara- 
tively, but few events to notice. Allusion was, however, made to several 
undertakings which had occupied the attention of Civil Engineers during 
the preceding twelve mouths, including the unfortunate failure in the 
attempt to lay the submarine electric telegraph cable between this 
country and the United States; and the hope was expressed that this 
daring enterprise would be completed next year. 

Meanwhile the electric cables between Cagliari and Malta, and between 
Malta and Corfu, had been successfully submerged, in spite of the great 
depths of the channels, and thus another considerable step towards 



14 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



r The Artizan, 
L January 1, 18J8. 



shortening tlie period of communicating between Great Britain and her 
Indian possessions had been accomplished. In connexion with this inte- 
resting topic, mention was made of the project, brought forward by Sir 
Macdonald Stephenson, Assoc. Inst., C.E., and Mr. J. C. Marshman, M.P., 
under a firman granted to Mr. Lionel Gisborne (Assoc. Inst., E.C), of a 
submarine telegraph to India by way of and along the Eed Sea. It was 
intended to take the messages at Alexandria, convey them by the wires 
of the Suez railway (a privilege conceded by the Viceroy), to lay down a 
series of submarine cables from Suez to Aden, and thence to Eas-el-had, 
on the Persian Gulph, so arranging the intermediate stations that the 
unbroken length of each cable should not exceed 500 miles. Thence to 
Kurrachee, being only 400 miles across the Ocean, where a junction 
would be made with the existing Indian telegraphs. The entire length 
of cable between Suez and Kurrachee would not be more than 4,000 
miles, and the cost, it was believed, would not exceed £700,000. 

Another great work was the Leviathan steam-ship, constructed by Mr. 
Scott Kussell (M. Inst. C.E.), under the direction of Mr. Brunei, V.P., 
which, being now within reach of the water, there was good reason to 
believe, would be safely floated off the " ways " during the next high 
tides. 

Among the works in an advanced state, the bridge erecting by Mr. 
Brunei, V.P., on the Cornwall Railway, for carrying the line across the 
River Tamar, at Saltash, near Plymouth, was prominently alluded to. 
This bridge, including the land openings, would be about 2,200 feet in 
length, and would consist of nineteen openings, two of 455 feet span each, 
and the others varying from 70 feet to 93 feet in span. The latter were 
formed of simple wrought iron girders; but the two main openings were 
to be spanned by longitudinal beams, suspended by long-linked tension 
chains, rendered rigid by vertical struts and diagonal bracing, from 
arched tubes of wrought-iron plates. The transverse section of these 
tubes was elliptical, the horizontal axis being 16 ft. 9 in. in length, and 
the vertical axis 12 ft. Each tube with its chains and suspended road- 
way would weigh about 1,080 tons. The first was floated on the 1st of 
September of this year, was conveyed upon pontoons to its site, and was 
placed upon the piers in about two hours. It was now being lifted by 
hydraulic presses, and the process was progressing very satisfactorily. 

The new landing-stage at Liverpool, which had been recently com- 
pleted from the designs of Sir William Cubitt, at a cost of about 
£110,000, was supported by 63 pontoons of a rectangular form, 49 of 
which were 80 ft. long and 10 ft. wide, and two at the extremities, 12 ft. 
wide and the same length; the remaining 12 were 96 ft. long and 10 ft. 
wide, so as to provide additional strength and floatation at the points where 
the four bridges, communicating with the quay, were attached to the 
stage. These pontoons were crossed at right angles by five wrought 
iron beams, or keelsons, each 1,000 ft. long; and these again were covered 
with strong cross-beams, 6 in. thick, and planked over with planks, form- 
ing a rectangular deck, 1,000 ft. in length, and 80 ft. in width, slightly 
curved in its breadth, being higher in the centre than at the sides 
throughout its whole length. This landing-stage had been in use for 
about five months, and appeared to give general satisfaction. 

A further important section of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, 
now constructing by Messrs. Peto, Brassey, and Betts, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Alexander Ross, had been opened for traffic; so that the 
total length of the main line was now nearly 850 miles, with several 
branches. The piers of the Victoria Tubular-bridge, which was to 
span the River St. Lawrence, were fast progressing; the two land abut- 
ments and fourteen of the piers having been completed, and one of the 
wrought iron tubular girders was already in position. When completed, 
this bridge, which had been designed by Mr. R. Stephenson, M.P., Presi- 
dent, would be nearly two miles in length, and would consist of twenty-five 
openings, spanned by tubes of wrought iron, like those of the Britannia 
Bridge. 

_ In connexion with this line of railway an arrangement had been orga- 
nised by Mr. S. P. Bidder, the general manager, by which passengers of 
all classes _ could be booked through from all the principal emigration 
ports of this country, or the Continent, to their several destinations, in 
any part of Canada or the United States. This facility had proved to 
be a great boon to emigrants. 

The Rivington Waterworks of the Liverpool Corporation, constructed 
by Mr. Hawksley, M. Inst. C.E., were brought into operation in the early 
part of the present year. The works consisted of several impounding 
reservoirs, two of which had embankments of nearly 100 ft. high, and 
two others with embankments of about 50 ft. high. These reservoirs 
held about 3,200,000,000 gallons, and were intended to deliver about 
14,000,000 gallons per day, to the inhabitants of Liverpool, and 9,000,000 
gallons per day to the mill-owners and others whose interests were 
affected by the works. After being stored, the water was passed through 
a cast-iron main-pipe of 44 in. diameter, and 23 miles in length. Great 
difficulties were encountered in constructing the works, in consequence of 
the variable character of the ground upon which the main embankments 
and other retaining works had to be constructed. In was deemed neces- 
sary, in several instances, to excavate the puddle trenches to depths of 
50, 60, and even 70 ft. below the surface of the ground. The cost of the 



works, land, parliamentary, and local inquiries, had reached about 
£750,000: but of this sum it was estimated that £150,000 had been ex- 
pended upon, and in consequence of, the contentions of the local authori- 
ties. In addition to this outlay, the purchase and improvement of the 
works of the two companies by which Liverpool was formerly supplied 
with water, had amounted to about £850,000. Hence the total cost, to 
the present time, of providing water for the inhabitants of Liverpool and 
its neighbourhood, numbering altogether about 500,000 persons, was 
upwards of one million and a half sterling, or somewhat more than 
£3 per head. The two works together were, however, capable of sup- 
plying 20 gallons per head per diem to 1,000,090 of people. 

The supply of water for Glasgow was now being furnished from Loch 
Katrine by very extensive works, designed and executed under the 
direction of Mr. Bateman (M. Inst. C.E.), who, it was hoped, would give 
to the Institution an account of this large undertaking. 

The Bombay AVaterworks, under Mr. Conybeare, M. Inst. C.E., were 
rapidly approaching completion. They were chiefly remarkable for the 
large population — 700,000 persons — supplied from a single establishment ; 
the reservoir, or artificial lake, at Vehar, 14 miles distant, nearly 1,400 
acres area, with a maximum depth of 80 feet. It was formed by dam- 
ming up three outlets of the central basin of the Island of Salsette; the 
rapidity of execution, and the economy of construction of the works, 
were also deserving of attention. The works were on the gravitating 
principle, and the water was to be conveyed to Bombay by a double line 
of conduit pipes of cast-iron. 

Very extensive works were now in progress, under'the direction of 
Mr. G. P. Bidder, V.P., and Mr. George Robert Stephenson, M. Inst. C.E., 
for the Netherlands Land Enclosure Company, with the object of re- 
claiming a tract of land which had been inundated in the 17th century 
by the overflowing of the Eastern Scheldt, near Bergen-op-Zoom. The 
Act of Concession granted by the Government, conveyed to the Company 
a freehold lease for 99 years, stipulating, in return for the permission, to 
reclaim 35,000 acres, that there should be constructed a barrage or bank 
across the Eastern Scheldt, so as to close up the passage on the east side 
of the Island of South Bevelands; a ship canal 18 ft. deep across the 
Island, with locks, 50 ft. wide, swing bridges, harbours, piers, &c, so as 
to compensate for the closing of a portion of the Scheldt. The barrage 
would be about 2| miles in length, and eventually the proposed railway, 
connecting Dusseldorf with Flushing, would run upon it. In 1856 the 
first polder of an area of 1,100 acres was successfully enclosed ; during 
the present year another polder, containing 1,700 acres had been re- 
claimed, and in future annual enclosures would be effected. The land 
so reclaimed was of a most fertile quality, and large crops of Colza had 
already been produced on the first polder. 

The principal papers read during the Session were then noticed, and 
it was remarked that as usual the discussions occupied a longer time 
than the reading of the papers, and would be found to add greatly to the 
interest of the Minutes of Proceedings. 

The members were strongly urged to continue to present copies of 
scientific and professional works for the Library, without which its utility 
for reference and consultation could not be maintained. 

The deceases of the members during the year were announced to have 
been: — Messrs. A. H. Bampton and J. Potter, members; Messrs. T. 
Clark, G. Cowen, D. S. Dykes, G. Hennet, J. Home, J. Hunter, W. 
Parsons, M. K. Smart, G. H. Saunders, and G. Wilkie, associates; and 
Messrs. T. E. Ainger and G. Ellis, graduates. The memoirs of these 
gentlemen were given in the Appendix to the Report. The resignations 
of two members and eight associates were announced, and it was stated 
that the effective increase during the year (after deducting the deceases 
and resignations), amounted to 45, whilst the total number on the books 
was 836 members of all classes. 

The statement of the receipts and expenditure showed that there was 
a balance of upwards of £700 in the hands of the Treasurer; and that 
the financial position was in every respect satisfactory, the printers' and 
lithographers' accounts for all the minutes issued up to this date having 
been discharged, and there being now no liabilities outstanding. 

During the year the second part of volume 10, and the whole of volume 
13, of the Minutes of Proceedings, had been published and issued. There 
now only remained, to complete the series of fifteen volumes, extending 
over twenty years, the second parts of volumes 7 and 8. Volume 16, for 
the past session, was nearly ready for issue. 

It was stated that during the vacation it had been determined to recog- 
nise the services of Mr. Charles Manby (as the Secretary during eighteen 
years) to the Institution, by the presentation of a testimonial. The pro- 
position was eagerly received, and such an amount was promptly sub- 
scribed as enabled the Committee to devote a portion to the purchase of 
a Clock and pair of Candelabra, which, with a check for £2,000, were 
presented to Mr. Manby by the President, in the presence of the mem- 
bers, in the Theatre of the Institution. In returning thanks for this 
mark of friendship and good will, Mr. Manby requested permission to 
devote some portion of the amount to the establishment of an annual 
premium, with which he begged that his name might be associated. He 
had accordingly transferred to the Institution the sum of £200, in 5 per 






The Artizau, 
January 1,1858. 



] 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 



15 



cent, debentures, the interest of which (£10 per annum) it was proposed 
to award to the authors of papers read at the Meeting, to be denominated 
the " Manby Premium." 

It was announced, also, that the Eeport of the Committee conducting 
this matter would, with the names of the contributors, be published in 
the volume of the Minutes of Proceedings for the past session. 

It was also stated that Mr. George Bitherdou, who had for upwards of 
fifteen years filled the situation of Cashier and Collector, was now com- 
pelled by failing health to retire, and it was recommended that a pension 
of £50 per annum should be voted to Mr. Eitherdon, in recognition of his 
long services to the Institution. 

The report concluded by impressing upon the members redoubled zeal 
on behalf of an Institution which had exercised and must ever possess 
such beneficial influence on the profession of civil engineering. 

After the reading of the report, Telford Medals were presented to 
Messrs. D. K. Clark, E. Hunt, E.B.S. ; G. Eennie, P.E.S.; and W. B. 
Adams; and Council Premiums of Books to P. E. Window, G. B. Bruce, 
A. S. Lukin, C. E. Conder, W. Bell, P. E. Conder, and T. Dunn. 

The thanks of the Institution were unanimously voted to the President 
for his attention to the duties of his office ; to the Vice-Presidents and 
other members and associates of Council, for their co-operation with the 
President, and constant attendence at the meetings; as also to the Audi- 
tors of the accounts and the Scrutineers of the ballot, for their services. 
A special vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. C. Manby, Secretary, for 
the manner in which he had performed the duties of his office, his con- 
stant attention to the individual wishes of the members, and for his 
liberal donation to form a fund for an Annual Premium, which it was 
resolved should be permanently marked by the establishment of a 
" Manby Premium." 



REVIEWS. 

Metropolis Management ; or a Few Words on the Present Position of the 
Local Boards and the Public generally, in reference to the Gas and Water 
Companies ; with Suggestions for the Future. By Samuel Hughes, 
P.G.S., Civil Engineer, author of " Treatises on Gas and Water Works." 
London: Edward Stanford. 1858. 

This pamphlet consists of two parts, the first relating to the gas sup- 
ply of the metropolis, and the second relating to the water supply. 

The author reviews the effects, present and prospective, of the recent 
combination entered into by the gas companies to parcel out the metro- 
polis amongst themselves. He points out the effects of this combination, 
■with reference to the public lighting of the streets, and quotes many 
cases of great inequality in the charges made for lighting various 
parishes in the metropolis. The authorities of Marylebone, and several 
other large parishes, have been holding meetings to complain of the 
increased charges imposed by the gas companies since this combination. 
But Mr. Hughes shows that the district of Westminster has probably 
suffered more from the combination than most of the other London 
parishes. He points out also the injury, in the shape of increased price 
and diminished quality, which will probably fall on the private con- 
sumers, in consequence. of the combination of the gas companies. Under 
these circumstances he calls on the various district boards, established 
under the authority of the Metropolis Management Act, to do one of 
two things— either to establish parochial gas works, or unite in obtain- 
ing an Act of Parliament to control the gas companies, in a variety 
of ways, in order that the public may have efficient protection, and 
such combinations be prevented in future. Eeference is made to the 
brilliant results attained by the Corporation Gas Works, in Manchester, 
which have been established more than forty years, and though selling 
their gas at Is. per 1,000 feet less than the price charged for similar gas 
in London, have yielded a profit of £30,000 a year, which profit has been 
laid out in procuring a new water supply, and establishing museums, 
public halls, and parks. 

The portion of the pamphlet devoted to water supply comprises a 
review of the principal provisions of the Metropolis Water Act, 1852, 
and shows how very important these provisions are for enabling con- 
sumers to obtain a constant supply of water at high pressure, an 
improvement which would at once supersede both fire engines and fire 
insurances. 

The beneficial effects of these improvements are illustrated by refer- 
ence to Amsterdam, Manchester, and other places ; and the author 
strongly urges the necessity for a combined effort to secure them for the 
metropolis. 

The pamphlet contains some very valuable statistics on the subject of 
street watering, and shows from returns by the water companies, and 
from other sources, the great inequality at present prevailing in the 
prices charged by different companies. Actual experiments during an 
entire year have been made in the Westminster district to determine the 
quantity really used for street watering ; and it appears from these 



experiments that most of the London parishes are paying at least double 
the value of the water supplied to them. 

The greatest ignorance as to the quantity actually necessary for street 
watering appears to prevail, both amongst the water companies and the 
local boards. 

The experiments in Westminster have been made by Mr. Arntz, the 
surveyor to the Westminster District Board of Works ; and we have 
thought the subject of so much importance at the present juncture as to 
justify us in giving Mr. Arntz's report at length in our next. 

On the whole, we can highly recommend Mr. Hughes' pamphlet to the 
notice of all who are interested in the economics of town management. 
The extensive information it contains, as well as the valuable sugges- 
tions, are well worthy an attentive study by members of metropolitan 
boards and their officers, as well as by all who are interested in muni- 
cipal affairs, either in London or the provinces. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, Sec. ; Mining Becords 

and Mineral Statistics of Great Britain and Ireland for the Year 1856. 

By Eobert Hunt, P.E.S. Longmans. 1857. 

The extraordinary increase which has taken place in the productions 
of the mining industry of the United Kingdom during the year 1856, is 
one of the most remarkable things which has come under our notice ; 
and when we instance the enormous amount to which the annual pro- 
duction of coal has reached, viz., 66J millions of tons, the vast import- 
ance of accurate returns of the products of mining industry will be 
readily appreciated. 

Mr. Robert Hunt, whose world-wide fame as a philosopher, and well- 
known accuracy as a statistician, needs no mention here, has for some 
years past prepared annually a statistical account of some of the mi- , 
neral resources of the British Empire. The present volume, for the 
year 1856, contains returns as to tin, copper, lead and silver, zinc, iron 
pyrites, arsenic, nickel, uranium, and iron, amongst the metals ; and of 
coals, salt, clay, and building stones, and other productions raised or 
quarried out of the earth. These possess considerable interest, as, in 
addition to the quantities of these materials produced, much informa- 
tion, which will be found available in many respects, is interspersed 
throughout the work ; and not the least so will be found the only 
complete Collieries' Directory which we ever saw, or which has, we 
believe, ever been completed. This gives the names and districts of 
the various Government inspectors of mines throughout the empire, and 
the number of the pits, and the names of the owners, and the situation 
of each of the works. 

The Carpenter's and Joiner's Assistant, §-e. Blackie and Son, London, &c. 

Parts I to 4. 

We have received four parts of a new work published by Messrs. 
Blackie and Son, which is got up in the style of excellence for which 
they are justly celebrated. How for two shillings per number the costly 
work now before us (if the parts are fair specimens) can be sold at a 
profit, is a marvel, as they each contain five or six copper-plate engrav- 
ings, executed in first-rate style, by such eminent artists as W. J. Lowry, 
J. H. Le Keux, and W. A. Beever. The wood cuts, too, are excellent in 
their way. 

Of the textual portion of the work already published we are able to 
express an equally favourable opinion as to the style of typography, and 
the quality of the matter. 

In the first number Practical Geometry is treated of in an accurate and 
masterly manner, by which the student is fully and fairly inducted into 
that important branch of mathematical science which treats of the pro- 
perties and proportions of bodies, and of the combinations of lines, upon 
which the correct construction and development of figures depend. 

In the next and following number the construction and use of drawing 
instruments are described ; and in the fourth number the third division 
of the scheme of the work is treated of, under the title of stereography, 
or the projections of solids, and the linear composition of the sections and 
boundary lines of solid figures and constructions. 

Now the works of Peter Nicholson, and other authors of treatises on 
carpentry and joinery, useful as they have been in advancing these prac- 
tical arts to their present eminent position, are found by the strident of 
the present day to be wanting in many respects, and, unlike the more 
modern treatises on those branches of mechanics, applied to works of 
construction in metal, steam machinery, &c., they have not kept pace 
with the advancements which have progressively (but perhaps not so 
rapidly) been made in the application of wood to structural works ; 
hence the opportune appearance of the present publication will be hailed 
as a boon by the student in these branches of practical mechanics. 

Rudimentary Treatise on the Marine Engine, and on Steam Vessels, and the 
Screw as a Propeller. By Eobert Murray, C.E. Third Edition. 
John Weale. 1858. 

We strongly recommend this new edition of Mr. Eobert Murray's 
excellent and justly celebrated "Eudimentary Treatise on the Marine 
Engine " to all classes of our readers, as they will find much that is 



16 



List of New Boohs and New Editions of Books. 



[" The Abtizaw, 

[.January J, 1858. 



valuable and interesting therein, Mr. Murray having made very many 
useful additions relating to development of screw propulsion, and other 
matters of general interest to the engineer and student. 

A Practical Treatise on Cast and Wrought Iron Bridges and Girders, $'c. 

By William Humber, Assoc. Inst. C.E., &c. Spon, Bucklersbury. 

Parts 23 and 24. 

These are the concluding parts of this valuable treatise. The excel- 
lence of the illustrations, as to selections of subjects and the style of 
execution, have perfectly justified the commendation we bestowed upon 
them in noticing the first parts of Mr, Humber's work ; and if, as we 
could have desired, a larger amount of equally well-selected textual 
matter, of a thoroughly practical character, had been given, we fear the 
original limits within which the author pledged himself to his subscribers 
to complete the work, would have been considerably exceeded ; but we 
trust the subject will be hereafter treated in continuation, and in the 
direction we have indicated. 

On Iron Shipbuilding, with Practical Examples and Details, in Twenty- 
four plates ; together with text, containing description, explanations, 
and general remarks, for the use of ship owners and ship builders. 
By John Grantham, C.E., Consulting Engineer and Naval Architect. 
John Weale, London. 1858. 

The steady progress which iron, as a material for shipbuilding, has 
made within the last few years, has rendered it a matter of surprise that 
no thoroughly practical and comprehensive work on the construction 
and build of iron ships has been published. 

When, in 1842, Mr. John Grantham's address to the Liverpool 
Polytechnic Society, of which he was the president, brought prominently 
before the meeting the merits and capabilities of iron as a material for 
shipbuilding, the interest which attached to that portion of Mr. Gran- 
tham's address was extensively acknowledged, and resulted in a very 
general request that the Paper should be published in the form of a 
pamphlet, accompanied with illustrations of the mode in which iron 
vessels had been built ; and this work served very materially to awaken 
public attention more extensively to the merits of iron ships, and helped 
to dispel the cloud of prejudice which enveloped the minds of very many 
ship owners, and others who had been taught to believe that " there 
was nothing like timber: " at least, for the construction of ships. 

To say that the address of the president of the Liverpool Polytechnic 
Society, in 1842, and the publication of the substance of that address 
subsequently by Mr. Grantham, in the form of a pamphlet, have mate- 
rially advanced iron shipbuilding, would be saying but little as com- 
pared with the practical benefits which have been effected by them ; and 
whilst numerous books of more or less practical value have been pub- 
lished, about the kindred improvement connected with naval architec- 
ture and steam navigation (which came before the public about the same 
period), viz., the screw propeller, iron shipbuilding seems to have been 
left to take its chance amidst the busy throng of practical men engaged 
in that great branch of the industry of this country, to which it almost 
exclusively and more particularly belongs. Eor it must be presumed that 
they have been too much occupied with the practical operations of their 
businesses to permit of their employing their time in writing upon the 
art in which they are engaged, and so we have been prevented from 
benefiting by a thorough exposition of the various improvements which 
have been introduced in the application of iron to such constructions. 
It therefore affords us much pleasure to find that Mr. Grantham has 
again come forward in the same cause, as no man is better able to handle 
this subject in a masterly and extended manner, if his professional en- 
gagements would but permit of his affording the time to the treatment 
of this important branch of industry. 

Before proceeding further with our notice of Mr. Grantham's new 
work, we would take the opportunity of suggesting that it is very im- 
portant, that, whilst many of the absurd regulations imposed by Lloyd's 
upon the builders and owners of iron ships should be revised, some strin- 
gent measures should be adopted with reference to the qualities of iron 
permitted to be used, more particularly in the construction of ocean 
going vessels, as we find that it is not an uncommon xjractice amongst 
the builders of iron ships to employ iron with fictitious marks, and we 
fear, not unfrequently with forged brands, to the damage of the reputa- 
tion of the more honest of their trade, and often seriously to the preju- 
dice of the progress of iron shipbuilding. 

Mr. Grantham, in publishing his present work, treating of iron ship- 
building, has adopted what appears to us an excellent idea, as, by giving 
the text in a small form, and at a cheap price, his book may be placed in 
the hands of those to whom it will be exceedingly valuable — the artizans 
practically engaged in shipbuilding, as well as those for whose use it is 
dedicated, and to whom it is addressed, namely, ship owners and ship 
builders. The size of the volume of text is demy 12mo, and is uniform with 
Weale's excellent " Rudimentary Series." The plates, twenty-four in num- 
ber, many of them of a very large size, and drawn with great accuracy 
to a large scale, form a complete series of illustrations, not alone of the 
practical methods of construction adopted in the building of iron ships, 



and exhibiting the details of every part of such structures, and the 
various improvements which practical skill and experience have sug- 
gested, but also the forms and proportions of the various kinds of iron 
used in the framing — the modes of jointing and rivetting the plates— of 
forming the intersections of one series of plates with another — these 
are all detailed with the accuracy which alone could be delineated by a 
thoroughly practical and experienced designer and constructor of iron 
ships. 

But Mr. Grantham, not satisfied with describing and delineating 
the minutia?, connected with the construction of the hulls of iron 
ships, gives a series of illustrations of the application of the same 
material to the construction of masts and spars ; and that his treatment 
of the subject shall be as complete as possible, he has given several 
sheets containing illustrations of very complete and admirably arranged 
machines for plate-bending, shaped bar and angle iron cutting, and 
punching and shearing, and drilling and counter sinking machines ; 
and also for the purpose of ensuring that the angle and other irons used 
in the framing shall not be damaged for want of knowledge as to the 
best construction of furnace in which they may be heated, Mr. Grantham 
has given views of an air-furnace designed for the purpose ; and the 
same solicitude has been exhibited for the proper and economic heating 
of the rivets, and a very good arrangement of rivet hearth is also 
illustrated. 

Eor rivetting by steam-power, Mr. Grantham has selected for an 
illustration of this class of machine Garforth's steam-rivetting machine, 
which is known to most of our readers; and, as if to "clinch" the 
practical and manufacturing part of the subject, Mr. Grantham, after 
illustrating cotters and pins, plate hoists, clams, bears, and dollies, rivet 
tongs, and other similar tools, gives a series of illustrations of caulking 
tools, and rivetting and inside and outside closing-hammers. 

There are also a variety of other plates, all exceedingly valuable, as 
completely illustrating the subject ; and we regret the very late period 
at which we received Mr. Grantham's exceedingly useful book, as, after 
having read it with great care, and minutely inspected the practical 
examples and details illustrated in the twenty-four large plates accom- 
panying the text, we are unable this month to devote further space for 
a suitable notice of it, which we must reserve until next month, and 
conclude for the present by strongly recommending to our readers Mr. 
Grantham's work on iron shipbuilding. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND NEW EDITIONS OF BOOKS. 

ART TREASURES EXAMINER : a Practical, Critical, and Historical Record of the 
Art Treasures Exhibition at Manchester in 1857. Folio (Manchester), pp. 300, cloth, 10s- 
(W. H. Smith.) 

ARTHUR (R.)— A Treatise on the Use of Adhesive Gold Foil. By Robert Arthur. 8vo. 
(Philadelphia), pp. 86, cloth, London, 6s. 

BARRUEL (G.)— Traite de chimie technique; appliquee aux arts et a l'industrie, a la 
pharmacie et a l'agriculture. Tom. III. 8vo. (Paris), 6s. 6d. 

BEUDANT (F. S.)— Mineralogie et geologie. 12mo. (Paris), 5s. 

CAMERON (C. A.)— Chemistry of Agriculture : the Food of Plants, including the Com- 
position, Properties, and Adulteration of Manures. By Charles A. Cameron. Post 8vo. 
(Dublin), pp. 146, cloth, 3s. 6d. (Simpkin.) 

CARPENTER'S Mechanical Philosophy, Astronomy, and Horology : an Exposition of the 
Properties of Matter, Description of the Heavenly Bodies, &c. &c. Post 8vo, 181 illus- 
trations on wood, cloth, 5s. (Bohn's Scientific Library.) 

DELAUNAY(Cl).)— Cours elementaire mecanique, theorique-et appliquee. 4th edit. 18mo. 
(Paris), 7s. 

GREGORY (TV.)— A Handbook of Chemistry, Inorganic and Organic, for the use of Stu- 
dents. By William Gregory. 4th edit, post 8vo, pp. 1030, cloth, 18s. (Walton.) 

JAMES (J.)— History of the Worsted Manufacture in England from the Earliest Times : 
with Introductory Notices of the. Manufacture among the Ancient Nations, and during 
the Middle Ages. By John James. 8vo, pp. 650, cloth, 25s. (Longman.) 

JEANS (H. W.)— Navigation and Nautical Astronomy. Part 1, containing Rules for 
finding the Latitude and Longitude, and the "Variation of the Compass. By H. W. Jeans. 
12mo, pp. 284, cloth 4s. (Longman.) 

PHILLIPS (P. L.)— The Principles of Agriculture, especially Tropical, and of Organic 
Chemistry, familiarly treated. By P. Lovell Phillips. 8vo, pp. 2U6, cloth, 7s. 6d^ 
(Smith and Elder.) 

ROGERS (.S. B.)— An Elementary Treatise on Iron Metallurgy up to the Manufacture of 
Puddled Bars, built upon the Atomic System of Philosophy ; the Elements operated 
upon being estimated according to Wollaston's Hydrogen Scale of Equivalents, &c. to.. 
By Samuel Baldwyn Rogers. 8vo, pp. 528, cloth 25s. ^Simpkin.) 

♦SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN— An Illustrated Journal of Art, Science, and Mechanics. Vol. 
12, from September 13, 1856, to September 5, 1857, folio (New York), pp. 418, half- 
bound, London, 18s. 

♦SILLIMAN (B. and B.)— The American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by 
Prosessor B. Silliman, B. Silliman, jun., and James D. Dana, in connexion with Pro- 
fessor Asa Gray, of Cambridge ; Professor Louis Agassiz, of Cambridge ; Dr. Wolcott 
Gibbs, of New York. Vol. XXIV. (whole number, 74) ; 2nd Series, No. 72, November 
1857, with Four Plates. 8vo, pp. 149, sewed, 5s. 

WEALF.'S Builder's and Contractor's Price-Book for 1858 : containing the latest Prices 
for Work in all Branches of the Building Trade, &c. ice. 3rd edit., 12mo, pp. 286, 
cloth, 4s. (Weale.) 

WEIR (H. F.)-Land Measuring Tables, showing the Area in Acres, Roods, Poles, and 
Hundred Parts of a Pole of any Survey, Field, or Portion of Land measured by the 
Chain. By H. F. Weir. 12mo. (Glasgow) pp. 76, cloth, 2s. 6d. (Hall.) 



American Works, 



The Artizan, "1 
January 1, 1858. J 



On some of the recent Boiler Explosions. 



17 



ON SOME OF THE RECENT BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 

The frequency of boiler explosions, which of late have been attended with 
considerable loss of life, demands the serious attention of the Government, as 
to the necessity for the appointment of Inspectors of Steam Machinery, whose 
duty it shall be periodically, but at brief intervals, to inspect and report upon 
the condition of steam-boilers and machinery. 

We are adverse to Government interference with the management of private 
property generally ; but the disgraceful and dangerous condition in which pro- 
prietors of steam power allow their boilers to be worked calls for the prompt 
interference of the strong arm of the law to prevent the recurrence of those 
frightful slaughters which have recently taken place. 

Unfortunately, Coroners' juries are, from their constitution and local con- 
nections, generally but ill-suited tribunals for dealing with cases of this 
description ; and we have on too many occasions observed the influences which 
have been brought to bear to prevent the proper and sufficiently strong expres- 
sion of feeling being recorded against offending parties ; and we fear it would 
be exceedingly difficult to obtain a verdict of manslaughter against a negligent 
millowner or proprietor of steam power, however apparent, gross, and criminal 
negligence might really attach to such persons ; but if some miserably under- 
paid and incompetent engine-driver has the misfortune to sacrifice the lives 
of his fellow workmen from his ignorance, inexperience, or want of caution, 
the chances are many of such a verdict against him. 

Is it not disgraceful, that wealthy millowners, manufacturers, and proprietors 
of steam power should, for the sake of so-called economy, employ ill-paid and 
incompetent persons in positions whereby often the lives of hundreds of persons 
are endangered by such accidents, and yet escape scathlessly an official inves- 
tigation by a tribunal bound by the law of the land to do justice, and express 
their conviction of the punishment which should be awarded to such persons 1 

Instance the case of the recent explosion at Huddersfield ; can anything be 
clearer than where the blame should rest ? 

It is only necessary here to refer to the brief account of the accident which 

we have already given, and to give the following extract from the " Leeds 

Mercury," of the report made to the public meeting held for the purpose of 

administering to the wants of the living sufferers by this melancholy accident — 

to show the extent of suffering which it has occasioned. 

The Committee brought a report, which embraced all the cases of the sufferers, excepting 
two, Joseph Lum, the mechanic, and Henry Wrigley, of Brighouse. The latter, we believe, 
is very slightly injured ; but the family of Lum is, we have privately learned, in very poor 
circumstances, a widow being left with three young children by Lum's first wife. They 
are residing at Eipponden. The Committee are doubtless only waiting to obtain satisfac- 
tory information on these points to relieve those who are left without husband and father, 
suffering from the loss of one, the mode of whose death formed one of the most terrible 
incidents in the fearful tragedy. We have thrown the report of the Committee into the 
following form for the sake of brevity and clearness : — 

1. Jesse Firth, 35, engineer, Aspley, widow and three children, 15, 13, and 3 years old ; 
a girl, 13, with arm paralysed. Not a penny in the house. 

2. Elizabeth Hampshire, 20, Aldmondbury, widow, and son a weaver. Very poor, but 
receiving £2 from a funeral brief. 

3. Mary Ann Garlick, 19, Jowitt's-buildings, Castlegate, father, mother, and two children ; 
father in work, but in very delicate health. In a most destitute state. 

4 and 5. Ellen and Hannah Lord, Lascelles Hall, Kirkheaton, father, mother, six 
children: nearly all young. Clothes worn by the family all borrowed. Only 3d. in the 
house, given to the father when coming from the funeral. 

6. Lavinia Crowther, 17, Dock-street, father, mother, four children, 15, 9, 6, 4 ; father 
ill in bed. Money borrowed for the funeral ; in very indigent circumstances. 

7. Hannah Mossley, Aldmondbury, father and four children ; father naturalist and bird 
stuffer. 

8. Sarah Ann Stott, father, mother, and six children. Father and four children, em- 
ployed at the factory now stopped by the explosion. 

9. Joseph Butler, 13, survivor, no information ; left the Infirmary ; his injuries very 
slight. Decent poor people. 

10. Mary Fletcher, 18, Aspley, father, mother, four children ; one child, 11, unable to 
walk. The girl in two clubs ; from one £2 9s. Gd. from the other £5 ; £7 9s. 6d. has been 
received. 

11 . Hannah Umpleby, 15, Almondbury, father and four children ; one at the Infirmary. 
Father a tailor ; all the family out of work. £2 received from funeral brief. 

12. Louisa Umbleby, 19, dangerously ill from her injuries. 

13. Emma Cliffe, 14, Old Post-office yard, father and mother and two daughters : one 
had a narrow escape. Father shoemaker ; family very poor. 

14. Joseph Lum, 34, Ripponden, widow and three children by a former wife. In neces- 
sitous circumstances. 

15. J. Donaldson, Cross Church-street, large family ;3father and son slightly hurt. Still 
employed by Mr. Kaye. 

16. — Donaldson, jnn. 

17. Henry Wrigley, Brighouse, slightly injured. 

18. Benjamin Butterworth, New Ground, Damside, wife and one child. A little money 
saved. 

19. Benjamin J. Shaw, Crosland Moor, wife and three children. 

20. Solomon Widdop, Colne-road, very slightly injured. 

21. Samuel, Ramsden, very slightly injured. 

22. John Beaumont, very slightly injured. 

23. — Oxley, very slightly injured. 

From the "Manchester Examiner," of November 25th, we make the follow- 
ing extract : — 

The Boiler Explosion at Huddersfield. Twelve Lives Lost. — (From our Cor- 
respondent.) — A number of men recommenced searching in the ruins at Kaye's cotton mill, 



Upper Aspley, yesterday morning, and about half-past eleven o'clock they found the 
missing bodies, — those of Jesse Firth, the engineer, and Emma Cliff, of Castlegate, — 
together, under a mass of bricks and stones, not far from where Firth was said to have been 
standing at the time of the explosion. This makes the number of dead, found on and 
around the premises, ten. Of the five persons injured, and removed to the infirmary, two 
died during the night, Elizabeth Hampshire, of Almondbury, and Mary Ann Garlick, of 
Castlegate. Two others in the Infirmary are scarcely expected to recover. The boiler, 
which was of 24 H.P., was manufactured about twelve months since by Messrs. Gledhill, 
Mitchell, and Armitage, boiler makers, Bradley Mills. When first put down, a new smoke- 
burning apparatus was applied, but not being found to answer, the machinery had to be 
altered, and legal proceedings followed with the proprietor of the smoke-burning apparatus. 
The matter in dispute, however, after being referred to arbitration, was privately arranged. 
It appears that the new engine which had been coupled that morning, not starting 
punctually, a number of the working girls came down to see the reason, and some to warm 
themselves, and they were standing near the engine fire at the time of the explosion. One 
of the men engaged in moving the fly-wheel dropped down into a recess under the floor, 
and thus miraculously escaped. Another man was blown into the goit, and at once brought 
one of the dead bodies out of the water. 

For the sake of putting this case fairly before the readers of The Artizan, 

and with a view of making some further remarks upon it, we give the following 

somewhat lengthy extract from the " Manchester Guardian," of December 1st, 

and propose to conclude, for the present, with a few observations upon the 

evidence and the verdict of the jury. 

Yesterday morning the adjourned inquest on the body of Joseph Lum, aged 34, mechanic, 
of Ripponden, who was killed by the explosion of a steam boiler, on the premises of 
Mr. C. G. Kaye, Upper Aspley, Huddersfield (by which twelve persons lost then; lives on 
Monday week), was held in the Huddersfield Guildhall, before Mr. G. Dyson, coroner. 
After evidence had been given as to the finding and identification of the bodies — 

Robert Gledhill, of the firm of Gledhill, Mitchell, and Armitage, Leeds Road, Hudders- 
field, stated that the boiler was refitted at their works seven months ago. It was a Comish 
boiler, 21 ft. long, 5 ft. in diameter, with a fire-box 4 ft. in. long and 2 ft. 11 in. in dia- 
meter, tapering off to 2 ft. 8 in. The sides of the boiler was 3-8ths in. iron, the ends £ in. 
iron. The bottom of the fire-box was 9-16 in. thick, the top 7-16 in. thick. The fore end 
of the boiler was fastened with three gusset stays, two of them being fastened to the outer 
shell, and one from the flue to the end of the boiler. There was only one gusset stay 
rivetted to the outer shell at the other end. The boiler was fitted with a stop-valve 4 in 
diameter ; a glass water-gauge at the front of the boiler ; a common pillar and float water- 
gauge on the top of the boiler ; an outlet pipe to warm the mill, j in. diameter; a 1J in. 
pipe to the force pump ; a safety-valve, 4 in. in diameter, which was placed 4 ft. from the 
centre of the refitted boiler. The safety-valve had a lever 2 ft. 8 in. long, with a weight 
which allowed the safety-valve to rise at a pressure of 40 lbs. to the square inch. There was 
a Ludlam's steam-gauge at the end of the boiler. There was another boiler, and the 
safety-valve was fitted not in the usual place, but so as to act for both boilers, by Mr. Kaye's 
orders, contrary to witness's advice. Witness wanted to put a safety-valve on each boiler, 
and said the other way was not a safe one. Mr. Kaye remarked that they used only one 
boiler at once, and lie would not allow the valve to be put on as witness advised. Witness 
connected the safety-valve and the stop-pipe, a thing he never did before or since. He 
told Mr. Kaye it was not safe, but did not remember the exact words. He told Mr. Kaye 
if the stop-pipe was shut, the safety-valve would be dangerous, but did not remember if 
he said it would not act. Before they took the boiler to Mr. Kaye's it was tried at witness's 
works by hydraulic pressure, and stood a pressure of 183 lbs. to the square inch. It would 
stand a steam pressure of from 40 to 60 lbs. to the square inch. [The valve being brought 
into court], Witness said the stop-valve was shut ; it could not be shut by accident, but 
might have been shut after the explosion.— Cross-examined by Mr. Learoyd : This conver- 
sation took place two years ago, when the boiler was first laid down. The boiler was 
refitted in consequence of the construction of a square fire-box for a smoke-consuming 
apparatus, which prevented some of the rivets being properly tightened ; and when it was 
refitted, after alteration of the fire-box, it was fitted up as before, without anything being 
said to Mr. Kaye of its being dangerous. Mr. Kaye might have said, " If you can make 
one safetv-valve do for botli boilers, do so." 

Mr. Joseph Hopkinson, jun., engineer, stated that he had seen the boiler three weeks 
ago, and he did not see a pressure gauge. The fireman said he did not know what the 
pressure was. He (witness) had then said the fire-box was too large, and of a dangerous 
construction for high-pressure steam. Shortly after the explosion he examined the boiler. 
There was no deficiency of water. The fire-box had collapsed on the under side, as there 
were no stays left fastened to it, while there were two stays left on the crown of the fire- 
box. After explaining the make of the boiler, he said the safety-valve had no connection 
with the boiler ; the only opening for steam was through the stop-valve. The stop-valve 
was screwed doicn, thus preventing egress of steam to the safety-valve ; and there was no 
pressure of steam on the safety-valve. He found the stop-valve himself the next morning 
screwed down. The extent of the pressure of steam on the boiler could not be known, as 
there was no steam-gauge. He found a new valve, of a sliding construction, for the stop- 
page of the engine. This was open, and let the steam into the valve (or steam) chest. 
This condensed steam had to be got rid of before the engine was started, and to let it out 
a tap was fixed into the bottom of the steam-chest. The mechanic put that tap in during 
the dinner hour. When the workman was engaged in drilling the steam-chest to put the 
tap in, the sliding-valve being open, the.steam would come out as soon as the point of the 
drill penetrated the chest, and would prevent the man from working. The only way to 
prevent this escape of steam was to close the stop-valve at the top of the boiler, and 
thus enable the workman to proceed. This stop-valve screwed down would cut off com- 
munication between the boiler and the safety-valve, and would confine the whole of the 
steam in the boiler during the dinner hour. When the engine had to start, the fireman, 
looking at the safety-valve, and not seeing it blow off (which it could not do for the safety- 
valve being screwed down), would fire up to get more steam; this would increase the 
pressure, and burst the boiler. The cause of the explosion was the stop-valve being 
screwed down to enable the workman to insert the tap into the valve (steam) chest. From 
the appearances he had seen, he considered there was a pressure of 75 lbs. to 100 lbs. to 
the square inch at the time of the explosion. Had the safety-valve been in d ; vect com- 
munication with the boiler the explosion would not have taken place. Had the part}- m 
charge of the boiler had an ordinary pressure-gauge to it, the danger would have been 
shown to him ; but as neither of these conditions existed, the explosion occurred. In 
cross-examination, the witness stated that the fireman ought to have had tools to work 
with. He had found masters refusing to fix gauges, &c, up, because of the expense. In 
Lancashire, scarcely a boiler was without a gauge ; in Yorkshire, they were not common ; 
in Newcastle-upon Tvne, and that district, they were scarcely ever met with. 

William Fairbairn, Esq., C.E., F.R.S., of Manchester, stated that he had examined the 
boiler and its adjuncts. He described the formation of the boiler, and remarked that it was 
weak at the ends ; but the explosion had not taken place from that cause : if it had been 
of double strength the explosion would have taken place, in consequence of the faulty 
principle of its construction. The construction of the stop-valve was such that when it 
was closed the communication was cut off, both to safety-valve and engine, from the 
boiler. This valve being closed, and enough steam generated, it was impossible for 
there to be any other result than an explosion. There was no indication of a deficiency 



18 



On some of the recent Boiler Explosions. — Correspondence. 



r The Abtizan, 
L January 1, 1808. 



of water, and in his opinion the boiler hurst first — from its malconstruction in the 
position of the safety-valve introduced for its preservation ; second, from the negligence 
or ignorance of the working engineer (or other person) in closing the steam-valve on 
the top of the boiler, whereby the communication between the safety-valve and its 
interior was effectually closed. The stop-valve could be opened or closed at pleasure, 
and the other valve (the sliding-valve spoken of previously) being out of repair, the 
stop-valve was closed when the engine was stopped, and forgotten. The safety-valve 
was 3| in. in diameter, and was sufficient for the safety of the boiler, if it could have 
opened. His impression was that the flue collapsed first, and then the boiler went. He 
impressed on those present the absolute necessity of having competent persons to take 
charge of steam engines, and showed the necessity of having periodical inspection of boilers, 
as was the case in Manchester and Lancashire generally, by means of an association. 
In cross-examination he said, if the steam had free access to the safety-valve, one safety- 
valve would do for the two boilers ; but it was essential that there should be a stop- 
valve, if one boiler was to work while the other was running. He strongly advised that 
safety-valves should be at the top of the boiler, and unconnected with anything else. 

After the evidence of some mechanics, who had been working at the place, one of whom 
said had he known that the stop-valve was closed he should have opened it, or left the 
premises, Mr. Kaye, the owner, said he had ordered a steam gauge in June, and repeatedly 
urged its being fitted, which had not been done. He denied the truth of Mr. Gledhill's 
statement. 

The Coroner said the cause appeared to be clearly pointed out in the report of Mr. Fair- 
bairn, which was borne out by the very able report of Mr. Hopkinson. There could be 
a criminal charge only against the person who shut the valve, and there was no evidence 
as to who that person was. 

The jury were absent two hours. Their verdict was " Died from the explosion of a steam 
boiler, resulting from the stop- valve being closed ; but who closed it there is no evidence to 
show." The jury reprobated those concerned for the boiler being left without a pressure- 
gauge, and considered those blameable who did not fix it when it was ordered. They strongly 
condemned this combination of stop and safety valve ; censured the engineer who applied, 
and the proprietor who permitted it ; expressed strong disapprobation of the proprietor 
placing the engine in the care of a person who neither from training nor skill was qualified 
to undertake such an onerous duty ; and, finally recommended the formation in that 
district of a boiler inspection association. 

It will be seen from the above extracts that this investigation discloses a dis- 
graceful indifference to the safety of those, who, whilst following their daily 
calling in earning their daily bread, trust for their safety to those whose first 
care and undoubted duty it is to provide to the utmost of their power, and to 
the extent of their judgment and their money ability, for the perfect security 
of their lives : and the employer of human labour who does not, should be 
visited with that punishment which such criminal neglect deserves. 

The observations of the jury, after delivering their verdict, clearly show 
their feelings, and express their opinion with respect to the conduct of " those 
concerned ;" and useful as their final recommendation might be, if properly 
earned out, it must not be forgotten, that without being invested with com- 
pulsory powers of inspection and authority to enforce by law, the adoption 
of what is absolutely requisite and necessary to make provisions for the perfect 
safety of steam-boilers, such a local operation would practically be next to 
useless. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

[We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our Corresjwndents.] 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

THE RESISTANCE OF STEAM VESSELS. 

Sir, — Your October Number contains an article written by me, with a view 
" to assist in vindicating mechanical principles from the flippant deductions of 
pretentious ignorance," which certainly appears to have added " bewilderment" 
to the confused notions of his subject entertained by the gentleman against 
whom its arguments were directed, or he would never have penned a reply, 
which, in every rational sentence, enables me to enforce one or other of the 
pointed charges I there advanced against him, and in great measure consists 
of a contemptible display of classical slang, hack quotations, and irrelevant 
nonsense. 

" G. J. Y." commences with a quibble; and to a part of my distinctive state- 
ment between resistance and power : " Resistance is an aggregate of pressures, 
equivalent to a single pressure," he objects, " Is not every single pressure of the 
aggregate a resistance 1" In reply, What is a single pressure but the aggregate 
of a number of pressures into which we might suppose the single pressure 
divided ; singleness depending only on the employed unit which for my purpose 
it was unnecessary to define. To another part : " Power is an aggregate of 
pressures, respectively multiplied by spaces through which resisting pressures 
have been overcome, and is equivalent to a single mean pressure multiplied by 
the sum of the described spaces," he objects : " Power is simply a pressure 
operating against an opposing pressure, motion being produced by the one 
pressure being greater than the other ; the quantity of motion being propor- 
tionate to the difference of the two pressures." In reply, divested of verbiage, 
his definition is simply, power is pressure, and is not the practical sense in 
which " power" is understood, even by " G. J. Y." himself. Notice his proposi- 
tion, p. 137 : " Let a force be exerted through a given space and ascertain the 
power expended, then, by quadrupling the force and doubling the space, it will 
be found that an expenditure of eight times the power will result." This he 
calls a "sheer truism." "Who doubts it?" and terms it "the condensed 
reasoning of all the cube theorists ;" and hence, on his own statement, a direct 
negative to his assertion of the "almost universal recognition" of an authority 
who defines power to be some force tending to produce motion " whether it 
does actually produce it or not." In his last paper, " G. J. Y.," finds it 
convenient to adopt this authority, forgetting that the last case of the clause in 
italics,, affords a striking instance of that neglect of time which he deprecates; 
but the whole I refute by the earlier and more pertinent testimony of John 
Smeaton, who, in 1759, wrote as follows : " The word power, as used in prac- 
tical mechanics, I apprehend to signify the exertion of strength, gravitation, 
impulse or pressure, so as to produce motion : and by means of strength, gravi- 
tation, impulse or pressure compounded witli motion, to be capable of producing 



an effect : and that no effect is properly mechanical, but. what requires such a* 
kind of power to produce it. The raising of a weight to the height which it 
can be raised in a given time (as he explains xcith equable motion), is the most 
proper measure of power : or, in other words, if the weight raised is multiplied 
by the height to which it can be raised in a given tune, the product is the mea- 
sure of the power raising it ; and, consequently, all those powers are equal 
whose pi-oduct made by such multiplication, are equal : for if a power can raise 
twice the weight to the same height or the same weight to twice the height that 
another power can, the first power is double the second." 

Again, from his " experimental examination of the quantity and proportion of 
mechanic power (this he defines to have the same meaning as : power ') necessary 
to be employed in giving different degrees of velocity to heavy bodies from a 
state of rest :"—" In trying experiments upon the total effects of bodies in 
motion, it appears that when a body is put in motion, by whatever cause, the 
impression it will make upon a uniformly resisting medium, or upon a uni- 
formly yielding substance, will be as the mass of matter of the moving body 
multiplied by the square of the velocity." And after his simple and conclusive 
illustration of a man rolling an iron ball, he sums up : — " It, therefore, directly 
follows, conformably to what has been deduced from experiment, that the 
mechanical power that must of necessity be employed in giving different degrees 
of velocity to the same body, must be as the square of the velocity." Water 
forms no exception to this rule, and accordingly we find him explicitly stating, 
as the result of his carefully-conducted experiments on water-wheels : — 
"When the velocity of water is doubled, the adjutage or opening of the sluice 
remaining the same, the effect is eight times — that is, not as the square, but 
as the cube of the velocity " (for the obvious reason that the mass in the second 
case is doubled also). The following slightly-varied form of this proposition is 
as necessarily true : — If water be displaced by a body moved with a given 
velocity, the power in the displaced water, in a given time, will be eight times 
the power in the water displaced in the same time by the same body, when 
moved with half that velocity. Contrast this with "G. J. Y.'s" statement, 
page 40 : — " Many persons, some years ago, finding that an increase of speed 
required an increase of H.P. considerably beyond what the square of the 
velocity indicated, empirically jumped at once to the cube." I leave your 
readers to consider whether "G.J. Y." has not " empirically jumped '' at Iris 
conclusion ; and they may further consider the profound dynamical and critical 
ability evinced by the question : " Who ever heard of the mass of a particle 
before 1" On what principle did " G. J. Y." manage to assume that " a con- 
geries of particles" could weigh 33,000 lbs.? Does not that "congeries" 
possess mass? and will not any particle of the "congeries," however 
small, have some mass also ? 

Sineaton's statement I introduced as the simplest form of the principle of 
vis viva, now so fully developed and applied to the treatment of all questions 
involving expenditure of power. Thus, referring to the " Encyclopaedia 
Britannica," newest edition, we find the following : — " On the subject of 
applied mechanics, the following are some of the most recent and best 
authorities : — Poncelet, ' Mecanique Industrielle ;' Morin, ' Notions Fonda- 
mentales de Mecanique;' Moseley, ' Mechanics of Engineering and Archi- 
tecture ; ' Whewell, ' Mechanics of Engineering.' " The fourth of these I 
have not by me ; instead, I will quote another known work, Weisbach's 
" Mechanics of Engineering and Machinery." Note their opinions ! Those 
of M. Poncelet and Professor Moseley, for brevity, I indicate by a quota- 
tion from the latter : " In no respect have the labours of the illustrious 
President of the Academy of Sciences more contributed to the develop- 
ment of the theory of machines than in the application which he has so 
successfully made to it of the '■principle of vis viva.' " M. Morin, page 90, 
states : " This principle has received the name of the principle of vis viva, and 
its generalisation serves as a basis to all applied mechanics." Professor Weis- 
bach, page 48, states, in reference to the principle of vis viva : " And, here- 
after, the mechanical work which a moved mass acquires may be nut equal to 
half the vis viva of the same." This principle, " G. J. Y." informs us, he 
repudiates with contempt ; while every sentence that he has penned in reference 
to ft betrays thoroughly confused notions, if not utter ignorance, of what he is 
writing about ! To establish this will be the best way of enabling your readers 
to estimate the precise value of his contempt. 

In regard to the sense in which the term vis viva is used in practical me- 
chanics, want of space will prevent my making long extracts. I simply state that 
all the authors I have quoted pointedly affirm that no occult or inetaplrysical idea 
whatever is attached to those words : they are simply used to denote the pro- 
duct of the mass by the square of the velocity; and the mechanical idea 
involved in the principle of vis viva, as the capability of a moving mass to 
perform work is measured by half the product of its mass by the square of its 
velocity ; or, conversely, to communicate motion to a mass, work to the extent 
of half the product of the mass by the square of its velocity must be expended 
upon it. This, though not in exactly the same words, is precisely the prac- 
tical statement of the question made by Smeaton ; and its universal recognition 
is a convincing proof of the sagacity of the clear-headed " English Mechanic," 
who also wrote : " Without taking in the collateral circumstances both of time 
and space, the terms quantity of motion, momentum, and force of bodies in 
motion, are absolutely indefinite; and that they cannot be so easily, distinctly, 
and fundamentally compared as by having recourse to the common measure, 
viz., mechanic power." Again, so far from the principle of vis viva being in 
contradiction to the principle " that forces are proportional to the velocities 
generated by them in equal times," the latter is stated by the authors I have 
quoted to be a universally admitted fundamental axiom ; and, I add, a neces- 
sary step to their further clear and definite perception of the difference between 
a force and the effect of the action of that force upon a free mass. 

The mechanic power , half the vis viva, or accumulated work of a moving 
body is not a force ! These are but different expressions for the effect of forces, 
which, during longer or shorter times, have acted upon the body in communi- 
cating velocity. They express the mechanical effect of those forces ; and its 






The Artizan, "I 
January 1, 1858. J 



Correspondence: The Resistance of Steam Vessels. 



19 



measure is the capability of the body to perform work — that is to say, to over- 
come resisting- forces through space, independent of the time in which this 
action is accomplished. Mechanical effect has for its very basfa the principle 
that it can neither be created nor annihilated by any human agency. When 
once developed, from whatever source, and impressed upon a mass, we must be 
able to account for it, either in work actually performed or by some equivalent 
physical effect. Now, part of the work may be expended in altering the struc- 
ture of the mass itself; in a like change on resisting masses, accompanied by 
change of temperature in those masses; and, in many cases, it is the latter 
effect alone ; and we are thus led to the considerations upon which the com- 
paratively recent science of thermo-dynamics is founded. 

Sir Humphrey Davy's simple experiment of melting ice by rubbing together 
two pieces under the exhausted receiver of an air-pump, indicated that some 
relation existed between the work expended and heat; this latter being the 
only element involved in the altered condition of the substance, and the work 
expended, the direct cause of that alteration. Dr. Joule, not only by direct 
experiment, but by collateral evidence from almost every branch of physical 
science, established their exact relation : and in this country, by his labours, 
and those of Professors Thomson and Rankine, it is an admitted scientific fact, 
that a " unit of heat " (the quantity that will raise 1 lb. of water by 1 Fahrenheit 
degree) and the mechanical effect equivalent to the performance of 772 f't.-lbs. 
of work, are strictly convertible terms. Let me illustrate this convertibility by 
a simple case. Suppose, with an air-gun, we shoot a lead ball directly upwards 
(neglecting friction in the gun, and the resistance of the air to the motion of 
the ball) ; when at its highest point, let it be caught and prevented from return- 
ing : with exactly the same velocity let two other similar balls be shot hori- 
zontally, one into water, and the other against a practically hard, immoveable 
block. By the principles of thermo-dynamics, in each of the three cases 
during the expansion of the condensed air, a quantity of heat, strictly equiva- 
lent to the mechanical effect of the force which has communicated velocity to 
the ball, disappears from the expanding air. 

In the first case the ball ascends against the constant force of gravity with a 
uniformly retarded velocity; and when at the highest, work equal to the 
weight of the ball into its vertical ascent has been performed, and could be 
made available for the exact reproduction of the lost heat of the motive air 
when the ball had returned to its original level. In the second case the ball is 
exposed to a resistance varying as the square of its velocity, by which that 
velocity is rapidly destroyed, while the friction of the fluid particles speedily 
destroys the motions communicated to them in its passage. By induction from 
incontestable experiments, it is asserted that the ball and water, though they 
have lost all their communicated velocities, now contain, in addition to the heat 
due to their former temperatures, a quantity exactly equal to the lost heat of 
the motive air. In the third case we have the ball rebounding from the block 
as a shattered heated mass ; and if we estimate the heat it contains, and the 
heat equivalent to work that may have been expended in altering its structure, 
as in the former cases, we arrive at the heat which has disappeared from the 
motive air. The obvious deduction from this is— that whenever mechanical 
effect (or power, mechanical poioer, vis viva, or accumulated work) disap- 
pears, work to a definite amount is performed, or heat to a definite amount 
is developed, it may be a combination of both effects, which, by " Joule's equi- 
valent," we may then state in terms of either. 

_ I will now refer to " G. J. Y.'s " objections, founded on impact, which, about 
eighty years ago, our old friend Smeaton handled with his usual ability. I 
need scarcely add that his remarks on the " mechanic power lost in collision " 
of course apply to the same thing under the name of vis viva; but as the 
principles of which I have presented a necessarily brief statement enable us to 
meet those objections in a more direct manner, I v/ill simply inform " G. J. Y." 
that, should he examine liis " non-elastic masses " after a violent collision, they 
will be likely to present to his notice the two following effects (which, in his 
wisdom, he may also repudiate with contempt) : — They will be all thoroughly 
squashed and elevated in temperature ; and, if he were capable of estimating 
the work necessary to restore them to their original condition, and the heat 
developed, this latter, multiplied by 772, together with the former, would pre- 
cisely account for the lost vis viva. The work spent in altering the form of 
bodies introduces a difficulty which would have been avoided by taking a 
simpler substance — water. Suppose I lift a pail of water any height, and pour 
it into another volume, or even into another empty pail. After a few seconds, 
motion appears to be destroyed, and the water in the same state as at first ; 
but, is the mechanical effect due to the action of the force of gravity upon its 
mass during its descent annihilated ? Certainly not. If we employ proper 
means, it can be ascertained, that for every 772 units of the product, the weight 
of the water in pounds into its vertical descent in feet, or, what is the same 
thing, half the product of the mass, by the square of the velocity due to that 
descent, one unit of heat now exists in the water which did not exist formerly ; 
and, as an experimental fact, this heat is precisely equivalent to the lost 
vis viva. 

I will now meet some of the quotations advanced by " G. J. Y." 

Barlow's statement that vis viva denotes the force or power of bodies in 
motion, is simply a misrepresentation. According to " G. J. Y.," with this 
author, the terms force, power, and pressure are synonymous. But vis viva is 
not a force, it is the effect of force upon mass when that mass yields to the 
action of said force, but is not the force itself. In the same way, neither 
" Leibnitz," nor any other competent authority, ever dreamt of measuring 
moving force by the squares of the velocities, when that term is employed in 
the sense in which it is used by the Encyclopedia Brittanica authority. The 
terms vis motrix and vis viva of Leibnitz, were applied to the effect offerees ; 
" and in that sense," as admitted by " G. J. Y.," " doubtless the vis viva is as 
the square of the velocity." Again, Earnshaw is referred to ; but " G. J. Y." 
takes care not to mention that in Chapter vii., by a rigid demonstration (in 
regard to which difference of opinion between two competent men is not 
possible), this author proves the very principle challenged. Thus (p. 155), 



" The principle above proved is of such extensive application in the various 
branches of mechanical philosophy:" and then goes on to explain in what 
manner to apply it in different cases ; strange to say, among others, to the very 
case in which " G. J. Y." makes him assert that it is not true ! My copy, 
second edition, 1839, does not contain " G. J. Y.'s" alleged quotation; but we 
have the following : " If the system move in a resisting medium the resistance 
must be reckoned as an impressed force ;" which clearly proves that it is admitted 
as true by an author of whom " G. J. Y." evidently knows nothing. How, for 
example, could he write, "who ever heard of ' the mass of a particle' before," 
when, in the chapter just mentioned, consisting of a few pages, the symbol, m, 
repeatedly defined as the mass of a particle, occurs upwards of 150 times ! 

In regard to objections to the application of the principle, in cases where 
vis viva, in common language (though erroneously), is said to be lost, may I 
refer your readers to Dr. Lloyd's address at the latest meeting of the British 
Association, reported at p. 220 of The Artizan. As regards motions of or in 
fluids, the principle of vis viva is at once applicable ; and in standard works on 
applied mechanics, is the principle employed in investigating those motions. 
As examples, I particularize the works of Poneelet, Morin, Weisbach ; and 
one of the latest applications may be seen in Professor Moseley's investigation 
of the dynamical stability of floating bodies and rolling of ships. 

I cannot intrude on your space with the remarks' necessary for clearing' up 
the mass of tangled statements with which " G. J. Y." has endeavoured to 
confuse the clear and obvious meaning of " what is meant by resistance varying 
as the square of the velocity." It may assist to exhibit his meaning, and Mr. 
Crouch's perception of my meaning, to recur once more to the " system" of the 
two weights; but in this, the likelihood of my laying fluxions before " G.J. Y." 
is very small indeed. 

Sir John Herschell writes somewhere about the central thread of common 
sense on which the pearls of analytical research are strung. I reserve the 
pearls ; but a sufficiency of cord will be devoted to " G. J. Y.'s " service. 

In my objection "to planes drawn through water with certain constant velo- 
cities, the power to do this being supplied by constant falling weights," being 
compared " with the case of motion with a uniformly accelerated velocity," 
Mr. Crouch (much to my surprise) discovers that I deny that the work done 
by gravity on a weight descending through a given space is the same, whether 
that space be described with a uniform or with a uniformly accelerated motion. 
Nothing which I have written justifies such a conclusion. I have everywhere 
indicated and explicitly stated the very contrary ; only I beg to observe, that 
the work spent on the resistance in the two cases may be very different. Thus, 
if a 20-lb. weight descends uniformly through 4 ft. in one second, the work 
that it must have expended on its resistance is 20 x 4 = 80 foot-pounds ; but 
if a 20-lb. weight descends from rest, with a uniformly accelerated motion, 
through 4 ft. in the first second, the work expended by it on resistance is not 
80 foot-pounds, but 80 — ^ § (8) 2 = 60 foot-pounds (20 foot-pounds being 
the work accumulated in the descending weight, which, with the other 60, 
is the work of gravity, 80 foot-pounds, as before.) Hence, had the weights in 
the two cases been attached to planes drawn through water in the second in 
question, the first would have had a work of 80 foot-pounds expended upon it, 
and the second 60 foot-pounds only; but the mere supposition of such a 
case involves the glaring absurdity against which my objection was directed, 
and which I exposed in my succeeding remarks. I again exhibit it in another 
point of view. One weight draws up another with a uniformly accelerated 
velocity, and the work done (the difference of weights into the space described 
by either) is precisely equal to the work accumulated in the two moving masses; 
but notice, that here the mass is constant! On the other hand, should a 
descending weight draw a plane through water with a uniformly accelerated 
velocity, the mass at each instant is clearly not constant; instead of mass in 
the plane, we have the mass of the displaced water to consider, which varies at 
each instant with the velocity. Hence, in order that the velocity continue 
uniformly accelerated, mass at each instant must be added to the descending 
weight also. Uniformly accelerated velocity of the same weight drawing a 
plane through water is, therefore, a physical impossibility, and its supposition 
an absurdity. 

Again, is it not evident, even to the perverted intelligence of G. J. Y., 
that the descending weight in one case being opposed by a constant mass, while 
in the other the opposing mass is "put" on the plane particle by particle, 
according to the velocity : the velocity of descent of the last, during the first 
part of the motion, will be greater than that acquired by the other weight in 
the same time ; and that, since they both descend through the same space in one 
second, the velocity at the end is necessarily less than the velocity of the one 
raising the weight. Now, of the equal amount of work done by gravity on the 
descending weight on the two cases, less is accumulated in the weight moving 
with the least velocity ; and, consequently, a greater amount expended on the 
resistance to its motion. Hence the assumptions that, m the varied motion of 
a plane through water, we can replace the plane by the weight raised by the 
motive weight, when falling the same distance in the same time, and that this 
weight " is the precise measure of the plane's resistance," are both entirely false. 

In conclusion, I submit to the degradation of noticing his remarks con- 
cerning my small fraction. When he asks if I ever read Tredgold, he surely 
does not think that I advanced the small fraction as a discovery, which m a 
treatise by Barlow in that work (to the best of my recollection, in the case of 
the Medea), that author states as T ' g ; while by the analysis of a number of 
other vessels he deduces values from ^ to ^j. From " G. J. Y.'s " remarks as 
to the state of my mind, I suppose he means that we are a pair of fools ;»but 
his politeness preventing him from stating his opinion openly, he proves it 
indirectly by mere " common sense," and some special arithmetic. Adopting, 
for argument, his figures, the Rattler's mid. area as a plane would have 
experienced a resistance of 42,000 lbs. ; but, owing to the form of the ends, the 
resistance by experiment is only 6,000 lbs. I stated that the first term of the 
resistance is as " the immerged greatest transverse area multiplied by a small 



20 



Correspondence : Steam-Ship Capability. 



r The Artizan, 

u 



.January 1, 1858. 



fraction whose value depends on the form of the ends multiplied by the 

square of the velocity." Now, what has been the effect of the ends in this 
case ? Clearly to reduce the resistance from 42,000 lbs. to 0,000 lbs. ; the 
resistance is now the same as it would be on a plane of >■ the area. Common 
stupidity would have adopted this as the value of my small fraction ; but we 
are informed, without further ceremony : 

" So that 42,000 lbs. — 6,000 lbs., or S, is the value of Mr. Mansel's small 
fraction." 

That 42,000 lbs. — 6,000 lbs. is f, will surprise most people; but I have to 
object, Is it my small fraction ? In the first place, by Beaufoy's experimental 
results it would have come out ^ nearly ; but even then, being derived from a 
garbled equation, it is not my small fraction. Why is the frictional resistance, 
on which I insisted, not deducted from the 6,000 lbs.? I can, however, afford 
to accept " G. J. Y.'s " caricature, which yields \ as the arithmetical develop- 
ment of that which want of principle makes !j. 

Govan, Glasgoio. Robert Mansel. 

STEAM-SHIP CAPABILITY. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — "Vis viva" appears to be epidemic on the banks of the Clyde. I 
regret to perceive by your last Number that Mr. Arthur Lbwenthal, of 
Greenock, is affected with that malady. This somewhat amazes me, because I 
have been wont to consider the intellectual atmosphere of that locality pecu- 
liarly pure and invigorating. Mr. Lbwenthal's case appears to be of a rather 
mild type ; still it exhibits three alarming symptoms : — 1st. An hallucination 
as to the meaning of words; 2nd. A prurient propensity to employ algebraic 
symbols absurdly ; 3rd. An inordinate inclination to write — commonly called 
cacocthes scribendi.* 

The first symptom is very striking with regard to the word "mass." I 
could understand a Scotchman's imagination being- disturbed by the Popish 
use of the word; but why it should produce such an effect when used in 
physics, is to me inexplicable. But so it is. 

The word is defined as follows in my Encyclopaedia : — " Mass, a term applied 
to denote the whole quantity of matter of which a body is composed. The 
mass will therefore he rightly estimated by the weight of the body without 
regard to its figure or magnitude." 

This is what most people understand the word to mean ; and how lamentable 
must be the effect of the vis viva mania when it is found to induce a man to 
write the following. Mr. Lbwenthal states that " there are two principles 
in the inorganic world which constitute it, one active, called power ; the 
other passive, called mass." Mass a principle! But although these two 
principles are the constituents of the inorganic world, every minute particle, 
Mr. Lbwenthal tells us, has ttco powers in it ! Really vis viva has brought 
his perceptive powers into a pitiable plight ! He proceeds — " I will exemplify 
a law, followed by every power, if acting upon a mass, only for the terrestrial 
gravity, a power known well enough by every one." What occult meaning 
this passage may have I cannot divine. It may be hinted, however, that what 
is known well enough by every one does not require algebraic exemplification. 
He says " the weight of this body may be P, its mass M ! " What can he 
imagine its mass to be ? He informs us that " the mass of a body is generally 



measured by the expression 



9 



P, he has told us, means its iveight. But 



though — is generally used, he says " I prefer to measure a mass by the 

g p 

formula M = — - as it will shorten my calculation, and at the same time is not 
2g 

p 
incorrect." This wraps mass in still greater mystery. For — is twice as 

p 

much as — and yet either will do for its measure ! The algebraic is a very 

2 9 
startling paroxysm of the vis viva disease. Mr. Lbwenthal thus describes 
its effect. He says, " thereby I get the formula H P = M V s in words " ! 
In words! How many words do H and P stand for? how many do M and 
V 2 represent ? The two latter, perhaps, mean marvellous vis viva ! 

For one moment let us seriously apply the touchstone of common-sense to 
this " formula H P = M V 2 ." The mass of a body is properly estimated by 
its weight ; therefore we strike P off one side of the equation and M off the 
other, as being, not only equal, but identical quantities. The " formula " then 
becomes H = V 2 . H represents the height through which a body falls during 
any given time, and V 2 the square of its terminal velocity. We will now test 
the formula by fact : — 

Space fallen through Terminal Total space fallen 

Time. in the second. velocity. through. 

1st second 16 ft. 1 in 32 ft. 2 in 16 ft. 1 in. 

2nd „ 48ft.3in 64ft.4in 64 ft. 4 in. 

3rd „ 80 ft. 5 in 96 ft. 6 in 144 ft. 9 in. 

This little table exhibits the action of gravity upon a falling body during three 
seconds. The formula is " H = V2 " ! According to this precious production 
of an algebraic process, 32 ft. 2 in. squared equals 16 ft. 1 in. ; 64 ft. 4 in. 
squared equal 64 ft. 4 in. ; and 96 ft. 6 in. squared equals 144 ft. 9 in. A more 
conclusive proof of the virulence of the vis viva mania cannot be imagined. 

Hjs third symptom, above referred to, is manifest from the creditable ex- 
pression of modesty with which he commences his communication : the 
fit was irresistible !— he probably struggled against it ! I feel persuaded that 
when his malady subsides, and his intellect regains its healthy action, that he 



* Our correspondent, " G. J. Y.," and our readers generally, will perceive that the 
apparent obscurity of Mr. Liiwenthal's meaning is owing chiefly to typographical errors 
which, through accident, remained uncorrected. — Ed. 



will perceive his befitting business to be to read and study. A good Mathe- 
matical Dictionary, "Chambers's Natural Philosophv,"'"Arnott's Elements 
of Physics," the article on Force in the "Oxford Encyclopaedia," &c., &c, 
might be useful. 

I should like to see the "good book" which is his authority for the following 
sentence. " The vis viva is exactly as much as the action which has been ex- 
ercised in producing it ; and, on the contrary, all the action produced by gravity 
in acting upon a mass is contained in it as its vis viva." What is there 
antithetical in the first and last members of this sentence ? The conjunction 
"or" might take place of "on the contrary," one would think. I will 
not venture to say that this emendation would make the sentence intelligible, 
or that the sentences which follow could be rendered intelligible by any process 
whatever ; as they stand they are positive enigmas. 

Mr. Mansel's theorem, Mr. Lbwenthal informs us, "is the reason for which 
it is more convenient to measure a mass by half of that expression, which is 
more used for it, because then the object called vis viva, and the real 
vis viva, are one and the same, and one is not half of the other." 
Assuredly if " the object called vis viva," and the " real vis viva " are " one 
and the same," it needed no ghost to tell us that one was not the half of the 
other. But why perplex us with an object " called vis viva " as contra- 
distinguished from the veritable "vis viva," if they are identical? Mr. 
Lbwenthal's ailment, I am afraid, is not so mild after all. 

He finds it easy to "put aside " my deductions from experimental philosophy 
in opposition to vis viva. No doubt of it; for he causes a non-elastic sub- 
stance to consume vis viva by little vibrations, and a dense mass to collapse ! 
One of the experiments I referred to he passes over, and the argument, illus- 
trated by a diagram, he misunderstands. But the desert is not without an oasis 
after all. The following passage is indescribably cheering. He says " the 
moving forces are proportionate to the velocities they are able to produce." 
Bravo ! The patient is convalescent ! Why this is precisely what vis viva was 
introduced to disprove. G. J. Y. 

STEAM-SHIP CAPABILITY. 
We regret to find that in printing Mr. Lbwenthal's letter in our December 
Number, a few errors have arisen. The following corrections are necessary 
to make it intelligible : — 

1. Page 285, line b,for " Thereby I get the formula HP = M V 2 in words. 
The action of gravity," read — "Thereby I get the formula H P = MV ! . In 
words : the action of gravity." 

2. Line 47, for "smiths' work would last ad infinitum," read — "in in- 
finitum." 

3. Line 60, for " I beg to submit that 3 + 4 + 3 + 4is not," read—" I beg 
to submit that (3 + 4) x (3 + 4)." 

4. For the last 4 lines, read — " If the pressure of steam is greater than 
required for overcoming the resistances, the speed of the engine will increase, 
and at the same time the vis viva of all the moving parts, according to the 
quantity of work done, is superfluous. This is Mr. Mansel's theorem ! " 

SPEED OF THE "LEVIATHAN." 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 
Sir, — I observe in your Number for December, page 285, that the result of 
a rough calculation made by Mr. T. Moy to arrive at the speed to be realised 
by the Leviathan, is stated at " 16 miles an hour with her paddle-engines 
only, and with her full power she will exceed 25 miles an hour ;" which result 
appeared to me so monstrous, that I was induced to enter into a " rough " cal- 
culation to verify the same, as far as can be done with the few particulars that 
are generally known, as to the proportions of vessel and engines. 

I now forward the speeds deduced by my rough calculations at varying 
drafts of water, that your readers may eventually test their accuracy; premising 
that the combined power of both paddle and screw engines working at a steam- 
pressure of 20 lbs. above the atmosphere is taken in all cases, viz. : — 
Speed at 20 ft. draft = 18J geographical miles. 
» 25 „ = I62 „ „ 

„ 30 „ =15 
Greemvich, Dec. 16, 1857. I am, Sir, &c, W. B. 

NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 



MARINE ENGINEERING, SHIPBUILDING, &c. 

A Visit to the Liverpool Ship Yards. — When in Liverpool for the 
purpose of visiting the new American mail steamer Adriatic, belonging to the 
Collins' line, we took advantage of the opportunity thus afforded of visiting some 
of the shipbuilding yards on the Mersey, and, amidst the depression which has 
prevaded all commercial operations for some time past, we found considerable 
activity amongst the shipbuilders on both sides of the river ; the tonnage in 
course of building being about 11,000 tons at Liverpool, and about 5,000 tons 
at Birkenhead. 

Mr. Laird has one large iron ship and a number of small vessels on the 
stocks. A small wooden vessel is building at Tranmere Pool. Messrs. Clover 
and Royal have in frame a small wooden ship. The Canada Works have a 
large iron ship in frame; and it is anticipated that Mr. Laird will shortly 
commence two of the new Holyhead and Kingstown despatch steamers, which 
are to surpass everything afloat for speed. 

It is also expected that Messrs. Vernon and Son will shortly have an exten- 
sive order for iron barges and steam tugs, to be constructed for the navigation 
of the Indian rivers. 

Messrs. Roydon and Son have contracts for two large clipper ships for the 
Australian and China trade, the larger of which, of 10,150 tons (B.M.), is 
partly in frame; the other, which maybe about 900 tons (B.M.), which was 
but recently laid down. Mr. J. Steel has a ship of 800 tons register, in- 



LIBRARY 



'•The Artizan, "] 
January 1, 1858. J 



Notes and Novelties. 



U. S. PATF>JT 



21 



tended for the Indian trade, ready for launching. Messrs. T. and R. Clarke 
have a barque of about 500 tons measurement ready for launching. Messrs. 
Chaloner and Co. have a barque of 350 tons (B.M.) ready for launching, and 
have just laid down the keel of another of about 800 tons. These make a 
pretty good show of wooden ships of high class. 

Mr. J. Jones has a ship of 1,450 tons, which is just being plated up ; also, an 
iron screw steamer, 1,000 ,tons (B. M.), with engines of 270 H.P. She is a 
remarkably fine model, and is, we believe, intended for the Mediterranean. He 
has also a number of iron barges in course of construction. 

Mr. W. Miller has an iron ship of 1,350 tons (B.M.), well forward ; she is 
intended for the Calcutta trade. Messrs. Cato and Co. have a wooden ship 
500 tons register, in frame; but they are doing nothing in iron. Messrs. Evans 
and Co. have two small wooden ships in frame ; and Messrs. Vernons, in addi- 
tion to having a large iron ship nearly finished, have some smaller ones in 
hand, and others about to be commenced. On the whole, we thought that the 
Liverpool folks have nothing to complain of. 

Rope, Chain Cable, and Anchor Making in the Poet of 
Liverpool. — It is but a few months since Messrs. Bibby and Co. publicly 
tested some hempen ropes, the threads for which had been spun by machinery, 
and, indeed, the ropes had been made entirely by machinery, and the improve- 
ment of such a mode of manufacture was satisfactorily demonstrated by the 
high test which ropes made by them withstood. 

Messrs. Cato, Miller, and Co., iron ship builders, finding that business slack, 
have turned their attention to the manufacture of chain cables of superior 
quality, and to the forging of improved anchors, which are being extensively 
introduced, and are favourably spoken of. We are persuaded that if chain- 
cable makers would trust more to machinery and less to the judgment and 
skill of their workmen, more uniformly good and reliable chain cables would be 
the result. 

The Leviathan, though not yet in her native element, has moved 1046 ft. forward, 
and 96 ft. aft from her original position, proving her launch hy the methods applied 
is feasible, and reducing the question simply to that of power and resistance. The 
method employed has been to give the first impetus or start by means of the 
hydraulic rams, and then compel her further progress by means of the strain upon her 
exercised by haulage on the river moorings. The anchors employed in this service had, one 
after the other, all given way, until Trotman's anchors were employed. One of these still 
holds, but in such doubtful ground as to make its tenure uncertain ; whilst the other, 
owing to the hardness of the river bed, only sank a foot or so. On the 17th of December, a 
pressure equal to 2,000 tons was brought to bear. She moved, however, but 38 inches. The 
hydraulic pressure was worked to such a pitch, that the water was forced through the iron 
like a thin dew, until the whole cylinder was ripped up from end to end— with a noise like a 
dull underground explosion. The failure in the day's work was attributed to the fact of the 
gradient ot the incline now reached by the ship being but 1 foot in 12, instead of 1 foot in 10. 
The efforts are, for a time, to be discontinued ; — the period for their renewal is not named. 

Floating College. — With the view of affording practical instruction to young men 
intended for the mercantile marine, it is proposed to establish a college on board a frigate- 
built screw, fitted up with the needful appliances. She is to be moved to different parts 
of the coast. The curriculum of study is to include navigation, marine engineering, 
gunnery, the higher mechanics, and collateral sciences. 

Nearly all the marine engines of the Neapolitan Navy have been built at the model 
workshops of Pelrarsi, erected fifteen years ago. These factories are under the manage- 
ment of three officers of the Neapolitan Artillery — viz., Messrs. D'Agostinho, Corsi, and 
Afan de Eivera. 1,300 men are employed in the shops. 

RAILWAYS. 

Spain. — The Jativa to Valentia Railway is approaching completion — as far as Alcadia ; 
between which point and Jativa passenger-trains will be run this month. 

Communication with Guard.— Mr. W. Symons, of Dunster, proposes a simple 
plan of calling the Guards' attention, by a signal-cord passing along the train, and pro- 
vides, by an expanding railing, for the safe progress of the latter from one end of the 
train to the other. 

Tunnels neak Lyons. — The difficulties encountered in the marly soils at the Lyons 
end of the Credo Tunnel have been surmounted. At the Surgaux Tunnel, slips are con- 
stantly occurring. The hill through which the tunnel is carried is sapped to the foundation 
— crevasses or chasms opening as the work progresses. 

The General Roman Railway Company have contracted with the Credit Mobilier 
Tuscana for their rolling stock. 

Indian Railways.— The enormous resources of India, and the field they offer for 
railway business, fill us with astonishment when placed on paper. The Bombay, Baroda, 
and Central India Line passes through a country containing 62,616 square miles, tenanted 
by 7,150,000 souls; almost all of whom are employed in productive pursuits. 2,020,000 
acres of this tract were under cotton cultivation, giving an average product of 
141,402,030 lbs. This line alone— placing Bombay and Delhi in communication — would 
have sufficed to preclude the mutiny and occupation of the latter city ; the first hostile 
demonstration would have been crushed. Such a line, Colonel Trench, the Chairman, 
stated would have been completed, but for the supineness and opposition of the Honourable 
East India Company. 

The London and South 'Western Railway are about applying to Parliament for 
an Act to enable them to extend their line to Topsham, at an expense of .£50,000. 

On the Cornwall Railway, at Saltash Bridge, hydraulic presses have been used in 
lifting the span of the bridge. The west end was raised 3 ft. in two hours; the masonry 
being built up under it. 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEERING. 

On the 14th ef November the Elba, bearing the electric cable, accompanied by the 
Desperate and Blazer, left Cape St. Elia. The process of paying-out then commenced, 
and was continued, without interruption, during the passage to Malta. Gozo was sighted 
in the morning of the J 7th, and the same night the united exertions of telegraphists and 
sailors landed the cable safely on the coast of Malta. During the night of the 14th, and the 
whole of the 15th, the little squadron experienced severe weather, and the paying-out process 
was with difficulty regulated. All, however, went well, and the cable is now bedded, and a 
temporary office established at St. George's Bay. During the voyage, a constant commu- 
nication was kept up with Cagliari, and the cable was tested every quarter of an hour. On 
landing, it was again tested, and its insulation found perfect. Messrs. Liffier and Tischelman 
made, during the voyage, a series of electrical experiments with the instruments of Messrs. 
Siemens and Haeske, of Berlin. 

HARBOURS, DOCKS, CANALS. 

The Suez Canal. — We have received the following intelligence respecting 

M. de Lesseps' movements : — On the 23rd November he was at Corfu, on his 

way to Constantinople. The sympathetic reception he met with in that town 

was enhanced by the circumstance of his father having been Governor 



of the Ionian Islands in 1814, for France. Mr. Young, the Lord High Com- 
missioner of the Ionian Islands, gave a most hearty welcome to M. de Lesseps, 
who intended leaving for Athens by the Isthmus of Corinth, and was expected 
to arrive at Constantinople on the 3rd December. On the 28th November he 
appears to have been at Athens. We learn he was much struck with the 
general enthusiasm everywhere in favour of Iris grand enterprise. The French 
flag was hoisted on board Lloyd's steamer, which was to convey him to his 
port of destination. P.S.— A telegram has been since received announcing 
M. de Lesseps' safe arrival at Constantinople on the 14th December. 

France.— The Council General of the Department of the Seine has passed 
a resolution in favour of the Suez Canal, recommending this enterprise to the 
solicitude of Government. The Department of the Seine, being in reality the 
capital of France, has caused great weight to be attached to the favourable 
result of its deliberations ; and it seems that the promoters have every reason to 
be satisfied with the progress of their endeavours, which have hitherto been 
crowned with most signal success, seeing that this forms the seventieth favourable 
resolution passed in France. 

The Suez Canal.— "The Constitutionnel " contains the following extract 
from their correspondent at Constantinople, dated 18th November:— "As to M. 
de Thouvenel, he continues to maintain the same reserve, until it is made 
clear that Rechid Pacha gives proofs of his goodwill towards France. 
An opportunity will shortly be afforded to him in the shape of the 
project of the Isthmus of Suez Canal. The Ambassador of France has 
sent an official note to the Porte on this subject; and as there exists 
no other opposition than that of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe's, it will be 
easy for the Turkish Government to give a satisfactory reply. It would be the 
means of arriving at the re-establishment of relations on the old footing, and to 
prove that the Turkish Government is not disposed to submit to the yoke of 
the English Ambassador. As may be conceived, Lord Stratford neglects 
nothing to prevent the Sultan's consent ; he has always endeavoured to oppose 
it. Not that he disapproves of the project (au fond), but because it has not 
been brought forward by himself or under his own auspices. He attaches the 
more importance to his success, seeing that a failure might question his influence, 
which, by the way, has greatly lessened lately, but considerable silence has 
been preserved on this matter. He seems to attach much importance to out- 
ward appearances; and for some time past his ambition has been, not to do, 
but to affect to do everything himself, persuaded that such conduct would be 
sufficient to preserve, in his own country, the reputation he enjoys for 
being eminently qualified for a post which he persists in holding in spite of and 
against every body else. All the world hopes that Rechid Pacha, with his 
usual discernment and ability, will comprehend the necessity of seizing the 
present opportunity to put an end to a state of things which everyone truly 
deplores, and to show that deference to which the collective opinions of Europe 
is so eminently entitled. A council of ministers has already been summoned 
to deliberate on the official note from the French Ambassador. A Ministerial 
Assembly is shortly announced for the purpose of coming to a final decision on 
this interesting project. M. Ferd de Lesseps is daily expected here by the 
packet from Trieste." 

Holland. — At the Royal Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam a very inte- 
resting meeting took place. It appears that it is a rule established by the State, 
that every member shall hold a discourse during the year. This time it fell to 
the turn of Mr. Conrad to do so, and this gentleman, who is a member of the 
international commission of the Suez Canal, naturally selected that subject for 
his lecture. His audience was more than usually numerous, on account of the 
public being, in the present instance, admitted to this scientific reunion. 

The Works of the Sulina on the Danube.— According to the arrangements of 
the Privy Councillor and Water Engineer, M. Nabiling-; the direction of the works for the 
deepening of the shallows of the so-called Argagni banks in the Sulina channel of the 
Danube, as well as the other works near Tultscha, has been given over to the architect, 
Richradt, of Coblenz. Another batch, composed of an overseer and thirty men, have lately 
left for Tultscha; and as Prussia has no conflicting interests in the fair navigation of the 
Danube, the works may be soon completed. 

Docks and Tunnels.' — At Bahia, in the Brazils, two works of great public importance 
are about to be carried out. A slip for ships of largest class, and a tunnel connecting the 
upper with the lower town. Mr. Vignoles is the engineer, who has charge of the latter 
work, was its original projector. Bahia contains 150,000 inhabitants. 

A Submarine Tunnel between France and England is again 
talked of. The new project is from M. Thome de Gamond. The English and 
French Governments have appointed commissions to examine its practica- 
bility. 

BRIDGES. 

Invention of Suspension Bridges by the Chinese Sixteen 
Hundred Years ago. — The most remarkable evidence of the mechanical 
science and skill of the Chinese at this early period is to be found in their 
suspended bridges, the invention of the Han dynasty. According to the con- 
current testimony of their historical and geographical writers, Shan-leang, the 
Commander-in-Chief of the army under Kevutson, the first of the Hans, 
undertook and completed the formation of roads through the mountainous 
province of Shenise, to the West of the Capital. Hitherto its lofty hills and 
deep valleys had rendered communication difficult and circuitous. With a 
body of 100,000 labourers, he cut passages over the mountains, throwing the 
removed soil into the valleys, and where this was not sufficient to raise the 
road to the required height, he constructed bridges which rested on pillars 
or abutments; in other places he conceived and accomplished the daring- 
project of suspending a bridge from one mountain to another across a deep 
chasm. These bridges which are called by the Chinese writers, very appro- 
priately, flying bridges, and represented to be numerous at the present day, 
are sometimes so high that they cannot be traversed without alarm ; one still 
existing in Shenise stretched 400 it. from mountain to mountain over a chasm 
of 500 ft. Most of these flying-bridges are so wide, that four horsemen can 
ride on them abreast, and balustrades are placed on each side to protect 
travellers. It is by no means improbable (as Mr. Pauthier suggests) that as 



22 



Notes and Novelties. 



The Artizan, 
January 1 , 1858. 



the missionaries in China made known the fact more than a century and a 
half ago, tliat the Chinese had suspended bridges, and that many of them 
were of iron, the hint may have been taken from thence for similar con- 
structions by European engineers. — Thornton's History of England. 

The New Bridge over the Rhine.— The bridge between Strasburg 
and Kehl will consist of rive arches. The three in the middle will have a span 
of 190 Badish feet, and will be of iron, according to the system of the Kinzing 
Bridge near Ofi'enburg. The two exterior arches will have two iron turnstiles, 
which will allow a passage of 8G ft. to ships carrying masts. For obviating the 
difficulty of laying wooden posts in the moveable bed of the Rhine, tubes of 
cast iron will be used, which can be rammed in to the depth of from 40 to 50 ft. 
The new bridge will be exclusively used for the trains and passengers, for whom 
a trottoir will be made outside the railing. The floating bridge hitherto existing 
will be preserved for the traffic of the various roads leading to and from 
Strasburg. 

MILITARY ENGINEERING. 

Gunpowder. — A French Artillery Officer, General Piobert, has discovered a method of 
preventing the explosion of gunpowder when stored in magazines. It is effected by simply 
mingling coal dust with the powder. This mechanical admixture neutralises the explosive 
quality and reduces the powder to a simple combustible. An experiment on a large scale 
has tested the value of the invention. A magazine filled with the powder so prepared, was 
set on fire and it burnt like common coal ; it was extinguished with oi - dinary fire engines. 
To restore the powder, it is simply sifted, when the gunpowder falls to the bottom, leaving 
the coal dust. 

Gabions.— Two new descriptions of gabions have teen recently offered for the adoption 
of the Queen's Service. Capt. Tyler's gabion is exceedingly simple, being composed of one 
sheet of galvanized iron, 6 by 4 feet. The edges of the sheet are wrapped together, and 
fastened with wire, and the gabion is thus completed. Sergeant-Major Jones's gabion is com- 
posed of bands of sheet-iron, about 4 inches in depth, on wooden pickets, the bands being 
fastened by two buttons fitting into corresponding holes. 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING. 

Farm implements made on scientific principles are being daily added to. This, the oldest 
department of industry, is at last being worked out with this same view to economy and 
efficiency which has always characterised these processes, technically known as engineer- 
ing work. The names of Tuxford, Clayton, and Shuttleworth, Hornsby, Garrett, Bansomes 
and Sims, with some others, are gradually acquiring as worthy a place in the world of 
industry as have already done those of Stephenson, Rennie, and Brunei. 

Improved Method of Grinding Maise. — The growth and con- 
sumption of Indian corn is far greater than we in the Northern climes may 
imagine. The United States alone produce, annually, more than 200 millions 
of hectolitres, of which only 12 millions of hectolitres are exported, all the 
rest being used for the alimentation of men and animals. The hitherto mode 
of grinding maise into flour was very imperfect, and the difficulty for the 
cooking process and panification arose from the circumstance that the resinous 
and other improper substances were allowed to pass with the nutritious and 
wholesome. The new procedure is based on an accurate anatomical examina- 
tion of the grain of maise (Zea mats), too lengthy to be dilated upon here. 
M. Betz-Penat has invented a procedure, by which the pellicle, the cotyledon, the 
resinous matter, and the vascular tissue (improper for man's food) can be 
separated from the fecula and the matiere cornee, which alone are fit for 
perfect panification. Hitherto, the grain of maise was roasted (dried) before 
being ground ; M. Betz-Penat, on the contrary, soaks it for half an hour in 
water, then he lets it drip dry for another half hour, when it is put in the 
mill. The French Journals say that the mill is now in operation. 

GAS ENGINEERING. 

Production of Gas. — A very interesting work on the history of the application of gas to 
illuminating purposes has been produced by Mr. H. Gerner, C.E., New York. Mr. G. desires 
to point out the superiority of olefiant to coal gas. In 1667, a Mr.[Shirley first drew attention 
to a natural reservoir of gas in a coal field near Wigan. He traced the gas to its true 
source. The year 1726 witnessed further inquiry on the part of Dr. Hare. In 1768 an 
agent on Lord Lonsdale's estate proposed to light the town of Whitehaven ; but the 
magistrates protested against the temerity. To Mr. Wm. Murdoch, a Cornish man, the 
erection of the first manufactory was due, and he first experimented in his own house and 
office. In 1798 he lighted Boulton and Watt's foundry; and in 1805 he erected an ap- 
paratus for lighting the largest cotton mills in the United Kingdom; the light equalling 
2,000 mould candles of six to the lb. Mr. Gerner compares the relative merits of electric- 
hydro-carbon and peat, water, and wood gas. 

Mr. Gerner inclines to the opinion that oil gas is preferable and superior to that distilled 
from coal, and explains that expense hitherto has alone prevented its general adoption. 
This difficulty has been overcome by Mr. Longbotham, who has succeeded in extracting 
from resin other matters of commercial value, at the same time obtaining an improved 
article for the manufacture of gas in the shape of an oleaginous residuum, that, reference 
being had to the other products, may be termed costless. 

Mr. Haly has obtained provisional protection for a contrivance for diminishing the 
injurious and obnoxious effects produced in the burning of gas, especially when used as an 
illuminator. He closes the upper orifice of the chimney with a hollow lid, of a heat-resist- 
ing material, completely closed at the lid and sides, but ventilated at the bottom, where it 
projects at one or more places beyond the said orifice by apertures, which, in their aggre- 
gate area, should not be less than the area of the lower orifice of the said shade or 
chimney. 

DOMESTIC AND SANATORY. 

Smoke Nuisance.-A gentleman of the name of Wyld has suggested, in a letter to 
the "Times," the propriety of conducting smoke from domestic and factory fires through 
the sewers. This, he says, would free the atmosphere, and add to the value of the 
sewerage as a manure by fixing its ammonia. 

The Victoria Sewer needs reconstruction, it would appear (at an expense of £6,000), 
from a point near Whitehall. The sum already expended is upwards of £60,000. Having 
been carried through a quicksand open to tidal influence, the difficulties encountered were 
of no mean order. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
Statistics of the British Iron Manufacture.— In a recent 
pamphlet by Mr. Joseph Hall, the inventor of a method of making iron by one 
process, in place of two, is the following table, showing the quantity of iron 
produced in the year 1854, in the various districts of England. It will be ob- 
served that Glamorganshire approaches very near to Staffordshire, and that the 
quantity produced in Scotland and the north of England is becoming very con- 
siderable :— 



Counties. 
England : 



No. of Furnaces Furnaces 
works. erected, in blast. 



Northumberland, Durham, and Yorkshire . . 37 106...... 80... 

Derbyshh'e 13 33 25... 

Lancashire and Cumberland 2 ...... 5 3... 

Staffordshire 72 203 166... 

Shropshire 13 34 28... 

Gloucestershire... , 4 7 5... 

Wales : 

Flintshire and Denbighshire 7 11 9... 

Glamorganshire anthracite district 14 35 21) 

Ditto, & Monmouthshire bituminous district. 34 134 100 J * 

Scotland : 

Ayrshire 9 41 80... 

Lanarkshire 13 88 72... 

Other counties 10 27 10... 



Produce 
in tons. 
348,444 
127,500 

20,1100 
847,600 
124,800 

21,990 

32,900 
750,000 

249,000 
46,000 
79,040 



Total 228 724 555 3,069,874 

Mr. Bessemer, it is said, has been joined by Messrs. Galloway, of Man- 
chester, and are constructing extensive works in Sheffield for the purpose of 
introducing the manufacture of steel according to his patents. 

Cast Iron for Architectural Purposes. — I have often wondered 
that cast-iron has not become the most frequently employed material for spires 
and lanterns of churches, for which feature it would have many advantages 
over stone; — it would exert less weight on the supporting tower, it would be 
less expensive and sooner raised, being cast in pieces, which could be taken 
up separately and rivetted together in their final position. Beautiful and 
aerial forms, composed of open and pierced work, might be produced in cast- 
iron, such as have never been exhibited in stone, of wluch latter material 
there need be no imitation ; for general beauty and variety would be better 
secured by painting them a colour that would contrast with the stone below. 
The few instances in which cast-iron has been employed for these purposes 
in modern times, while they prove the advantages to be derived from its 
application, show also the great scope that remains for improvement in its 
mode of treatment and development of its capabilities; and if, with the 
mechanical means and knowledge of the present day, it were again brought 
into use, common sense would, I think, soon lead to its extensive adoption.— 
Speech of S. Huggins, at Liverpool Architectural Society, as reported in 
" Building Neios." 

Coal Mining in Ecssia appeal's to be rapidly progressing. Mines in the western 
slopes of the Ural, opened in 1851, have increased their annual yield from 217 to 4,403 
tons. On the eastern slope, the mines opened in 1853 have increased from 96 tons to 
2,282 tons. The total yield during the last three years was 16,979. But a small portion 
of these were exported beyond the district, all being consumed in the factories there. 

The extent of lines erected, or in progress, is 80,000 miles, divided as follows : — 

Europe 37,900 miles. 

UnitedStates 33,000 „ 

India 5,000 ,, 

South America 1,500 „ 

Submarine 900 ,, 

To this add— 

Atlantic Submarine 1,700 „ 



80,000 



Accident at the Mersey Steel and Iron Works, Dec. 10. — An 
accident of a very alarming nature, which, fortunately, was not attended by any 
loss of life, took place at the upper works of the Mersey Steel and Iron Company. 
The rim of one of the large fly-wheels suddenly broke, occasioned, no doubt, by 
the great velocity at which it was whirled. The wheel is between 30 and 40 tons 
weight, and runs at the rate of 100 revolutions per minute, at which speed it was 
probably going at the time of the accident. The heavy portion of the wheel flew 
about in all directions, breaking the large beam of the engine, and forcing 
numerous fragments through the roof, while some portions struck several of the 
men, who, in two or three instances, were very severely injured. The noise 
occasioned by the bursting of the steam-pipe, which is fed by nine funnel boilers, 
was heard all over the park, and occasioned great alarm, for in a short time 
several hundred people were at the scene of the accident. The engine, which is 
150 H.P., is a complete wreck, and the stoppage will for some time cause at 
least 100 men to be thrown out of employment. At the time of the accident 
between 100 and 200 men were at work, and it appears marvellous that more 
persons were not injured. The works are so arranged that the other side of 
the premises — that portion devoted to making iron plates for shipbuilding pur- 
poses — can be carried on, although some of the machinery is connected. Mr. 
Clay, the manager, was early at the scene of the disaster, and rendered every 
assistance in his power. Beyond the mere accident, it is much to be regretted 
that it should have taken place at the present period of distress, as many more 
men will be added to the number of persons out of employment. — Liverpool 
Mercury. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

E. B., Liverpool.— We hate heard of the project by Mr. J. Clare, Jun., and have inspected 
a model which we understood embodied his views. Mr. Scott Eussell designed the 
Great Eastern steam-ship, and the paddle-engines and machinery were designed and 
constructed by him. The four cylinders are each 74 in. diameter ; the diameter of the 
cylinders (two) of the Adriaticis 101 in., or 1 in. larger than the cylinders of the Cunard 
steamer Persia; but if you will take the trouble to refer to the index for 1856 and 1857, 
you will be able readily enough to find the information you require respecting the Great 
Eastern ; and in the present Number you will find a notice of the Adriatic, with re- 
ferences to previous Numbers containing other particulars. 

N. J. — The locomotive engines you refer to were constructed by the late firm of Stothert, 
Slaughter and Co., Bristol. Messrs. Sharp. Stewart and Co. are the builders employed 
by the firm you mention. 



The Ahtizan, "| 
January I, 1S58.J 



Dimensions of New Steamer. — List of New Patents. 



23 



n,_ We should say that Mr. Joseph Beattie, the locomotive superintendent of the London 
and South-Western Railway Company, has done most in the way of constructing coal- 
burning locomotives ; and we believe Mr. Benjamin Fothergill, of Manchester, has been 
for some time past conducting a series of experiments upon either the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire, or the South Yorkshire Railway. 

G. E. B., Birmingham.— We are informed by Mr. Scott Russell, in reply to your inquiry, 
that the Papers on the Wave Principle, inquired for by you, are to be found in some of 
the Reports of the British Association of about twelve years back, and that they have 
not been separately published. 

W. H. N., Isle of Dogs. — We are much obliged for your letters upon apparatus for 
" deep diving ; " and when we have had an opportunity of communicating with the cor- 
respondents referred to, we will put you in communication with them. 

R. J., South Shields.— You should examine the List of Patents given at the end of each 
Number of The Aktizan during the last two years, and make a list of such as you think 
bear upon the question, and we shall then be prepared to advise you upon the subject. 

0. — We are unable to decide which is really the better arm of the two named by you, for 
we have never carried a revolver ; nor have we yet taken advantage of the polite offer 
which one of the patentees you name made to ns about four years ago, to go to his works 
and select any pistol we preferred, and might be willing to accept for our own use ; but 
•we have heard both Colonel Colt's and Adam's revolving pistols highly spoken of by 
competent judges of such weapons, and make no doubt they have each merits of 
their own. 

T. P. R., Havannah. — The parties you refer to are Americans — not Englishmen. Inquire 
of Mr. Haswell, 6, Bowling Green, New York. 



C. E., Valencia. — The rail and sleeper you describe was patented some time ago by a Mr. 
Seaton, and has, we believe, been tried on the North- Western Railway, and elsewhere ; 
but with what success we are unable to state; nor can we furnish you with Mr. Seaton's 
address. The ^material you |describe is known as Kamptulicon, and is composed of a 
mixture of cork shavings or cuttings ground up and incorporated with india rubber. 

R., Glasgow. — Silver's four -ball governor is the only complete marine governor we have 
seen. If you will send us your address, Mr. Silver's agent in Glasgow shall forward you 
particulars. 

De'L., Lisbon. — We happen to know to the contrary. Write to M. Dos Santoz, at the 
Portuguese Legation, in London; but it will be waste of postage and trouble, as we are 
quite satisfied that you are in error. In future, prepay your letters. 

B. — The attempts to raise the Russian ships of war, which were sunk in Sebastopol har- 
bour, have failed ; and we believe that Mr. Gowan has entirely given up the attempt, in 
consequence of the Russian Government having objected to his blowing up, instead of 
raising the hulls. We do not know how much to believe of the flaming statement which 
was circulated respecting the powerful and extensive character of the machinery which 
Mr. Gowan took out with him to Sebastopol for the purpose. 

NOTICE. 

In consequence of the length to which the Annual Address, and several Papers, Reports, 
&c, inserted in the present Number have extended, we have been compelled to omit 
entirely several important communications, and to omit part of Mr. Hughes's Paper on 
Girders, &c. Amongst the Papers which we have been compelled to omit, is one upon the 
Atlantic Telegraph Cable ; another upon — What is Best Scrap Iron ? 



STEAMER "INDEPENDENCE." 
Built for Captain E. Nye, under the superintendence of 
E. W. Smith, engineer. Hull by Samuel Sneden, New 
York ; Engines by Morgan Iron Works, New York. 

ft. ins. 

Length on deck 140 

Breadth of beam (molded) 26 

Depth of hold at ditto 10 3 

Tonnage custom house 250 Tons, 

DESCRIPTION. 

Number of engines, two; kind of ditto, vertical 
beam; kind of boilers, return flued; diameter of 
cylinders, 32 in. ; length of stroke, 8 ft. ; diameter of 
wheel over boards, 27 ft. ; length of boards, 7 ft. 6 in. ; 
depth of ditto, 1 ft. 8 in. ; number of ditto, twenty ; 
number of boilers, two ; length of ditto, 18 ft. ; 
breadth of ditto, 7 ft. 6 in. ; height of ditto, exclusive 



DIMENSIONS OF NEW STEAMER, 
of steam drums, 7 ft. 9 in. ; number of furnaces, two 
in each boiler ; breadth of ditto, 3 ft. 2 in. ; length of 
fire-bars. 5 ft. ; number of lower tubes, four of 17 in., 
four of 16J in.; internal diameter of upper flues, 
1 ft. 5 in. ; length of ditto, 13 ft. 6 in. ; diameter of 
chimney, 4 ft. 6 in.; height of ditto, 28 feet; boiler 
pressure in lbs. per square inch, 30 in. ; cutting off 
(from commencement of stroke), one half; area of 
immersed section of vessel at trial, 210 ft. ; combus- 
tion, natural draft ; date of trial, October, 1857 ; 
draft, 9 ft. 

Frames of white oak, 1 ft., molded, by 10 and 
12 in., sided, and 2 ft. apart ; number of bulkheads, 
two ; masts, two ; rig, schooner. 

Intended service, Harbour of Valparaiso. 

Remarks. — This steamer is designed for towing in 
the Harbour of Valparaiso. She is well suited for 



the purpose, having engines of great power propor- 
tionate to her hull ; and the crank-pin of one engine 
is so fitted, that her engines can be worked inde- 
pendent of each other, when it is required to do so. 

Bottom planking, bilges, and sides of white oak, 
3 in. ; ceiling of yellow pine, 4 in. ; bilge strakes (five 
on each side), 6 in. ; stringers, yellow pine, 6 x 26 in. ; 
keelsons, 12 x 14 in. ; deck beams, 10 x 12 in., 6 ft. 
between centre ; knees of hacmatae, ledge, bosom, 
and hanging, at every beam ; deck plank, white pine, 
3 in. ; bulwarks solid ; frames, strapped with double 
and diagonal laid iron braces 3-5 x T P s in., one to each 
frame. No cabins on deck. One independent steam, 
fire, and bilge pump ; keel, 13 x 13 in. ; floors not 
filled in solid ; anchors, 1,200, 1,020, and 300 lbs. ; 
chains, two of 90 fathoms each, one 1 in. in diameter, 
one % in. ditto. 



LIST OF NEW PATENTS AND DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 
ALLOWED. 

Bated 27th July, 1857. 
-2044. F. B. Anderson, 56, High-st., Gravesend, Kent— Me- 
chanical slow match for submarine or mining ope- 
rations. 

Bated 15th August, 1857. 
2174. G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough-park, Brixton — Pre- 
paration of dough. 

Bated lith September, 1857. 
2417. J. M. Munro, jun., Bristol — Metal wheel-stock. 

Bated oth October, 1857. 
2552. J. Coombe, Belfast — Machinery for hacking and pre- 
paring fibrous substances. 

Bated loth October, 1857. 
2641. H. A. L. Negretti and J. W. Zambra, Hatton-garden— 
Producing graduated scales and other signs, letters, 
numerals, characters, and pictorial representations, 
upon porcelain and other ceramic and enamelled 
materials, which improvements are applicable to the 
graduated scales of meteorological and other philo- 
sophical instruments. 

Dated 16th October, 1857. 
2648. D. Guthrie and J. Vavasseur, New Park-st., Southwark 
— Machine for cutting, chipping, or rasping dye- 
woods or other similar fibrous substances, for the 
purpose of obtaining extracts. 

Bated 19th October, 1857. 
2676. R. Garvey, Asland, New York, U.S.— Apparatus for 
determining position and direction on land and sea. 
Bated 20th October, 1857. 
2684. C. Tooth and W. W. Wynne, Burton-on-Trent— Re- 
frigerator. 

Bated 21st October, 1857. 
2686. R. Clark, Glasgow — Consumption or prevention of 
smoke. 

Bated 22nd October, 1857. 
2694. M. A. F. Mennons, 29, Rue de l'Abbaye-Montmartre, 
Department de la Seine, France — Machinery for 
the preparation of peat. 

Bated 23rd October, 1857. 
2704. W. H. H. Akerman, Bridgewater — Organs and similar 
musical instruments. 

Bated 24th October, 1857. 
-2708. J. Thom and H. McNaught, Glasgow — Looms for 
weaving. 

Bated 26th October, 1857. 
2712. I. Jones, St. Helen's, Lancashire — Sheet glass. 
2714. J. Horrocks, Manchester — Winding machines, bobbins, 

and shuttles for weaving. 
2716. J. Ferrabee, Phoenix Iron ,Works, and C. Whitmore, 
Stroud — Machinery for carding, scribbling, and 
condensing fibrous substances. 



Bated 27th October, 1857. 

2718. W. Clarke, Laybourne-rd., Camden-town — Connect- 
ing and working breaks for railway carriages. 

2720. T. Mottram, Rockingham-st., Sheffield— Knife han- 
dles. 

2722. R. A. Margetson, Norwich — Communicating between 
guard and driver on railways. 

2724. R. Urie, Paisley, and W. Sutherland, Penelope Works, 
Greenock — Manufacture of knitted and weft-netted 
warp fabrics. 

Bated 28th October, 1857. 

2726. H. J. Daniell, Donington-park, Derby — Communica- 
ting by' signals between the pilot and steersman, and 
between other parts of vessels. 

2728. J. E. F. Luedeke, Birmingham — Motive power engine. 

2730. P. A. M. Maury, Paris— Cutting the pile of velvets. 

2732. A. Bourgeois, 457, New Oxford-st. — Preparing liquor 
for tanning hides and skins. 

2734. J. Sloper, Oxford-st. — Motive power for propelling 
ships, &c. 

2736. W. Clark, 53, Chancery-la. — Manufacture of murexide. 

2738. W. E. Newton, 66, Chacery-la.— Manufacture of sew- 
ing silk, twist, and different kinds of thread. 

2740. J. Child, Loveday-st., and J. Child, Howard-st., Bir- 
mingham — Double-barrelled gun, with an elevated 
rifled tubular rib. 

2742. J. Fraser, Glasgow — Manufacture of saltpetre. 

2744. W. Greening, Lower Edmonton — Enamelling and or- 
namenting metals. 

Bated 29th October, 1857. 

2746. D. de la C. Gourley, Wilton-house, Regent's-park — 
Ambulance carriages. 

2748. T. Cook, Old Kent-rd.— Machinery for cutting, fram- 
ing, and packing wood matches. 

2750. W. Padget, Poole — Earthenware pipes for drains and 
sewers. 

2752. E. Smith, Carlisle-st.— Safety hook fastening. 
Bated 30th October, 1857. 

2754. J. Evans, Lower -rd., Islington — Affixing patterns and 
designs upon rollers and blocks used for imprinting. 

2756. H. Charlesworth and W. Chapman, Huddersfield — Ma- 
chinery for preparing fibrous substances to be spun. 

2758. W. Shields, Salford — Machinery for etching, engrav- 
ing, and cutting cylinders and other surfaces, to be 
used in printing and embossing. 

2760. J. Davy and W. Bentley, Bradford, Yorkshire— Looms 
for weaving. 

2762. T. S. Prideaux, 32, Charing-cross — Apparatus for regu- 
lating the supply of air furnaces. 

2764. M. Siodart, 1, Golden-sq. — Construction of sound 
boards of pianofortes. 

Bated 31st October, 1857. 

2766. H. J. Viault and J. Yiault, Paris— Mechanism for 
making signals on railways. 



2790. 



2792. 



UTILITY. 

2768. T. Lowe, Birmingham— Feeding screws, blanks, shanks, 
pins, and other such like articles, to turning, nick- 
ing, and worming lathes or machines. 

2770. L. de Landfort, Higher Broughton, near Manchester 
— Apparatus for protecting the contents of pockets 
of wearing apparel. 

2774. P. Gabbitas, Worksop, Nottingham — Washing ma- 
chines. 

2776. J. Fry, Watling-st.— Cementing fabrics when india 
rubber is employed. 

2778. J. L. Norton, Bow, Middlesex, "and E. Wilkinson, 
Leeds — Extracting oil and grease from wood pre- 
vious to its being manufactured into yarn or 
fabrics. 

Bated 2nd November, 1857. 

2780. N. Matthews, Dodworth, near Barnsley, York— Pumps. 

2782. M. F. Isoord, Paris— Producing heat and light. 
Bated 3rd November, 1857. 

2787. S. Hoga, Charlotte-st., Fitzroy-sq. — Electric tele- 

graphs. 

2788. J. Mallison, jun., Bolton-le-Moors— ' Gassing ' yarn 

and textile fabrics. 

W. J. Curtis 1> Crown-ct., Old Broad-st. — Machinery 
for slotting, boring, and surfacing. 

H. K. Sweet, Northumberland-st., Strand— Photo- 
graphic portraits and pictures. 

2796. J. Seithen, Earl-st.— Machinery for cutting cork. 

Bated 4th November, 1857. 

2797. R. Laming, Hayward's-heath — Purifying gas, and ap- 

paratus for that purpose. 

2798. W. F. Batho and E. M. Bauer, Salford, near Manches- 

ter — Machinery for drilling and boring metals, and 
also for cutting key-ways and cotter holes. 

F. Higginson, Woodlands-cottage, Woodland-, Hants 
— Submerging, extending, and laying down sub- 
marine telegraph cables. 

J. Murphy, Newport, Monmouthshire — Permanent 
way of railways. 

2801. R. I. C. Dubus, Brussels — A method of treating certain 

plants or vegetable substances, in order to extract 
from the same— 1st, a kind of feeula or farina pro- 
per both for alimentary and finishing or starching 
purposes; 2nd, an alcoholic liquor; and 3rd, a na- 
tural ferment or yeast. 

2802. C. E. Amos, the Grove, Southwark— Steam machinery 

for driving rotary pumps. 

2803. C. Clay, Walton, near Wakefield — Machinery for 

grubbing or cutting up weeds. 

2804. J. Houghton, Kilburn— Braces. 

2805. J. Miller, Alplia-rd., Regent's-pk. — Marine steam 

engines. 

Bated oth November, 1857. 
2807. J. Bunnett, Deptford — Machinery for banding and 
shaping metals. 



2799. 



2800. 



24 



List of Designs, 



r The Artizas, 
L January 1, 1858. 



2808. H. Bessemer, Queen-st.-pl., New Cannon-st.— Treating 

iron ores. 

2809. G. Robinson, High-st., Deptford— Apparatus for hull- 

ing coffee. 

2810. H. Beinhauer, Deutz, near Cologne — Machinery for 

drawing or extracting water from mines, wells, or 
pits 

2811. J. J. Cousins, Park-la., Leeds — Steam ploughs. 

2812. H. Hochstaetter, Darmstadt — Machine for the manu- 

facture of matches. 
2818. W. Sharman, Sheffield — Metallic compound, resem- 
bling German silver. 

2814. H. R. Palmer, Lambeth— Stamping and endorsing 

machine. 

Dated 6th November, 1857. 

2815. F. Lipscombe, Strand — Mode of conveying water. 

2816. K. K. Aitehison, New North-st. — Break, applicable to 

wheeled carriages. 

2817. G. Canouil, Paris — Matches. 

2818. W. Anderton, Ince-within-Mackerfield, Lancashire- 

New railway chairs. 

2819. H. Bessemer, Queen-st.-pl., New Cannon-st.— Manu- 

facture of malleable iron and steel, and railway and 
other bars. 

2820. W. Macnab, Greenock— Vessels propelled by screw. 

Sated 1th November, 1857. 

2821. H.Baines, Manchester — Machinery for the prevention 

of accidents. 

2822. J. Fordred, Stoke Newington— Treating and purifying 

water. 

2823. J. H. Pepper, Royal Polytechnic Institution, Regent- 

st. — Displaying various devices when revolving discs 
are used. 

2824. J. Adams, Queen's-rd., Dalston— Revolver fire-arms. 

2825. W. Wilson, 1, Canterbury-pl., Newington, and J. J.J. 

Field, 11, Sussex-st., Wandsworth-rd.— Casting or 
moulding liquified and other substances. 
Dated 9th November, 1857. 

2826. P. Brotherhood, Chippenham— Boilers and furnaces. 

2827. W. Hardie, 6, Pitt-st., Edinburgh— Stereoscope. 

2828. D. Stothard, Lambeth, J. Jones, Southwark, D. Jonas, 

and B. W. Jonas, Spitalfields— Ship's block. 

2829. P. A. Balestrini, Brescia, Italy— Machinery for paying 

out submarine telegraph cables. 

2830. J. Pinker, Pease-st, Hull — Governors for marine 

steam engines. 

2831. A. R. le Mire de Normandy, Judd-st., Brunswick-sq. 

— Soap. 

2832. A. Parkes, Bath-row, Holloway-head, Birmingham- 

Manufacture of nails. 

2833. G. Weedon, Gloucester-pl., Portman-sq., and T. T. 

Weedon, Plumstead— Knife cleaning machine. 

2834. W. J. Elwin, Dartford, Kent— Night lights. 

2835. J. Reeve, 46, Rutland-gate— Propelling vessels. 

Sated 10th November, 1857. 

2837. T. Roweliffe, 26, Upper Park-pl., Dorset-sq. — Machi- 

nery for making and pressing bricks, drain pipes, 
and tiles. 

2838. C. E. Lecointe, Paris — New mode for advertising. 

2839. J. Townsend, Glasgow — Manufacture of sulphurous 

acid. 

2840. A. Parkes, Bath-row, Holloway-head, Birmingham- 

Manufacture of tubes and cylinders of copper and 
alloys of copper. 

2841. J. T. Way, Welbeck-st., Cavendish-sq. — Obtaining 

ligh t by electricity. 

2842. J. Harrington, 9, Glo'ster-pl., Brixton-rd.— Apparatus 

for pointing pencils. 

2843. H. C. Bartlett, Ampthill-sq., Hampstead-rd.— Manu- 

facture of paper. 

Sated 11th November, 1857. 

2844. H. and S. Thompson, Regent-st.— Pianofortes. 

2845. P. Madden, 1, Russell-pl., Dublin— Kilns for drying 

corn, &e. 

2846. J. R. Cochrane, Glasgow— Ornamental fabrics. 

2847. O. W. Wahl, 27, Leadenhall-st.— Manufacturing fari- 

naceous products from potatoes. 

2848. I. Taylor, Stanford Rivers— Apparatus used in print- 

ing calico and other fabrics when cylinders are em- 
ployed. 

2850. A. J. Davies, 29, George-st., Hanover-sq.— Sandal for 

bathers. 

2851. J. Williams, Neath, Glamorganshire— Coupling and 

connecting carriages on railways. 

Sated 12th November, 1857. 

2852. E. Coleman, Dudley, Worcester— Lathes for turning 

bolts and screws. 

2853. J. Stevenson, jun., Glasgow— Lighting apartments and 

passages. 

2854. P. H. P. B. de Sivray, Paris— Bedsteads. 

2855. S. Webster, Bolton-le-Moors— Apparatus for tannin"-. 

2856. W. Picking, Lambeth— Feeding Steam boilers. 

2857. G. T. Bousfield— Loughborough-pk., Brixton— Castors. 

Sated 18*7* November, 1857. 
2836. W. Devon, 4, Maryland-ter., Stratford — Self-actin" 
apparatus for flushing water-closets. 

2858. W. J. Gifford, 23, New Millman-st.— Making, reefing 

and working of sails, and in the construction and 
arrangement of masts, spars,-and rigging. 

2859. G. Sheppard, Pordingbridge, Hants— Machinery for 

cultivating land. 

2860. W. J. M. Rankine, University of Glasgow— Fan blowers. 

2861. A. H. A. Durant, Conservative Club, St. James's— 

Apparatus for husking and winnowing castor seeds 
for the purpose of obtaining the larger quantity and 



a purer kind of oil therefrom when pressed than 
heretofore with the outer skin or cuticle on . 

2862. H. Bessemer, Queen-st.-pl., New Cannon-st. — Treat- 

ing and smelting of iron ores. 

Sated 14th November, 1857. 

2863. G. Haseltine, Washington, U.S.— Machinery for the 

manufacture of small metallic chains. 

2864. G. P. Wheeler, Abbingall, near Mitcheldean, Glouces- 

tershire — Preparation of materials for the manufac- 
ture of paper pulp. 

2865. J. H. Bennett, 8, Vambrugh-pl., Leith — Compound 

safety valves. 

2866. J.Macintosh, North-bank, Regent's-pk. — Preparing 

telegraphic wire, which is coated with gutta pereha, 
in order to render it more capable of resisting heat, 
and in laying down telegraphic wires in the sea. 

2867. A. V. Nesvton, 66, Chancery-la. — Apparatus for re- 

tarding and stopping the progress of railway trains. 

2868. M. Henry, 77, Pleet-st. — Electric and galvanic con- 

ductors, and machinery for manufacturing the same. 

2869. J. Fereday, Wolverhampton — Steam engine. 

Sated 16th November, 1857. 

2871. J. B. Donas, 36, Rue de l'Echiquier— New optical in- 

strument ("physioscop"). 

2872. C. Debax-Taiabas, Castres, France — Lithographic 

printing presses. 

2873. J. E. Hodges, Leicester— Manufacture of looped fa- 

brics. 

2874. J. F. Spencer, Brighton — Steam engines and apparatus. 

2875. J. Taylor, Birkenhead— Dredging machines. 

2876. T. Piichardson, Newcastle-on-Tyne — Treating man- 

ganese ores. 

Sated 17th November, 1857. 

2877. T. Field, Spring-pl., Kentish-town— Submerging sub- 

marine telegraph cables. 

2878. W. Gossage, Widnes, Lancashire — Soap. 

2880. D. Foxwell, Manchester— Materials for the backs of 

cards. 

2881. W. Pidding, Southwark-bridge-rd. — Manufacture of 

piled fabrics, or of mosaic or tesselated textile and 
other fabrics, and improvements in some of the ma- 
chinery or apparatus necessary to produce them, 
also the application of certain existing or known 
machinery or apparatus for their production. 

2882. G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough-park, Brixton— Fire- 

arms and detonating compounds. 

2883. S. P. Smith, Crescent, New York, U.S.— Iron wheels 

for railway carriages. 

2884. R. A. Brooman, 166. Fleet-st.— Manufacture upon cir- 

cular frames of a fabric suitable for petticoats, &c. 

2885. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st.— Gas burners. 

2886. W. E. Richardes, Bryn-Eithin, Aberystwith, South ] 

Wales — War-weapon. 

2887. E. D. Johnson, Wilmington-sq. — Fuzee watches. 

Sated 18th November, 1857. 

2888. W. H. Bell, Pelton, Durham— Permanent way of rail- 

ways. 

2889. J. Tinker, Stalybridge, Cheshire— Sizing matter. 

2890. E. Alcan, Fore-st. — Apparatus to be applied to looms. 

2891. F. Ayckbourn, 4, Lyon's-inn, Strand — Bird cages. 

2892. A. F , F. G., and J. Germann— Propeller. 

2893. A. A. Salomon-Cohen, Paris — Machinery for manu- 

facture of drain pipes, &c. 

2894. R. Clegg, Islington— Registerimg the revolutions of 

machines or parts of machines. 

2895. M. Booth, Manchester, and J. Farmer, Salford— Ma- 

chinery for stiffening, drying, and finishing woven 
fabrics. 

2896. P. Bettle, Messrs. Carley and Co., Ely-pl.— Watches. 

Sated 19th November, 1857. 

2897. W. Smith, St. Paul's Corner, Norton, near Malton, 

Yorkshire — Apparatus for protecting the turnip 
crop. 

2898. C. W. Williams, Liverpool — Steam engine boilers. 

2899. M. A. F. Mennons, 4, South-st., Finsbury— Washing 

and drying apparatus. 

2900. J. B. Mirio, Paris — Permanent way of railways. 

2902. T. H. H. Kelk, Tonge, near Ashby-de-la-Zouch— Me- 

tallic alloys. 

2903. S. Gill and H. Newton, Liverpool— Obtaining stereo- 

scopic pictures. 

2904. W. Clay, Liverpool— Metal knees employed in the con- 

struction of ships, buildings, &c. 

2905. W. Clay, Liverpool — Points, switches, and crossings of 

railways. 

2907. R. Goedicke, 29, John-st., Bedford-row— The sus- 

pending of the lines of electric telegraphs in the 
air by means of gas balloons across water and land, 
or the atmospheric telegraph. 

2908. D. Melvin, Glasgow — Machinery for manufacturing 

heddles or healds for weaving. 

2909. J. Clarke, Shifmal— Construction of shafts and poles 

for cabs and other vehicles. 
29J0. J. E. B. Curtis, St. James's-rd., Croydon— Apparatus 
for filing papers and documents. 

2911. J. Cope, Birmingham — Buttons 

2912. T. F. Bradson, Birmingham, and G. Hughes, Yardley, 

Worcester — Door springs. 

2913. W. J. Cantelo, Camberwell — Preparations of graves 

or cracklings for the purposes of animal food and 
manure. 

2914. B. Keightley, Lofthouse, Wakefield— Apparatus for 

indicating and registering the flow or supply of air 
to mines, &c. 

2915. C. L. West, 25, Rupert-st., Haymarket — Window 

sashes. 



2010 



2917 
2918. 



2919 
2920 



2921 

2922 

2923 

2924. 
2925. 

2926, 

2927. 
2928. 

2929, 

2930, 
2932 

2934 

2936, 
2937, 
2988, 

2939, 

2940. 
2941, 

2943. 

2945. 

2947. 

2949. 

2951. 
2953. 
2955. 

2957. 
2959. 



2961. 
2963. 
2965. 

2967. 



2973. 



2975. 
2977. 



Sated 20th November, 1807. 

J. Hinks and G. Wells, Birmingham, and J. L. Petit, 
Aston, near Birmingham— Metallic pens. 

J. Denton, Pendleton, near Manchester— Looms. 

H. Walker and J. Beaumount, Sandfield-house, Mir- 
field, Yorkshire, and J. Gothard, Huddersfield— 
Steam engines. 

H. Page, Whitechapel-rd.— Sheet and crown glass. 

P. A. Brussaut, Mont de Marsan, France— Anti-fric- 
tion apparatus for shafts, axles, and other revolving 
surfaces. 

H. Bessemer, Queen-st.-pl., New Cannon-st.— Manu- 
facture of iron and steel. 

Sated 2\st November, 1857. 

W. A. Cooper, Dungannon, Ireland— Navigation of 
steam vessels. 

T. Glover, Upper Chadwell-st., Myddelton-sq., and 
A. Bain, Fetter-la., Holborn — Electric telegraphs. 

N. F. B. de Chodzko, Paris— Furnaces for boilers. 

G. J. Benson, Christian-st., St. Goorge'a-in-the-East 
— Moulded sugar. 

S. Hall, 19, King's Arms-yd., Moorgate-st. — Appara- 
tus for igniting matches. 

J. M. A. E. Fabart, Paris — Looms for weaving. 

J. Wright, 19, Alfred-pl., Newington-causeway — 
Treating madder for printing, dyeing, distilling, &c. 
Sated 23rd November, 1857. 

S. Riley, 1a, Vietoria-ter., Victoria-st., Manchester — 
Chocolate and cocoa. 

W. McFarlane, Glasgow — Moulding cast-iron pipes.. 

C. Barlow, 89, Chancery-la. — Steam and air engines 
and furnaces. 

D. Hulett, 55 and 56, High Holborn — Cocks, taps, 
and valves. 

Dated 2ith November, 1857. 

T. C. Wilkinson, Ashford, Kent — Pump valves. 

J. Schloss, 75, Cannon-st. West — Diana lock. 

G. Lowry, Salford — Machinery for heckling fibrous 
materials. 

W. Searby, Newgate-st.— Elastic spring, applicable to 
bedsteads, sofas, chairs, &c. 

C. Sands, Felix-ter., Liverpool-rd. — Stereoscopes. 

A. F. Butler, Ceylon— Machinery for pulping coffee. 
Sated 25th November, 1857. 

R. Willan, J. Abbott, and D. Mills, Blackburn, Lan- 
cashire — Looms. 

A. and J. Martin, Trieste — Preventing the deposits and 
incrustations in boilers. 

J. Hogg, London — Safe. 

Sated 26th November, 1857. 

W. T. Manning, 20, Great George-st., Westminster — 

Treatment of sewerage. 

C. Farrow, Great Tower-st. — Fire-arms. 

H. Woodward, Birmingham — Knife cleaner. 

J. Higham and G. D. Bellamy, Plymouth — Manufac- 
ture of soap. 

Sated 21th November, 1857. 

T. Wheeler, Albion Works, Oxford — Machinery for 
cutting turnips. 

W. Elcock and S, Bentley, Wednesbury — Elbows for 
joining wrought-iron and other pipes or tubes, and 
in tools for manufacturing the said elbows. 
Sated 28th November, 1857. 

A. Vandeleur, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich— Fireplaces 
and passages for air of air furnaces. 

M. A. F. Mennons, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris — 
" Tell-tale " clock. 

W. Binns, Claremont-villa, Victoria grove, Bromp- 
ton — Application of surcharged or superheated 
steam . 

W. Massey, Newport, Salop — Guides or conductors to 
be applied to machinery or apparatus employed for 
winding or coiling chains, ropes, lines, thread, wire, 
or other similar articles. 

Sated 30th November, 1857. 

J. Gardner, R. Lee, and H. G. Pearce— Self-reefing 
sails. 

H. Deacon, Woodend Chemical Works, Widnes Dock, 
near Warrington — Apparatus employed in the ma- 
nufacture of caustic soda. 

J. P. de la Fons, Carlton-hill, St. John's-wood — Appa- 
ratus for retarding omnibuses. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st.— Casks, &c. 

C. Goodyear, Leicester-sq. — Manufacture of buoyant 
fabrics. 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 

4034. Nov. 26. J. Dixon and Sons, Sheffield, " A Lever 

and Cutter for Shot Pouch Top." 

4035. Dec. 8. S. Jones, 75, High Holborn, "The Chain 

Pocket, to prevent picking and cutting." 



INVENTION WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATION 
FILED. 

2849. E. Halliday, Ashcroft, Massachusetts, U.S. — Prevent- 
ing the overheating and bursting of steam-boilers. 
— llthNovember, 1857. 

2879. J. Gedge, Wellington-st. South, Strand— Stopping or 
retarding carriages used on ordinary roads. — 17th 
November, 1857. 

2901. H. D. Pochin and J. Woolley, Manchester— Gum or 
dextrine. — 19th November, 1857. 

3023, F. O. Ward, Cork-st., Burlington-gardens— Manufac- 
turing manure and obtaining products.— 5th Dec, 
1857. 



00 
00 



UJ 



THE ARTIZ A N, FEB R U ARY I 51 I8.f8. 



D E T A I LS 



TTIKIE (SiKl ©©G&OKI© KQMSMIIRIE, 

i 




FOR THE GUN FOUNDRY AND BORINC MILL 
WOOLWICH ARSENAL, 
BY JOJl.Y .I.YDEJiSOJV, ESQ: 




m 



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M* 







280: 
280' 
281 

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281 

281 

281 

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28: 

28 

28 
28 
28 
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Plate: 217 




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THE ARTIZ AN, FEBRUARY. I* T 1858 



■ IDE asa® EftD £i£Y/\TJDj N l UF §E<D®&« PR EPA 58 J J N 1 & jVJA 5M J j x l£. 



END ELEVATION 



u 







THE ARTIZAJN 

No. CLXXXL— Vol. XVI.— FEBRUARY 1st, 1858. 



HEMP AND FLAX SPINNING MACHINERY. 

(Illustrated by Plate No. cxvii.) 
We have already presented our Subscribers with illustrations of 
■machinery employed for preparing Hemp and Flax for the process of 
spinning into threads for the purpose of being manufactured into Ropes, 
Likes, and Coeds of various kinds ; and, in selecting the illustrations, 
we have confined our choice to those which have been thoroughly tested, 
and are known to work satisfactorily; and, although various patents 
have from time to time been obtained for improvements in this branch 
of manufacture, as in every other manufacturing operation to which the 
talent, ingenuity, and mechanical skill of our countrymen have been 
directed, we prefer rather to give as our first illustrations upon this sub- 
ject the details of machines which have been used, are found to answer, 
and are still in use ; and afterwards give illustrations of the progressive 
improvements which have been made — and this we propose to do on 
some future occasion ; in the meantime we give, in the accompanying 
Plate, 

A Side and End Elevation op the Second Preparing Machine, 
in which a is the frame; h, riggers; c, slides; d, links; e, guides ;/, rollers ; 
g, grooved ditto ; h, delivery cans ; i, filling can ; /, spring for pressing 
rollers upon sliver. 

As the mode of action of the heckle frame, as well as of the drawing 
rollers, is similar to that of the machine before described, it will not be 
necessary to repeat the description of the same, or of the gear work by 
which their motions are regulated ; but it will be seen that the heckle 
pins differ from those of the former machine, by being in two distinct 
sets, and adapted for operating upon six of the slivers prepared in the 
first machine, which are placed before it in as many cans, h. The ends 
of the slivers are first introduced through the guides, e e, passing over 
the grooved roller, g, and pressed upon by the wooden rollers, ff, by 
which three slivers, combined into one, have their fibres again separated 
and combined into a more parallel direction by the heckle pins, at the 
same time that the whole is urged forward and drawn out by the action 
of the rollers,//, between which the hempen riband passes after leaving 
the heckles, and which rollers, moving with a far greater velocity than 
the rollers, g g, cause the bundle of fibres to be regularly drawn out into 
a thinner and more regular stream, and by its subsequent compression 
between the rollers, to attain the degree of cohesion that enables it to 
undergo the next process. The machine, therefore, delivers through the 
guides, e e, two equal slivers at the same uniform velocity into can, i, 
.an operation called doubling : j is a spring, whose power is regulated by 
a screw, by means of which the requisite degree of pressure may be given 
to the rollers, //. It is to be observed that any greater number than 
three of the slivers prepared in the first machine, are passed through 
each set of heckle teeth on this occasion, accordingly as a thinner or 
thicker yarn may be required for different purposes. The double sliver 
thus made, is then removed to a third preparing machine, exactly 
similar to the one last described, where it is still further drawn out into 



a single and more uniform sliver, and received into a delivering can, 
in which state it is now passed to another machine called the com- 
pressor. 

MACHINERY OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT. 

THE NEW GUN-BORING LATHES ERECTED AT WOOLWICH TOR BORING 
LARGE IRON ORDNANCE. 

(Illustrated by Plate Xo. cxvi.) 

Having given in our January Number a somewhat elaborate plate 
and description of the gun-boring machine for the Gun Foundry and 
Boring Mill, Woolwich Arsenal, in which is exhibited a side elevation 
and plan of the machine, we have thought it desirable, and for the 
better elucidation of the subject, to give other views of the machine, 
which views will be found by reference to Plate cxvi., in the present 
Number, being respectively Figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6. 

Fig. 3 exhibits a front view of the collar frame for carrying or sup- 
porting the muzzle of the gun; also showing the vertical adjustment. 

a is the bed-plate, which is bolted to cast-iron girders, the upper 
surface of the bed being flush with the floor line. Upon the top of the 
bed-plate is bolted the collar-frame, c, in which the muzzle of the gun 
to be bored rests, and is made adjustable to suit different sizes of guns. 
In the centre of the collar frame, and above the muzzle of the gun, is 
the vertical adjustment, which is simply a sliding piece, adjustable by a 
small hand- wheel, as will be seen by reference to the Figure. 

Fig. 4 is a back view of the collar frame, with the adjustable bearing 
for the boring-bar mounted thereupon, but which scarcely needs expla- 
nation, it being merely a square collar working in guides, through which 
the boring-bar passes, and is adjustable by a hand-screw. A semi- 
circular trough, which is shown in the Figure as projecting from the 
side thereof, immediately under the muzzle of the gun, and extending 
across the whole width of the lathe, is for the purpose of catching the 
refuse of the gun during the boring operation. 

Fig. 5 is an end elevation of the machine, exhibiting the driving head- 
stock and the necessary gearing, b being the head-stock for carrying the 
breech end of the gun. 

Fig. 6 exhibits an end elevation of the boring apparatus and driving 
gear, and described in our January Number; a being the bed-plate; 
e, the gear-box, bolted to the end of the bed-plate, a; m is the lever 
worked by hand for actuating the saddle which carries the boring-bar 
during the operation of finishing the bottom of the bore. 

ON THE ADAPTATION OF SUSPENSION BRIDGES TO 
SUSTAIN THE PASSAGE OF RAILWAY TRAINS. 

Read before British Association, Section G. 
By Charles Vignoles, Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 

The following observations are submitted to the Mechanical Section of the 
British Association, as appearing to possess sufficient interest for discussion, 
from the circumstance of differences of opinion amongst civil engineers having 
thrown doubt upon the feasibility of applying the principle of suspension to the 
purpose of railway transit. 



26 



Adaptation of Suspension Bridges to Sustain the Passage of Railway Trains, [/^ty]™ 



1858. 



But the practical success in America of this principle, on a large scale, may 
he quoted as an example in its favour, and is a striking set-off against the 
failure in this country, which occurred upwards of five and twenty years ago, 
under circumstances which have militated against any attempt to repeat the 
experiment. 

Some debate on this question took place in the Institution of Civil Engineers 
of London last spring, at a meeting from which many engineers were absent ; 
and as the subject was on the intended application of a suspension-bridge to 
carry a railway across a navigable river in the North of Ireland, further 
inquiry may not be wholly uninteresting at a meeting held in the Irish capital, 
where many engineers and other practical and scientific men may be present, 
who, not having had a previous opportunity of joining in the inquiry, may 
be disposed to propound their opinions. 

A further reason for bringing this subject forward, and one which will 
naturally create a more extended interest in the discussion, is, that the recent 
events in India cannot fail to produce among the remedial measures to be applied, 
a general and a more rapid extension of railways, even to the most remote 
parts of our Asiatic dominions; and in the course of this extension many rivers 
of great breadth must be bridged. 

It is desirable to condense the matter into a few salient and important points ; 
and it may be generally assumed that the whole inquiry is comprised under the 
following heads., viz. : — 

1st. The maximum load to pass the bridge, 

2nd. The velocity of the train, 
and these being given there are these to be determined : — 

3rd. The strength of the chains, 

4th. The rigidity of the platform, 
which having been duly provided for, the additional considerations will be as to 

5th. Prevention of undulation, vibration, and oscillation. 

1st. Maximum Load to pass the Bridge. — This load may be taken as equal 
to the weight of the locomotive engine and tender, and of as many carriages as 
will extend on a single line of railway along the platform of one whole opening 
between the suspension piers. To the consideration of such a single line the 
inquiry may be confined. 

The length of the train, and consequently the weight on the platform of the 
bridge, will therefore be in proportion to the span or opening. The weight of an 
engine and tender may be taken, speaking roundly, at one ton per foot lineal 
of the railway over which they pass, and the weight of loaded carriages at half 
a ton per lineal foot. For a bridge with a clear opening of 400 ft., the weight 
of a train extending the whole length of the platform would average little more 
than half a ton per lineal foot ; but as it has been generally customary to com- 
pute the insistant load on railway bridges at one ton per lineal foot on single 
line, this weight will be the one assumed. 

2nd. Velocity of the Train. — It would be opening too wide a field upon the 
present occasion to inquire into or to attempt to solve the complex problem of 
what additional gravitating effect is produced upon railway structures by the 
percussive action of trains moving at different velocities. It must he admitted, 
in limine, that we have not at present sufficient justification to recommend that 
railway trains should be allowed to pass over the platforms of suspension 
bridges except at moderate speed, nor as a matter of every day practice should 
the locomotive engine be allowed to act except slowly while passing over such 
a bridge. 

With these limitations of speed, and of action of the driving-wheels of the 
locomotive, the resistance to weight, which must be provided for in a railway 
suspension bridge, need not be more than to meet the maximum load above 
assumed ; namely, one ton per lineal foot of the platform, in addition to the 
weight of the platform itself, of the chains and their accessories, and of the 
suspension-rods, all of which are matters of strict calculation dependant upon 
the span. 

3rd. Strength of the Chains. — The mathematical theory of suspension 
bridges has been so fully entered into by the best foreign and English authors, 
more particularly by the French, amongst whom M. Navier is the most dis- 
tinguished, that little need be said now, except to give the best admitted formula 
for calculation. There is so little practical difference in the form of the curve 
which the chain of a suspension bridge assumes when freely suspended without 
a load, and when fully loaded, that is, the difference in form between a catenary 
and a parabola, that the most esteemed writers on this subject have by common 
consent agreed to consider the curve of the chain of such a bridge to be a 
parabola rather than a catenary, on account of the very much greater simplicity 
of the mathematical calculations. 

Perhaps it may not be irrelevant to enter very briefly into this. 
When a heavy chain, freely suspended from two fixed points, is acted on by 
the force of gravity only, the form of curve which it assumes is called the 
catenary. If, however, the chain be loaded with weights distributed in such a 
manner that for each unit of length {ex. gr. for each foot), measured along the 
horizontal tangent at the lowest point of the curve, the weights should be equal 
to each other, the effect of such a distribution is to cause the curve of the 
chain to approach in form to another curve called the parabola. If the distri- 
buted weights become so great that the weight of the chain may be neglected 
in comparison with them, the form which the curve assumes in this case is 
accurately that of the parabola. 

In most, if not all ordinary cases, the weight of the chain is, however, never 
inconsiderable in relation to that of the platform and of the testing load together ; 
consequently, the form of the chain is never exactly that of the parabola, though 
it approaches more nearly to this curve than to the catenary— so near, that 
for all practical purposes it may be considered to have attained that form, 
"viz., of the parabola. 

_ In the case where the curve of the principal openings has a chord, say, for 
instance, of 424 ft., and a versed sine of 29J ft., proportion between the chord 



and versed sine of between 14 and 15 to 1, the two curves (catenary and 
parabola) passing through the points determined by these conditions, approach 
so near to each other in form that their greatest distance measured in a vertical 
line, intersecting both of them, is only - G (3-5ths) of an inch. 

The formula by which the sectional area or strength of the chain for a sus- 
pension bridge may be accurately calculated, is as follows :— Considering the 
curve of the chain as a parabola, and referring to the exhibited sheet of 
explanatory data : — 

Formula, 

For Calculations relating to Suspension Bridges reduced to the Simplest 

Terms, and Considering the Curve of the Chain as a Parabola. 

Unit of length 1 ft. 

„ superficies 1 sq. ft. 

„ volume 1 cubic ft. 

,, weight 1 ton. 

x = Half chord of parabolic curve of chain ) 

y = Versed sine of do. K Clear of supports. 

h = Semi-parameter of the parabola ) 

N.B. h, = _— by the properties of the parabola. 

o> = Minimum sectional area of the chain, exclusive of appendages. 

n = Appendages of the chain (see Explanations). 

(a> + n = Sectional area of chain, for calculating its weight and tension. 

u = Weight of a cubic foot of iron. 

e = Maximum weight admitted on chain (see Explanations). 

Sec. <j> = Length of chain at top or highest part s „ ,.,,,. 

Sec. <p = Do. at bottom or lowest part Corresponding to 1 ft. in 

h = Load on the chain (see Explanations). ( , J pgtli measured 

I = Weight of the chain and its appendages f Mnzpntafly along the 

h l = p = Total maximum load on chain for cal- chor(1 of * h * PMabolic 

dilating tension J mrve of <** cl >am. 

T = Tension at any part of the chain. 
'/• = Height or depth of abutment ) c -n i 
P = Half length of abutment \ feee Ex Pl™ations. 
W= Theoretical weight of abutment to resist tension. 

Formula. 

w = ^- — ■ " For sectional area of chain. 

c — u. n. ip sec. \/ h* + x* 

T = P \J h* + x 2 For tension of chain. 

Tr 
W = — - For resistance to tension. 

4th. The Rigidity of the Platform. — This is perhaps the most important 
point of the subject, and has probably hitherto been least considered, and, 
strictly speaking, the novelty of the inquiry is confined to this alone. 

In all the earlier examples of suspension bridges, the object of the engineer 
appears to have been to construct the platform as light as possible. In many 
instances this was carried to a most dangerous extent ; even in the case of the 
great suspension bridge over the Menai Straits, the platform has been repeat- 
edly damaged by storms of wind, which twisted it as if made of pasteboard. 
The late Mr. Rendel was the first engineer who perceived the mistake which 
had been hitherto committed in this respect. When the suspension bridge at 
Montrose had been destroyed, about 12 or 14 years ago, he reconstructed the 
platform, and stiffened it by bracings so effectually that it has since remained 
uninjured. This principle of strengthening the suspended platform was carried 
out to a greater extent by the writer of these observations at the bridge over 
the Dnieper, at Kieff, in Russia, and the successful resistance of this well- 
braced platform, to the effect of hurricane winds, and to vibration, oscillation, 
and undulation, has been very remarkable. 

The desideratum is, that the platform of a suspension bridge intended to 
sustain a railway train should be made as stiff as possible ; and the first natural 
consideration is, how is this stiffness or rigidity to be best obtained ? 

The mode in which this has been effected in the Great Niagara Suspension 
Bridge, is on the system of a deep trellis frame, in fact a timber tube, the sides 
of which are of lattice work, the railway passing on the top. 

It is generally understood, and a print published at the time seems to confirm 
this, that the original intention of Mr. Stephenson was to have added suspension 
chains for supporting the tubular platform of the Britannia Bridge, although 
that intention was subsequently abandoned, and the tubes made sufficiently 
stiff not to require their assistance. 

Another great point in this discussion seems to relate to the adapting of 
suspension bridges for passing railway trains in localities and under circum- 
stances where fixed bridges could not be erected except at an unjustifiable 
expense, or not at all, from the onerous conditions naturally or judicially 
imposed. 

According to the locality, timber or iron may be best suited for constructing 
the platform, the platform being made as deep and as stiff as possible, and thus 
becoming a girder held up by suspension chains; and the stiffness being 
augmented by the increased depth of framing, it will be advisable that the rails 
should be attached thereto as high up as practicable. 

But the weight of the platform must he kept within reasonable limits, to 
avoid too great an increase in the sectional area and weight of the chains, which 
would otherwise become necessary ; and further precautions have to be taken 
as regards the distribution of the load on the platform, and to guard against 
oscillation and undulation, for all which due consideration must be given as to 
the proper breadth of the platform. 



The Artizan\ 
February 1, I80S 



.] 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders. 



27 



The weight of the platform of an ordinary suspension bridge was formerly 
scarcely more than 36 lbs. to the square foot of the area of the whole platform — 
the present weight of the Menai Bridge platform, after having been strength- 
ened, is about 38J lbs. to the square foot; the weight of the platform of the 
Montrose Bridge, as reconstructed by Mr. Rendel, is 41J lbs. to the square foot ; 
and the weight of the platform of the Kieff Bridge is 49£ lbs. to the square foot, 
including the two footpaths, which are corballed out from the main part of the 
framing; but the weight of that part of the platform between the chains, and 
which sustains the roadway, is about 60 lbs. to the square foot. The ordinary 
test load for a suspension bridge was about 62 lbs. to the square foot ; the proof 
load put upon the Kieff Bridge was really about 84 lbs. to the square foot. 

Now a railway load passing over a suspension bridge being taken at 1 ton 
per foot forward, the weight per square foot upon the platform will vary as the 
breadth of the bridge. If the breadth be 20 fit, the passing load will be 1 cwt., 
or 112 lbs. to the square foot. If 27 ft. wide, it will be 83 lbs., and if 30 ft. 
wide, 75 lbs. to the square foot. The Kieff Bridge is 52J ft. wide, and therefore 
a passing load of 1 ton per lineal foot spread over this area is only 43 lbs. per 
square foot; whereas the test load was 84 lbs. to the square foot, which is about 
double what would have been the weight of the heaviest railway train; or 
taking 42 ft., exclusive of footpaths, the railway load would have'been 52 lbs. 
per square foot, or less than two-thirds of the test load, which (it may be 
remarked here) remained on 48 hours without the platform showing any deflec- 
tion visible to the eye, although some deflection really took place. 

It appears, therefore, most undoubted, that suspension bridges of modern 
construction may be perfectly adapted to sustain the passage of railway trains, 
and that the chief consideration has to be given to the character and dimen- 
sions of the platform; and, as a general rule, I would suggest, that notwith- 
standing the advantage to be gained by depth, this should not be carried too 
far — more especially ii the lattice-girder system be adopted, and presents too 
much surface to the wind, and thus induce increased lateral oscillation. 
Also, that the breadth of the platform for a single line should not be less than 
25 ft., in order to spread the load, and reduce the insistent weight per square 
foot of platform. 

It might be interesting to establish a comparison of the expense of various 
descriptions of platform, but these would lead too much into detail, and the 
materials for this purpose have yet to be collected ; still, as a contribution, and 
by way of illustration, the present opportunity may be taken to state the cost 
of the platform of the Kieff Bridge, already mentioned as so remarkably stiff 
and capable of sustaining the transit of a railway train. 

In a length of 12 ft. of the whole breadth of 52£ ft. of the platform, the 
quantity of materials was as follows : — 

Timber, 600 cubic ft £150 

Iron, 30 cwt 30 

£180 

for a length of 12 ft., or £15 per lineal foot of the whole breadth of the plat- 
form, which is something less than six shillings per square foot of a platform, 
such as that at Kieff, and of which the drawings are here shown. 

5th. The prevention of Undulation, §•<;. — The effects upon a suspension 
bridge of passing loads and of strong winds, cause vibration, oscillation, and 
undulation. Of these, the undulation is considered to be the most serious. 

The vibration may be assumed as produced by what may be called the per- 
cussive action of the passing load ; and when the platform is not sufficiently 
stiff, and the passing action is irregular over the surface, as for instance by the 
impetuous rush of a drove of cattle, or of a multitude of people, oscillation and 
undulation ensue. The first producing a lateral swing of the platform — the 
latter arising from the bending of the platform in its longitudinal direction. 

The remedy for vibration and oscillation is provided by a sufficiency of stiff- 
ness, not to say absolute rigidity, in the platform, which will also, to a certain 
extent, counteract the propagation of the undulation, but not entirely. 

The experience, however, of four years on the Kieff Bridge, has proved that 
the mode adopted in that construction of disposing the suspension rods 
alternately in the manner shown on the exhibited drawings, has completely 
counteracted the undulation ; and many very heavily laden carriages together, 
artillery, cavalry, and large bodies of troops, have been continually passed over 
the platform of this bridge without the slightest undulatory or oscillating 
motion having been produced. 

We are hence enabled to infer, without looking to improvements in detail 
which will naturally be introduced, that a platform so constructed and so sus- 
pended as the one at Kieff, is capable of sustaining the passage of railway 
trains at a moderate velocity, and within a reasonable cost of construction ; 
and taking the example of the Wire Bridge in America, and of this wrought - 
iron chain bridge in Russia, it may be legitimately concluded that the adapting 
of suspension bridges to railway purposes is perfectly practicable. 

The extent to which this application may be made can scarcely be defined 
a priori; but the writer ventures, from his own experience, to state his opinion, 
that where the span of the required bridge must exceed 300 ft., the suspension 
principle should be adopted for the sake of economy. 

It would be extending these observations far beyond the bounds assigned to 
such meetings as these to go further into the details ; and therefore, however 
tempting the opportunity, we must abstain from entering upon the subject of 
the modern mode of obtaining foundations and forming liver piers, which 
mode would greatly influence any selection between a fixed or a suspension 
bridge. 

Neither must we even touch upon the choice between the wire-rope and the 
wronght-iron plate-chain, as the means of suspending the platform, though 
it is obvious that when the span becomes very large, the superior lightness of 
the wire is a great inducement to decide the preference for it over the wrought 
iron. 



The proportion between the chord and the versed sine of the curve of the 
suspending chain is another point of the highest interest, as raising the ques- 
tions of more or less oxidation, and of increase or decrease in the amount of 
tension, as this proportion varies. 

It is sufficient to have brought the general subject of the practicability of 
adapting suspension hridges to sustain the passage of railway trains before the 
Mechanical Section of the British Association ; and it is to be hoped that this 
opportunity will not pass away without engineers and other scientific and 
practical men now assembled bringing their judgment and experience to a 
ventilation of this very important question. 



AN INQUIRY INTO THE STRENGTH OE BEAMS AND GIRDERS 
OE ALL DESCRIPTIONS, EROM THE MOST SIMPLE AND 
ELEMENTARY EORMS, UP TO THE COMPLEX ARRANGE- 
MENTS WHICH OBTAIN IN GIRDER BRIDGES OE WROUGHT 
AND CAST IRON. 

By Samuel Hughes, C.E., F.G.S., &c. 
(Continued from page 6.) 

The following experiments on the tensile strength of Cast Iron are described 
by Mr. Hodgkinson in the Seventh Report, Vol. vi., of the British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science: — 



Description of Iron 



Carron iron, No. 2, h. b 

Do. No. 2, c. B 

Do. No. 3, h. b 

Do. No. 3, c.b 

Devon, Scotland, No. 3, h. b 

Buffery, No. 1, h. b 

Do. No. 1, c.B 

Coed Talon, N.W., No. 2, h. b } 

Do. do. do } 

Do. do. No. 2, c. b j 

Do. do. do ( 



No. of 
experiment. 



Mean strength, or tearing 

weight per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 
13,505 
10,083 
17,755 
14,200 
21,907 
13,434 
17,466 



tons. cwt. 
6 0i 



9 

18| 

7 
15! 


16 



16,676 ..7 9 
18,855 ..8 8 



These experiments were made on bars having a sectional area vary- 
ing from 1! in. to 4 in. 

The mean tensile strength of cast iron derived from Hodgkinson's 
experiments for the Commission of 1849, was 15,711 lbs. per square inch, 
and the ultimate extension g Jg of its length. And this weight would com- 
press a bar of the same section J s of its length. 

The Commissioners observe that the usual law is very nearly true for 
wrought iron. 

This law is to the effect that up to a tensile strain of 12 tons per 
square inch, beyond which wrought-iron bars are seldom weighted, the 
extension is in proportion to the weight; so that here the modulus of 
elasticity becomes very important, as will be seen hereafter for cal- 
culating the extensions according to any tensile strain which may be 
applied. 

Hodgkinson's Experiments on the Tensile Strength op 
Wrought Iron. 

These experiments were made on rods 50 ft. long ; one set was made 
on a rod - 517 in. in diameter; mean area of section -2099 in. 

The other set was made on a rod "7517 in. diameter; mean area of 
section = -44379 in. 

.First Set of Experiments. 

The weights were applied by increments of 5 cwt. up to 50 cwt., or 
rather more than 10 tons per square inch. 

Up to this weight the mean ratio of. weight per square inch to exten- 
sion or value of — = 232223, where w' is the weight in lbs. per square 

inch, and e' the extension in inches for a rod 10 ft. long and 1 in. square. 
Then as 10 ft. = 120 in. the modulus of elasticity for this iron is 
232223 X 120 = 27,866,760. 

(The modulus of elasticity is — where iv is the weight for 1 sq. in., and 

e the extension for 1 in. of length). 

The bar broke in the first set of experiments with a weight of 5 tons = 

5 

== 23-817 tons for 1 in. square. 

•2099 



28 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders. 



r The Artizan, 
L February 1, 1858. 



The utmost stretching with 50 cwt. = 26,676 lbs. per square inch, was 
only -606 in., and the permanent set. -049 in.: with the heaviest weight 
applied it stretched 21 in. before breaking. 

Second Table of Experiments. 
Here again the bar was weighted up to 10 tons per square inch with- 
out injuring its elasticity; the mean ratio of — being 230,760, so that 
the modulus of elasticity = 230760 X 120 = 27.691,200. 

Mr. Hodgkinson has the following columns in his table : — 

1st. Weight applied to stretch the rod in lbs., increasing 5 cwt. at a 
time ; weight in lbs. = w. 

2nd. Extension of rod on opposite sides, the mean in inches being 
taken = e. 

3rd. Set of rod on opposite sides at first scarcely perceptible, but 
with 10 tons per square inch amounting to 2 ' 5 of e. 

4th. Weight laid on per square inch of section = — = w. 

a 

5th. Extension of rod if 10 ft. long and 1 in. square = _ = e: 



10 , 



6th. Set of rod if 10 ft. long and 1 in. square 

7th. Ratio of weight per square inch to extension = — 



We have seen, page 6, that -^. = e, and it has been found by expe- 
riment that up to 15 or 16 tons the extension of wrought iron is 
remarkably uniform ; that is, it increases as nearly as possible in propor- 
tion to the weight, 2 tons giving double the extension of 1 ton, and so on. 
Hence the extension per ton of weight and per square inch of section 

qQin 

will be in parts of the length^—-, or from Hodgkinson's Table 1, already 



quoted, it will be in parts of the length 



2240 
27,866760' 



and from Table 2 it 



will be- 



2240 



27,691,200 

Mr. Clark proposes to take 28,000,000 as the modulus of elasticity, so 
2240 



that e == 



-, which gives a simple rule to this effect, 



28,000,000 100,000 
that every ton produces an extension per square inch = 
1 



100,000 
of the length. Hence the extension per ton and per square 



12,500 
inch == -00008 I 

Mr. Clark gives a Table at p. 372 of his book, showing the observed 
and calculated extensions of a wrought-iron bar 10 ft. long and 1 In. 
square, from which weights were suspended increasing by 1 ton each 
time. 

The column for calculated extension was derived from the formula e 
= '00008 I W, and was found to be almost identical with the observed or 
actual extension up to 12 tous, beyond which the observed extension 
rapidly exceeds the uniform rate. 

With the view of simplifying the calculation still further, Mr. Clark 
proposes to assume both the compression and extension of wrought iron 

to take place at the rate of _L_ ofthelengthforevery ton of direct strain. 
•10,000 

In this case, as 1 ton would extend the bar — — , it follows that 

10,000 

10,000 tons, or 22,400,000 lbs. would extend it to the length of 1, or 
double its own length. Hence, according to this assumption, 22,400,000 
would be the modulus of tensile elasticity. 

Experiments on Boiler Plate, recorded by Mr. Edwin Clark. 

These experiments were made at the Britannia Bridge, on the rolled 

plates and rivet iron employed in that 

structure. The specimens were pre- ! n 
pared in the following form, . the sec- | 

tional area of the neck being always 1 ' 

sq. in The weight was always applied in the direction of the length of 
the plate as rolled. 

The specimen was suspended from a shackle, and broken by direct 
weight placed on a scale. The ultimate extension was measured on the 
fractured bar from punch marks previously made on the neck. 



Experiments on the Ultimate Strength of Boiler Plate. 



No. 



DESCRIPTION OF l'L.VTE. 



Plate 11-lGths in. thick; neck 1J in. long. Selected as 
bad iron ; fracture bright and crystalline, brittle ; broke 
readily with blow from a hammer 

From same plate 

Plate, 5 in. ; neck, 6 in. Selected as bad iron, containing 
two laminae of crystalline metal l-3rd of tlie whole 
section 

Plate, J in; neck, 5 in. Selected as a good plate; about 
l-10th of the section crystalline 

Plate, \ in. ; neck, 4 in. Iron perfectly uniform and 
fibrous ; supported the weight 15 minutes 

Plate, 11-lGtIis in. thick ; neck, 5 in. Iron good ; l-40th 
of section crystalline 

Plate, > 2 inch; neck, 5 in. Iron fibrous, except l-50th of 
the section 

Plate, 5 in. ; neck, 50 in 

Plate, 5-8ths in. ; neck, 50 in 

Plate, i- in. ; neck, 7 in 

Plate, 5 in. ; neck, 7 in 

Plate, 5 in. ; neck, 50 in 



p. 


3 5 

fe „ 

- ~ 

Iff 
5 

H 


Tons. 


22 


21 


18 


19 


21 


10 


18 


19-6 


19-3 


19-6 


20-2 


18-7 






Mr. Clark observes that from the mean of the above experiments the 
ultimate tensile strength of boiler plate appears to be 19-6 tons ; and the 
ultimate strength is remarkably constant, although the iron comes from 
different makers — from Staffordshire, Derbyshire, and Shropshire. The 
ultimate extension, on the contrary, is extremely irregular. Mr Clark 
observes that, as regards boiler plates, the ultimate strength of 25 tons 
per inch, usually assumed for wrought iron, is evidently erroneous ; and 
this strength was not obtained from any iron used in the Britannia 
Bridge. He then describes an experiment made on the works of Messrs. 
Mare, at Blackwall (now the Thames Iron Co.), on a quality denomi- 
nated best scrap rivet iron, the fracture of which was perfectly fibrous, 
and the quality unusually good. This iron broke on an average with 
24 tons per square inch, or 18-84 tons per circular inch. The length of 
the round rods experimented on was 60 in., the diameter 7-8ths of an 
inch, and the mean ultimate extension, which was uniform, l-8th of the 
length. 
Experiments to determine Ultimate Strength across the Fibre of the Iron. 
The following results were obtained: — 

Ultimate Strength. 

In direction of Across the 

Fibre. Filjre. 

Experiment 1 19-66 16-93 

„ 2 20-20 16-70 

The ultimate extension was also twice as great when the plate was 
broken in the direction of the fibre. 

Mr. Clark concludes that the ultimate tensile strength of wrought-iron 
bars may be taken at 24 tons, and of wrought-iron plates at 20 tons per 
square inch, and the ultimate useful strength of the latter at 12 tons 
per square inch. Up to 12 tons per square inch the extension of boiler 

Q 

plate may be taken at of the length per ton per square inch of 

1 J 100,000 

section. 

Mr. Eairbairn has made some valuable experiments on wrought-iron 
plates, which were communicated to the Royal Society, in a Paper read 
13th June, 1850. The extension produced by the weight was not ascer- 
tained in these experiments, but the following is a condensed statement 
of the results which were arrived at :— [See Table at the top of page 29.] 

In these experiments it will be observed the strength is greater across 
the fibre in the ratio of 225 to 230 ; whereas, in Mr. Clark's experi- 
ments, the strength across the fibre was much less, being in the ratio 
of 199 to 168. M. Navier, who also experimented on this subject, 
made the strength of wrought-iron plates in the direction of the fibre 
40-8, and across the fibre 36-4. 

Thus, calling the strength unity in the direction of the fibre, Mr. 
Eairbairn makes the strength across the fibre 1-023 

Mr. Edwin Clark -845 

M. Navier "892 

the two latter agreeing very nearly. 






The Artizan, "1 
February 1,1858. J 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders. 



29 



Description of Plate. 



Plates of Low Moor Yorkshire Iron, drawn in the direction 

of the fibre, area of section 2-00 x -22 = -44 sq. in 

Plates of same Iron, drawn in the direction of the fibre, area 

of section 2-00 x -26 = "52 sq. in ~'^'""'AA 

Same Iron, drawn across the fibre, area of section 2-00 x -22 

Ditto, ditto, area 2-00 x -26 •■■■•■•• • 

Derbyshire Iron, drawn in the direction of the fibre, area ot 

the section 2-00 x -285 = -57 in • 

Ditto, ditto, drawn across the fibre, same area of section. . . . 
Shropshire Iron, drawn in the direction of the fibre, area of 

section 2-00 x -2C5 = -53 in 

Same Iron, drawn across the fibre, and same area of section . 
Staffordshire Iron, drawn in the direction of the fibre, area 

of section 2-00 x. -26 = -52 in 

Same Iron, drawn across the fibre, and same area of section . 

SUMMARY. 



Mean break- 
ing weight 

in tons 
per sq. in. 



25 -77 

22-76 
27-49 

26 -037 

21-68 
18-65 

22 -826 
22-0 

19 -563 
21-01 



Yorkshire plates . . . 
Ditto 

Derbyshire plates . , 
Shropshire plates . . 
Staffordshire plates 

Mean 



Mean breaking 
weight in the direc- 
tion of the fibre in 

tons per sq. in. 



25 -770 
22 -760 

21 -680 

22 -826 
19 -563 



22 -519 



Mean breaking 

weight across the 

fibre in tons per 

sq. in. 



27 -490 
26 -037 
18 -650 
22 -000 
21 -010 



23-037 



Fig. 19. 



Kg. 20. 



Fig. 21 



Mr. Fairbairn says, the mode of piling the rough bars before rolling 
may account for the difference between himself and M. Navier, who 
may have experimented on plates rolled from piles made up in a different 
manner. In this country the rough bars are piled in alternate layers at 
right angles to each other; and Mr. Fairbairn thus accounts for the 
great uniformity of the tensile strength in both directions. This ex- 
planation, however, does not account for the difference in Mr. Clark's 
experiments, where the strength across the fibre was only about 4-5ths 
of the strength in the other direction. 

It is only justice to Mr. Fairbairn's experiments to say that they were 
made with a lever which is considered by some to afford more accurate 
results for tensile strength than the hydrostatic press. The lever can 
be weighted in the most gradual manner, and is free from the jerks and 
concussions that have been attributed to the hydrostatic press, and which 
are said to be peculiar to the mode in which the power is applied. 

VARIOUS KINDS OF EIVETTED JOINTS. 

The lap-joint is where one plate overlaps another. (Fig. 19). 

The single rivetted lap-joint has only one row of rivets. (Fig. 20). 

The double rivetted lap-joint has two rows, as in Fig. 21. 

The jump-joint is where one plate butts against the other and does 
not overlap, the joint being covered by a separate plate. (Fig. 22). 

The single rivetted jump-joint is shown by Fig. 23. 

The double rivetted is shown by Fig. 24. 

The single rivetted jump-joint, with two covering plates, in Fig. 25. 

The double rivetted jump-joint, with two covering plates, in Fig. 26. 

In his Paper of 1850, Mr. Fairbairn describes the result of experi- 
ments made on the tensile strength of plates rivetted in these various 
forms for the purpose of comparison with the solid plate. He found, as 
the mean of nine experiments, that plates rivetted in the form shown by 
Fig. 20, or having a single rivetted lap-joint, broke through the rivets 
with 18,590 lbs.; whereas the solid plate of the same sectional area 
required a force of 25,400 lbs. to tear it asunder. 

Fig. 22. Fig. 23. 



— «*, 




b^M^g^ ^^sg^HL^, r=^Y^^_-i 



Fig. 27. 



Fig. 2-1, 



vwmt 



V" " ; 1 







Fig. 26. 





As the mean of three experiments he found the form in Fig. 21, or 
double rivetted lap, required 22,531 lbs. ; and as the mean of five ex- 
periments, form shown in Fig. 24, or the double rivetted jump-joint 
with a covering plate on one side only, required 23,707 lbs. 

Prom two extensive series of experiments, Mr. Fairbairn determines 
that the strength of the joints is to the strength of the plates of equal 
sections of metal as the numbers 1000 representing solid plate, 977 re- 
presenting double rivetted jump-joints, Fig. 24, and 761 representing 
single rivetted lap-joints. Fig. 20. 

" Exclusive of this difference, we must, however," says Mr. Fairbairn, 
" deduct 30 per cent, for the loss of metal actually punched out for the 
reception of the rivets, and the absolute strength of the plates will then 
be to that of the rivetted joints as the numbers 100, 68, and 46." In 
practice, however, considering that the rivets are somewhat wider apart 
than in his experiments, and that an increase of strength is gained by 
the adhesion of the two plates in contact, Mr. Fairbairn assumes the 
following as the relative value of the plates with their rivetted joints : — 

Taking the strength of the plate at 100 

The strength of the double rivetted jump-joint, Pig. 24, is.. 70 
And the strength of the single rivetted lap-joint, Fig. 20, is 56 



Fig. 28. 

The following Table is given by Mr. Fairbairn as exhibiting the strongest 
form and best jjroportions of Rivetted Joints as deduced from the experi- 
ments, and from actual practice. 



Thickness 


Diameter of 


Length of 


Distance of 

Rivets from 

cen tre to centre 

in inches. 


Quantity of 
Quantity of lap| Lap in 


of Plates in 


Rivets in 


Rivets from the 


in Singl 


e Joints 


Double-ri- 


inches. 


inches. 


head in inches. 


in m 


ches. 


vetted Joints 
in inclies. 






Ratio. 




Ratio. 




Ratio. 




Ratio. 




•19 = ! T 1 


■38 


2 


•88 


4-5 


1-25 


6 


1-25 


6 


t -3 <v o 


•25 = fs 


■50 


2 


1-13 


4-5 


1-50 


6 


1-50 


6 


2J .— 




















3 Cg CO 


■31 = -ft 


•63 


2 


1-38 


4-5 


1-63 





1-88 


6 


g^°- 


•38 = A 


•75 


2 


1-63 


4-5 


1-75 


5 


2-00 


5-5 


a -©H += 


•50 = f B 


•81 


1-5 


2-25 


4-5 


2-00 


4 


2"25 


4-5 


Jhu^rf 


■C3={« 


•94 


1-5 


2-75 


4-5 


2-50 


4 


2-75 


4-5 


is !"§•<*■ 


"75 = 4| 


1-13 


1-5 


3-25 


4-5 


3-00 


4 


3-25 


4-5 


* 



30 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders. 



r The Artizait, 
L February 1, 1858. 



The columns marked ratio in the preceding table, express the pro- 
portion between the thickness of the plate and the diameter, length, &c, 
of the rivets. For example : required the particulars of rivets for J in. 
plates. Here 

Inches, Inches. 

•5 X 1"5 = -75 diameter of rivet = f 

■5 X 4'5 = 2-25 length of rivet = 2\ 

•5 X 4-0 = 2-00 distance between rivets = 2 
•5 x 4-5 = 2-25 quantity of lap = 2\ 

and 

2-25 xf = 375 quantity of lap for double joints = 3| inches 

There is probably no branch of experimental inquiry in which more 
varying and discordant results have been attained than in that which 
seeks to determine the absolute strength of wrought iron subjected to a 
tensile strain, or to the action of a weight applied to tear it asunder. 

It is obvious that the composition of the iron and the method of rolling, 
each exert an important influence on the strength. Thus, it is obvious, 
there must be an enormous difference in the quality of bar iron which is 
rolled direct from the puddling furnace without being cut andrepiled and 
those superior kinds which are repeatedly cut up and re-rolled. Again, 
the descriptions of iron termed scrap, rivet, and faggot iron are, from the 
process of manufacture, very superior to iron rolled from refined metal 
only. 

The best descriptions of scrap iron are made from a heterogeneous col- 
lection of all sorts of small wrought iron articles, such as broken wheel 
tyres, fragments of hoop iron, nails, horse-shoes, old screws, nuts and 
knobs, besides innumerable articles of domestic use which find their way 
into the stores of the old iron collector and marine store dealer. These 
scraps are made up into faggots or cubical masses of about a foot in 
every direction. The business of making up the faggots is usually per- 
formed by boys who work at the bundling bench in the following manner. 
The space for the faggot is defined by upright standards of iron placed 
about a foot apart. In the space between these uprights are placed two 
narrow strips of soft iron which are used to bind together the numerous 
pieces of which the faggot or pile is composed. At the bottom are laid 
the largest pieces of scrap, such as bits of coach tyre, hoop iron, and 
similar kinds of iron. The sides are also formed of flat pieces, com- 
monly old hoop iron, which is straightened for the purpose, and the 
interior is filled up with all sorts of small pieces. The top, like the 
bottom, is covered with the flat and large pieces, and when the pile is 
about a foot high, the strips of soft iron from the bottom are bent round 
the faggot and firmly twisted together. The faggot is then placed in 
the furnace, and, being heated to a welding heat, is withdrawn, and 
either formed into a bloom beneath a Nasmytb. or tilt-hammer, or is passed 
between rollers with very large grooves, which reduce it somewhat to 
the form of a bar or a plate. It is then again heated and passed between 
other rollers, until the proper form is attained, whether this be that of 
bar iron, round or square, or whether it be flat plate, or some of the 
various forms of angle iron, or T iron now so extensively used in the 
arts. 

The best Swedish bar iron is made from the finest descriptions of 
charcoal iron, and being also manufactured in a very superior manner, 
necessarily possesses great strength and tenacity. Iron wire, again, in 
consequence of the superior iron from which it is manufactured, and the 
minute sizes of which it is rolled, attains greater proportionate strength 
for a given area than bar or other iron of larger dimensions. 

In addition to the differences which are due to these causes, it cannot 
be concealed that there is also a gradual and increasing difference in the 
quality of iron produced in successive years. The iron manufacture of 
this country has attained an enormous development, which, unfor- 
tunately, has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase of quality. 
On the contrary, all the earlier experimenters on iron found a greater 
strength than is now possessed even by the best qualities. It is foreign 
to the purpose of this article to trace the causes of this falling off and 
deterioration of a national manufacture, otherwise it would be very easy 
to show a case of serious national importance, which is perhaps more 
worthy of the attention of our legislators than those to which their 
labours are commonly applied. Whatever be the causes— whether the 
spirit of speculation, the race of competition between the great iron 
manufacturers to produce their iron at the cheapest rate, or the intro- 
duction of new and cunning chemical secrets to enable them to work up 
inferior iron— certain it is that our manufacture of wrought iron has been 
seriously deteriorating during the last half century, and unless some 
improvement shortly takes place, we shall, before long, acquire a reputa- 
tion for manufacturing only inferior iron. 

Another great injury to British manufactures, and to the fame of 
our iron works, is undoubtedly caused by the great multitude of inde- 
finite and unintelligible brands and marks by which the trade chooses to 
designate iron of different kinds. These marks, as indications of quality, 
are not unfrequently absurd, contradictory, and ungrammatical. For 
instance, the expression best scrap, would, by ordinary persons, be inter- 
preted to mean the best material which could be made out of scraps or pieces 
of old iron ; but the manufacturer will tell you this is not its meaning, as 



there is another kind which he terms best best scrap : and not content 
with this repetition of superlatives, he has yet a further degree which is 
termed best, best, best; and an iron bar has been heard of with even four 
bests applied to it as descriptive of its quality. Can anything be more 
senseless and absurd than this ? Mr. Edwin Clark relates, that in the 
course of his extensive dealings with iron-masters during the building 
of the Britannia and Conway Bridges, his eyes were gradually opened to 
the successive qualities denoted by this absurd repetition of prefixes. 
At first he thought, like other people, that best scrap really meant best ; 
but he afterwards found, not only that there were many grades of quality 
far superior to best, but that best was in fact the commonest and most 
inferior kind of scrap iron that was made. Such is the interpretation 
put, in the trade, upon their own expression, best scrap. It is unnecessary 
for me to point out here the evils to commercial morality involved in. 
such a misuse of words, nor the serious and ruinous consequences which 
have frequently followed, especially in contracts which have been made 
with foreigners and others, who could not be expected to know that best 
meant anything but that which it professes to mean— that best, in fact, 
was anything short of superlative. 

Writers on the strength of materials in the last century seldom assigned 
to bar iron a less tensile strength than 30 tons per square inch as the 
weight which would tear asunder a bar of ordinary wrought iron 1 in. 
square. 

Thus, Emerson gives the tensile strength of bar iron at 34 tons ; 
Telford, 29-29 ; Drewry, 27 tons ; while at the present day Templeton 
gives 25 tons; Beardmore, 26-8: Brown, 35 tons; and Eaton Hodgkinson, 
probably from more careful experiments than any other, 23-817. 

The late Sir Mark Brunei made experiments thirty years ago on ham- 
mered iron of two qualities ; one denominated best, the other best best. 
The former broke with a tensile strain of 30-6 tons per square inch, the 
latter with 32-3 tons. Mr. Drewry assumed, so lately as 1832, that 
27 tons per square inch might be safely taken as the strength of the 
links of vertical bars in suspension bridges ; and this, he says, is the 
mean given by Captain Brown's and Mr. Telford's experiments. It is 
believed that ordinary bar iron rarely, if ever, possesses this strength in 
the present day ; and Mr. Hodgkinson's experiments show less than 
24 tons. Mr. Edwin Clark's experiments on boiler plate ranged from 
18 to 22 tons, as seen from table at page 28 ; and this is probably a fair 
representation of plate iron at the present day. 

The tensile strength of Swedish bar iron is stated by Beardmore at 30 
tons, and by Templeton at 32. The following is the strength of iron 
wire, as determined by various experimenters : — 

Tons. 

Telford (mean of 6 experiments) 38 - 4 

Dufour 38-4 to 40-75 

Vicat 47 

Dr. Hutton 38 

Mr. Loyd's Experiments to Ascertain the Effect of Tensile 
Strain on Bars of Wrought Iron. 

These experiments were made by Mr. Thomas Loyd, Inspector of 
Machinery at Woolwich Dockyard, to determine the tensile strength of 
S. C. crown bar iron, a well-known and highly-esteemed variety. 

These experiments were made on bars 5 ft. in length, cut out of the 
middle of long bars. Forty of these bars were broken by weights which 
varied from 29-75 tons per sq. in. up to 34-25, the mean breaking weight 
being 32-84 tons. The ultimate elongation of 20 bars was taken after 
the fracture, and this varied from 7-5 in. up to 10-61, the mean being 
9-09 in. for lengths of 5 ft. or 10-66ths of the whole length. The elongation 
of 20 bars was also taken when loaded with a weight of 25 tons, which 
was assumed as 3-4ths of their breaking weight. This elongation varied 
from 1-12 to 2 - 18 in. in 5 ft., the mean elongation being 1-64, or about 
l-36th of the whole length. 

I have myself experimented on King and Queen scrap iron, the manu- 
facture of Howard and Bavenhill, which only extended 6 ' g "part of its 
length with a weight of 24-35 tons per square inch. Another specimen 
of the same iron extended -^ part of the length with 25^ tons per square 
inch. Iron densminated best scrap, with the brand S. H. Crown, was 
extended ^ part of its length with a weight of 16-1 tons; and an 
inferior iron, called Page and Son's Crown Scrap, broke with 20-92 tons 
per square inch, the ultimate elongation being J T . 

Machines for Experimenting on Tensile Strain. 

These experiments are seldom made by means of direct weight, but 
commonly either with a lever or with the hydrostatic press. 

Fig. 27 shows the lever machine used by Mr. Fairbairn for his expe- 
riments on boiler plates. 

a is th.e fulcrum of the lever, which passes through a rectangular loop, 
b, suspended by strong shackles from the lower extremity of the speci- 
men e, f. This specimen is hung on the cross-bar, d, by rings and 
shackles, b, c, is the long area of the lever, at the end of which the 
necessary weights are suspended to produce the required tension on the bar. 
As the end, c, of the lever is depressed, the point, b, comes down in a 
corresponding degree till the specimen, e, f, is elongated to the breaking 



The Abtizan. 
February 1, 1858. 



&.] 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



31 



point. The power of this lever is of course in proportion to the lengths, 
a b and a c, or about 1 to 7. Hence, one ton in the further scale pro- 
duces a tension at b = 7 tons. 

The hydrostatic press used for experiments on tension is frequently 
of the same description as that used for testing chain cables. A first- 
rate machine of this description may be seen at Messrs. Mitcheson's 
chain-cable testing -works, near the Commercial Docks. 

Jig 28 is a sketch of this press, which will show the mode in which it 
is used, a, is the large piston or solid plunger, 10J in. in diameter, which 
is forced by the pressure of the water in the direction of the arrow ; y, 
is the piston-rod working through a stuffing-box, and attached to strong 
hooks and shackles for holding either a chain cable or any specimen of 
wrought iron to be experimented upon. The other end of the specimen, 
whether a piece of bar or chain, is attached by shackles to an enormously 
strong cable, which will resist a pressure of 60 or 70 tons, and which is 
firmly secured at the further extremity. 

The water is pumped into the cylinder through the copper pipe a, 
the pumping power being either worked by a steam engine or by manual 
labour ; b is an accurately fitted plug, or small plunger, | of an inch in 
diameter, which works in the side of the large cylinder, and is of course 
subject to the same pressure per square inch as the large piston, A. 
c is the lever, the fulcrum of which is at e, and the length from c to /is 
105 in., while e to b is 4% in. It is evident when the water is forced into 
the large cylinder, against the piston, a, a proportionate force is exerted 
against the plug, b, which acts on the short arm of the lever, and tends 
to balance the weights placed in the scale, d. The power gained is, first, 
that of the ratio between the squares of the two pistons, less the square 
of g, the piston-rod ; and, secondly, this power has to be multiplied by 
the ratio between e b and ef. 

Now, the diameter of a = 10| in. 
9 = 4 7 „ 

Then, P°» 2 - 42 = 110 ' 25 " " 
(D* "7656 



123; that is, the pressure on the 



piston, a, is 123 times greater than on the plunger, b. The gain by 

leverage is equal to — = 24-8. Then, 123 x 24-8 = 3038 ; so that 

4"25 
every pound weight placed in the scale at d indicates a pressure on the 
piston, a, = 3,038 lbs. at the moment when the end, /, of the lever is 
raised. 
The whole formula for power may be more readily expressed thus : — 
(10-5)' -4»x 105 = 3041 lbg< = 27 cwt 17 ]b 
•7656 X 4-25 
the pressure on a, or tension on the specimen, represented by each lb. 
weight in the scale at d. 

Also, = 11-75 oz., the weight in the scale which repre- 

3041 5 x 

sents 1 ton pressure on the piston, a. 

It will be readily seen how small a weight in the scale will rjroduce a 
very great tension in this powerful machine: for instance, 56 lbs., or 
half a hundred weight, will produce a tension of 56 X 27 = 1,512 cwt., 
or more than 75 tons; a strain or test which is not unfrequently applied 
to chain cables. 

The formula which has been given for the extension of cast iron may 
be simplified for practical purposes within the limits of 6 or 7 tons per 
square inch, which, as we have seen, is the highest tensile strain that 
cast iron is capable of bearing. Thus, the extension for cast iron may 
be taken at about -^ m part of the length for each ton per square inch ; 
hence, for cast iron, we have e' = -00018 I, or 2| times -00008 /, the 
extension for wrought iron. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEEES. 

January 12, 1858. 

Joseph Lockb, Esq., M.P., President, in tlie Chair. 

The proceedings of the evening were commenced by an Address from the 
President, on taking the chair for the first time since his election. 

He noticed the fact of his having been called unexpectedly to fulfil the duties 
of President ; his views of the first obligation— the Address— being more than 
a formality; and the annually increasing difficulty of finding new topics. 

He proposed to confine his observations to one portion of professional duties 
with which circumstances had induced personal experience — the principles and 
character of the French railway system ; and this he was encouraged to attempt 
in consequence of the late President — Mr. Robert Stephenson — having so fully 
discussed the main features of English railways, the origin, progress, and 
results of which were in many respects strikingly dissimilar to those of the 
Continent. 

The practical results in England had been immense convenience and advan- 
tage to the public who used, and inadequate profit to those who had con- 
structed, the railways ; but in France the terms were reversed — the capital 
invested yielding a good profit, whilst the service to the public, although far in 
advance of all former means of conveyance, was still very limited. 



In contrasting the systems, it would be shown that the real difference was 
greater than was apparent on a mere comparison of per-centage of income and 
profit ; and that other things being equal, the advantage might be assumed to 
be in favour of England in all that was essential to the success of improved, 
communication; and all circumstances being considered, the result should 
have been a higher rate of profit from railways in England than in France. 

The essential characteristics of the French system, were, first, the determi- 
nation by the State of the locality and direction of the main arterial lines of 
railway; and secondly, the process which the State, whilst adhering to its 
general rule, of absolute control over the selection of lines, had thought proper 
to employ, in order to obtain the desired progress in their construction. 

The terms of concession had undergone great variation at different periods 
of the French railway history, but the system had been invariably sustained by 
the conservative operation of the ruling principle, and it was this which had 
given to the French system the main advantage over the more liberal course 
pursued in England. In the former case, the State absolutely determined the 
lines, favouring exclusively main arterial communications, and forbidding com- 
petition within special districts ; whilst in the latter case the principles of 
competition had been not only admitted, but encouraged, with ruinous results 
to the shareholders. 

In the first projection of a line in France, the English system of Parliamen- 
tary notices, deposit of plans, standing orders, committees, examinations, &c, 
were entirely dispensed with. The Government took the initiative in every- 
thing relating to public works. All railways must originate with, or be sanc- 
tioned by the State, and when a ministerial decision was pronounced in favour 
of the " public utility " of any line, the Minister of Public Works was autho- 
rised to satisfy himself of the " bond fides " and ability of the several compe- 
titors, to select the most eligible offer, and to enter into a preliminary treaty, 
which, when approved by the Government and the Chamber, or Senate, was 
ultimately signed by the Emperor, and became law. The " cahier des charges," 
fixing the conditions of the concession and the powers of the Company, was 
settled at the same time. The Government furnished such plans, sections, and 
other data relative to the line, as were in its possession, and the railway was 
then laid out. The " cahier des charges " allowed considerable latitude in the 
selection of the line. The preliminary survey, or "avant projet," containing a 
general description of the line, with details of the curves, gradients, &c, was 
presented by the Company to the Minister of Public Works, who, after con- 
sulting with the " Conseil des Pouts et Chaussees," signified his approval 
through the Prefet to the Company. 

Meanwhile plans and references were prepared for each "commune," or 
parish, showing how the roads, rivers, &c, were proposed to be crossed, or 
deviated, which, being sent to the Prefet, were by him communicated to the 
Mayors of the Communes. Their receipt was notified on the doors of the 
church and of the Mairie, and by the beat of drum, and they remained during- 
eight days for inspection by all who were interested. A " proces- verbal " was 
then drawn up of all objections, for submission to the Prefet, by whom a com- 
mission was named, composed of members of the Conseil-General of the 
Department, the Mayors of the Communes interested, and the Engineer of the 
Company. The report from this commission was sent by the Prefet to the 
Government Engineers, appointed to report on the nature and fitness of 
the works, and to superintend the fulfilment of the clauses of the concession. 
The report of these engineers being then sent, with all plans, &c, to the 
Minister of Public Works, his final decision was obtained. The Prefet then 
made his " arete de cessibilite," declaring transferrable for public utility the 
parcels of land marked for expropriation. The Procureur Imperial of the civil 
court of each district, then required from the tribunal orders of expropriation. 
The civil tribunal examined whether all the formalities had been rigorously 
fulfilled, decreed the expropriation, and from that moment all the houses, lands, 
&c, became the property of the Company, by whom the amount of the in- 
demnity, settled by agreement or by jury, must be paid. 

The time occupied in these preliminaries varied from six to twelve months, 
but although tedious, the process was not expensive, and it exempted the 
Company from the doubtful and onerous charge to companies in England, of 
getting a Bill through Parliament at a cost which ever after remained a dead- 
weight on the Company. 

The first railway concession granted in France was in 1823, for a line twelve 
miles in length, from the coal-fields at St. Etienne to Andrezieux, on the 
Loire ; in 1826 and 1828 other lines from the same district to Roanne and to 
Lyons, were granted; these were all constructed entirely at the expense of 
the promoters. In 1838, the lines from Strasbourg to Basle — Paris to Havre — 
Paris to Orleans, and Lille to Dunkerque, were conceded to private com- 
panies, but the funds not being provided the concessions partially lapsed. In 
1842 a law was past authorising the State to construct the railways up to 
"formation level," and to let for a terra of years the working of the lines to 
companies, who would provide the permanent way, engines, and rolling stock. 
This had the effect of giving- considerable impulse to the railway system, and 
induced the importation of foreign capital. The law was subsequently modi- 
fied by the State granting "subventions" of money, instead of constructing 
the earthworks, &c. Up to 1842 the concessions granted were under 600 
miles, but in that year alone upwards of 1,400 miles were sanctioned. Among 
these were — 

Paris to Lille and Valenciennes. 

Rouen to Havre. 

Paris to Strasbourg. 

Paris to Lyons. 

Avignon to* Marseilles. 

Orleans to Vierzon and Bourges. 

Orleans to Bordeaux. 
Nearly all the concessions since 1842 had been based on the law of that year, 
or were in the modified form of giving a " subvention " in lieu of works, with 
a minimum guaranteed interest of 4 per cent., and an extension of term to 99 



32 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



" The Aktizax, 
.February 1, 1858. 



years. To this combination of pecuniary aid, with a guarantee of interest, 
may be ascribed the rapid increase in tiie development of the French rail- 
way system since 1842. It was remarkable that this timely aid, granted by 
the State, had been thoroughly successful, and in no case had the guarantee 
for interest ever been claimed ; thus the object had been completely fulfilled, 
without any loss to the State. 

The financial condition of the French railways was exhibited in the following 
table :— 





Frivate CapitJ. 


Contributions 

of 

the State. 


Length of 

lines 
conceded. 


Length of 

lines 
opened. 


From 1823 to 1842 . . 
„ 1842 to 1847 . . 
„ 1848 to 1851 . . 
, 1852 to 1854 .. 
„ 1855 to 1856 .. 


£ 

7,000,000 
17,000,000 

8, 000, 000 
29, 240, 000 
35,520,000 


£ 

120, 000 

9,280,000 

12, 000, 000 

3, 840, 000 

1,200,000 


Miles. 
550 
2,250 

5, 770 
7,030 


Miles. 

1,156 

2, 900 
4,060 


Still to complete 


£96,760,000 
41,200,000 


20,440,000 
9, 200, 000 








£137,960,000 
35, 040, 000 


a5, 040, 000 




Total 


£173,600,000 





The total cost, therefore, of the 7,030 miles conceded was estimated at about 
£24,000 per mile, of which £19,000 was to be provided by the companies, and 
£5,000 by the State ; what the actual cost would ultimately be was not yet 
ascertainable. 

The fluctuations in the amount granted at different periods by the State, 
were shown to have arisen from the necessary modifications of the law— the 
abandoning the reversionary interest in the railways — the guaranteeing 4 
per cent, interest, and the remission of the right to a share in the profits after 
a certain dividend had been paid. The capital guaranteed by the State had, in 
1855, reached nearly sixty millions, applicable chiefly to six principal lines, of 
an aggregate length of 5,200 miles. 

The right of participation, which had originally applied to nearly all the 
railways founded on the law of 1842, had been generally abandoned; so that 
it now only applied to five companies, owning 3,500 miles of railway. 

Thus it was shown that from the commencement the railways had in some 
shape always received a certain amount of direct assistance from the State, in 
addition to the protection afforded whilst exercising a general principle of 
control. 

The most important element in the finance of French railways was the pro- 
portion which the share capital bore to the amount raised on obligations or 
bonds. In this respect the French system differed essentially from that of the 
English companies. 

In the whole of the capital engaged to be provided by the French com- 
panies, amounting, in 1856, to £137,960,000, there was then £50,000,000 in 
shares; or only about 37 per cent.; whilst the remaining 63 per cent, had 
to be raised on obligations or bonds. Of this several marked instances were 
given . 

The effect of this mode of providing the funds was evident on examining 
the net receipts of the French railways from 1841 to 1854, and the per-centage 
of dividend which had resulted. 
The per-centage paid on the whole capital expended — 

In 1841 was 3-11 per cent. 

„ 1847 „ 6-30 „ 

„ 1854 „ 6-58 „ 

By the operation of subventions the rate paid to the companies — 

In 1841 was 3 - ll per cent. 

„ 1847 „ 7-17 „ 

» 1854 „ 9-0 

Thus the State assistance, at the latter period, gave a benefit of 2"42 per cent, 
on the whole of the remaining capital. 

The largest amount of that capital was, however, raised on loan at a fixed 
rate of interest, and thus, according as the dividend on the whole capital varied 
from the interest paid to the bondholders, a profit or a loss would accrue to the 
Company. In order, then, to a just comparison with English railways, the 
per-centage of net income must, in both cases, be taken on the whole capital 
raised — by which the per-centage would be considerably reduced on the French 
side and raised on the English ; the rate of interest on loans being taken at 5 
per cent, on both sides. It followed, then, that it depended on the ratio of net 
profit to the whole capital expended, whether any portion of it, raised by loans 
at a fixed rate of interest, would increase or lower the rate of dividend on the 
remaining portion. 

Taking two railways, each having cost a million, one producing a net 
profit of 4 per cent., and the other of 8 per cent: if the first had borrowed 
half its capital at 5 per cent., the sum left for dividend on the half-million in 
shares was reduced to £15,000, or 3 per cent.; whilst the second, by also 
borrowing half its capital at 5 per cent., would raise its dividend on its half- 
million in shares to £55,000, or 11 per cent. 

Assuming the same premises, and the limitation of borrowing to be about 
one-third of the capital, as in England, and in the other case two-thirds, as in 
France, the operation would be that in the former the share dividend would 
be reduced to 3| per cent., and in the latter case it would be raised to 14 per 
cent. 

It thus appeared that the decisive element in both was the ratio of net profit 
to the whole capital spent in a given undertaking ; and that the reason of 



French dividends being augmented by borrowing so largely, was solely because 
the rate of profit, earned on the entire cost, was in excess of the current rate 
of interest; whilst the dividends on English railways were impaired by the 
same process, because the conditions were reversed. 

It was estimated that the profit realised by French companies, from their 
system of borrowing so largely, amounted to upwards of 3 per cent, on the 
whole of their share capital ; and the fact was instanced that, as between 1854 
and 1857 the average annual dividends paid by some railways were : — 

The Nord 14 per cent. 

„ L'Est 14 „ 

„ L'Ouest 10 „ 

,, Paris to Lyons 16 ,, 

,, Orleans 16 „ 

„ Lyons to the Mediterranean in 1855 17 ,, 
„ „ in 1857 23 „ 

The system of gradually extinguishing the capital by "amortissement," 
spreading it over 99 years at the rate of about one-eighth or one-fourth per 
cent., was then described. The final result of the comparative examination 
was, although the true scale of profits on French railways was not quite so 
high as had been represented, it still was greater than was exhibited by Eng- 
lish lines. 

A comparison of the expense of construction of the French and English rail- 
ways exhibited an unfavourable picture of the latter; the estimated cost 
of the former being about £24,688 per mile, whilst that of the latter was about 
£31,690 per mile. 

The causes which tended to swell the expenses of English railways had been 
fully stated by Mr. Robert Stephenson, the v late President, in his address from 
the chair; from many of them, such as the Parliamentary proceedings, and 
the effects of the rivalry of other lines in the respective districts, the French 
railways were exempted. The physical features of the country rendering for 
the most part unnecessary the viaducts, tunnels, and other expensive works, 
which distinguished the English railways, contributed also much to reduce the 
cost of construction. 

One fertile source of expense in England had been the duplication of lines 
and stations in many of the large towns, and the premiums paid by timid 
directors to projectors of rival lines, in order to buy up and extinguish oppo- 
sition. 

Of this several glaring instances were given in the cases of the Trent Valley, 
the Leeds and Bradford,' the Oxford and Birmingham, the Birmingham, Wol- 
verhampton, and Dudley, the Richmond, and other railways. If to these 
causes were added the exactions of landowners, and the enormous expenses of 
Parliamentary inquiries, the dead weight of primary debt on the English lines 
could be easily accounted for, and from all these the French lines were 
exempted. 

The cost of railways would probably be diminished in future in England, 
whilst in France they had not yet reached the culminating point, as between 
the years 1841 and 1854 the cost had gradually increased from £18,000 per 
mile to £26,664 per mile. 

In return for its aid and protection from rivalry, the French Government had 
secured the gratuitous conveyance of the mails, and had laid on a tax of ten 
per cent, on passengers, and on first-class goods, which two items yielded 5 per 
cent, on the sum of £36,000,000 of subventions. Low tariffs were also fixed 
for soldiers, sailors, prisoners, paupers, &c. ; participation, in some cases, after 
certain division of profits ; and the possession, at the end of the concessions, 
of all the railways in France. After all these considerations the French 
system appeared to have reconciled the interests both of the promoters and of 
the State, as whilst the former had obtained a liberal return for their outlay, 
the latter had secured substantial public benefits, for the aid they had given ; 
in. short, the railway interest in France had not, as in England, been made a 
victim of public exigencies and of private cupidity. 

The limited service for the public on the French lines was then noticed, and 
it was shown that, as compared with the English system, it was deficient. 
This induced economy, and influenced the profits, but still the cost of fuel, and 
of all that belonged to the locomotive power was greater than in England. 

Referring to the absolute engineering construction of French railways, there 
was little to occupy attention, as they were almost entirely imitations of those 
which had been already completed in England, where the experiments were 
tried, and where both the engineers and the operatives had to acquire their 
experience practically. 

Several instances were given by the President of his own personal experience 
in the construction and maintenance of French railways. He found it, at the 
beginning, indispensable to secure the co-operation of experienced contractors, 
and this induced the introduction by Messrs. Brassey and McKenzie of the 
machinery and skilled labour at their command, in order eventually to instruct 
others in similar works. The success which attended their efforts, particularly 
those of Mr. Brassey, not only in France, but in nearly every part of the globe, 
fully justified the importation of Englishmen to France for the intended 
purposes. 

One of the most striking consequences was the introduction of the class of 
"navvies," whose appearance, habits, manners, and mode of work were equally 
novel to the French ; yet they soon became perfectly at home, and inspired 
such confidence among the native labourers, that they would not undertake 
any task work unless the gang was headed by a " navvie." The force of the 
example of these men was now manifest, in the improved style of work on the 
French lines, so that there was now little, if any, difference in the relative 
values of the labour obtained from each. Thus the introduction of English 
labour, far from being a grievance, as was assumed, had, as previously in the 
case of the iron trade and machinery manufacture, considerably improved the 
condition of the French working class. 
In 1840 there was no important establishment where the locomotives could 
I be made, or even be repaired ; this induced Mr. Locke to construct workshops 



The Artizan, 
February 1, 1858. . 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



33 



tit Rouen, and in this he engaged the assistance of Mr. Buddicom, who con- 
structed, at fixed prices, all the engines, carriages, waggons, and other rolling 
stock, required for the Paris and Rouen Railway, and subsequently agreed to 
repair and maintain them at a fixed rate per kilometre. The experiment was 
eminently successful, and Mr. Buddicom'a operations had been extended to 
other Hues, with great credit to himself and advantage to the railway 
companies. 

Large manufactories of engines had since been created, equal to the supply 
of the wants of the country, and English mechanics were now scarcely seen 
on any other than the Rouen Railway. Neither the precision of manufacture 
nor of manipulation had, however, yet reached the English standard; nor had 
the economy of working been brought so low, notwithstanding the speed being 
lower, the wages being less, and the trains less frequent, better filled, and 
carrying less dead weight. 

In absolute construction there was little to remark. The masonry was more 
lavish in quantity ; the slopes of cuttings were not fiat enough, and were fre- 
quently pitched with stone ; the rails were chiefly the double-headed parallel, 
.as first used on the Grand Junction Line, in England; the gauge was identical 
with the English standard, and uniform throughout the country; and the 
permanent way generally differed but little from the majority of the British 
line. 

One national peculiarity was the employment of females in the booking 
offices, level crossings, &c, and other departments, to the duties of which they 
were found well adapted. 

In the conduct of works there was a manifest difference between the pro- 
ceedings of the English and the French engineers; the former personally 
examined the ground throughout, planned the works, superintended the exe- 
cution, constantly inspected the progress, determined every proceeding, met 
.every difficulty, and assumed the responsibility of the entire works. The 
French practice was in many cases the reverse; the engineer devised his 
scheme in his study, relying upon the reports and surveys supplied by the 
Government departments, or his own subordinates, upon wliose information he 
continued to rely, and to advise rather than to direct, even in cases of exigency. 
The system, commencing with'' the chief, descended through all grades, each 
'depending in some degree upon the report of his subordinates, so that the chief 
frequently acted upon information really originating with subalterns possessing 
very moderate qualifications. There was in this a great appearance of organ- 
isation, — on paper it was methodical and imposing, — but it could hardly be 
deemed an efficient substitute for the less formal, but more direct process of 
individual supervision, by which the Engineer was brought into personal relation 
with the difficulties with which he has to contend and the forces he has to 
wield. 

Another peculiarity of the Continental system was the detrimental influence 
exercised by the Government Engineers of the " Ponts et Chaussees," as 
*' controleurs," whose presence affected the railway system by their frequent 
demands or suggestions, which, although of no legal force, were generally 
submitted to. The President bore testimony to the consideration with which 
he had been individually treated in his continental undertakings, but even that 
could not blind him to the defects of the system. 

In summing up, it was observed, that the difference in estimated cost per 
mile of the lines hitherto conceded, or made in France, as compared with those 
in England, might be taken at £5,000 to £7,000. To this must be added in 
the French promoter's favour the £5,000 per mile furnished by the State. If, 
however, from the English rate, were taken the outlay solely due to disadvan- 
tages from which the French were exempted, the difference in favour of the 
latter, making every allowance for the more even surface of their country, 
would be considerably reduced. 

A map of the French railways, showed them nearly all to be in the nature of 
leading communications ; each serving an important district, and itself free 
from the pressure of competing rivals. The advantage of the French system 
really consisted more in the class of lines on which the money had been spent, 
and in the assistance given in raising that money, than in the cost per mile at 
which the railways had been made. These were the two cardinal points on 
which the greater prosperity of the system .turned ; for in reality there were 
not any special circumstances, excepting giving a more limited amount of 
accommodation to the public, that would explain its superiority; and that 
exception was perhaps balanced by the greater cost of working supplies, the 
higher passenger tax, the 10 per cent, rate on a portion of the merchandise 
receipts, and the conveyance of the mails, &c, gratis. 

In short, it appeared, that the real source ef the present good fortune of the 
French railways lay in the favourable treatment they received from the State. 
The French Government certainly did strongly control the railways, but they 
also liberally fostered that kind of enterprise; whilst the English Legislature, 
unable to guide, had suffered, if not encouraged, hostile, or selfish interests, to 
encumber and pervert the legitimate objects of the lines. In fact, the contrast 
between the railways of the two countries was very striking. In France, led 
and guarded by the sovereign power, method was observable, and success was 
apparently attained ; whilst in England confusion was paramount, and the 
railway interest, ungovemed and undefended, was left to the chances of com- 
petition, abandoned to every species of attack and " black-mail," and was only 
conscious of authority in the shape of exactions. This view suggested many 
grave and difficult considerations, some of which fell rather within the pro- 
vince of the Philosopher and Statesman, than of the Civil Engineer. 

The President apologised for having dwelt so much at length upon the 
financial part of the subject; but he contended that the whole question prac- 
tically resolved itself into a control of the application of capital to a eiven 
purpose ; which, far from being foreign to the province of the Civil Engineer, 
must, on the contrary, be deemed a most important part of it, which should 
never be lost sight of, from the beginning of his studies to the close of his 
professional career. 

For the problem proposed to practical science was, not merely the execution 



of certain works, but rather their arrangement and construction, in a manner 
calculated to realise the objects in which they originated. The proposition, 
then, being not simply that railways should be constructed, but that they 
should be so made, as, whilst conferring a public benefit, they should produce, 
for their proprietors, the benefits in expectation of which funds for their con- 
struction had been contributed. The profitable effect of capital directed to a 
given object, in the hope of profit, was thus a main element of the subject, on 
which the modern Engineer had to exert his skill and judgment. The practical 
science of the present day, as enlisted in the service of monied enterprise, 
must necessarily confess itself at fault, if by any glaring defect in its exercise, 
that enterprise did not reap its fair reward. It was obvious, that when the 
employment of science, by wealth, was mainly actuated by the stimulus of 
gain, if the inducement ceased, the occupation would be at an end. Public 
works would no longer be attempted, where experience showed that, instead of 
profit, ruin must ensue. Confidence would give way to distrust, — capital 
would seek its harvest in other channels, and the cause of past disappointment 
would become the object of prejudice, which years of subsequent profit would 
not entirely eradicate. 

In every view, then, the successful financial result of the combination of 
science and capital was the important feature, and the due appreciation of this 
view really concerned the Engineer, no less than the Statesman, or the 
Capitalist. 

The Address was received with much applause ; and it was resolved that it 
should be printed and circulated with the Minutes of Proceedings. 



ON THE EELATIVE EVAPORATING POWER OF BRASS 
AND IRON TUBES. 

By Mr. George Tosh, of Maryport.* 

Brass and iron tubes for locomotive, marine, and other boilers, having 
been so extensively employed, their respective properties and defects are 
generally known under the various trying circumstances and situations 
in which they have been used ; but, as there is still a difference of 
opinion existing on the subject of their relative advantages, the following 
experiments were made by the writer with great care, for the purpose of 
arriving at the truth, if possible, and for his guidance, as to the relative 
evaporating power of brass and iron tubes. 

The writer having had the superintendence of locomotive and other 
engines for a number of years, has used considerable- numbers of both 
brass and iron tubes, in several cases with apparently equal success - x the 
former having generally been preferred for locomotive engines working 
at a high pressure, because there is less difficulty in keeping them fast 
in the tube plates, and the adhesion of the deposit from bad water is not 
so great on brass as on iron ; and it is well known that when iron tubes 
once become leaky, their ends are speedily wasted, and cannot afterwards 
be depended upon. Although brass tubes are generally adopted by the 
rialway engineers of England, in preference to iron, 
there are companies using iron ones largely at the 
present time ; and some engineers express their sur- 
prise at any other material than iron being used for 
that purpose. 

Some time ago the writer's attention was drawn 
to a Paper on this subject in the " American Rail- 
road Journal," from which the following is an ex- 
tract : — " It has been fqj many years, and still is, 
the practice of scientific men to recommend copper 
in preference to wrought iron for boilers to heat 
water or other fluids, on the ground of the supe- 
rior conducting power of the former over the 
latter metal ; and it will doubtless appear strange 
to many that a doctrine so well established should 
now meet with the most unqualified dissent. The 
superior conducting power of copper over iron 
admits of no doubt ; and yet, upon this correct 
basis, has been raised a fallacious doctrine, result- 
ing in a great waste of money by the use of copper 
instead of iron in the boilers of steam-boats and 
locomotives. Iron absorbs heat so much more 
rapidly than copper, that many explosions have 
occurred which would not had copper been used ;• 
although this is admitted, it is too bad to praise 
copper for this also, that it will not let a boiler 
blow up, when, everything considered, it ought to 
blow up, if a good fire and a good medium through F ' s 
which to convey its caloric into the water have 
any virtue in them. Copper cannot be a good 
medium through which to raise steam and a bad 
one to blow up with ; yet the argument means 
this if anything : nevertheless, it is admitted that 
this is not the ground on which any dependence can 
be placed, because, whenever such a catastrophe 
has happened, it has arisen from a defective ar- 




IlS 2— Transverse 
Section. 



1 Paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Eng 



34 



Relative Evaporating Power of Brass and Iron Tubes. 



r The Artizan, 
|_ February 1, 1858. 



rangement of the boiler ; in fact, the greatest defect that can properly 
occur in the designing of a boiler, the want of a complete and thorough 
circulation of the water within it, on precisely the same principle as 
the circulation of hot "water in pipes for the purpose of warming 
buildings." 

As these views are so directly at variance with the general views of 
the engineers of this country, the writer determined on making experi- 
ments for himself, being unable to obtain any information on the sub- 
ject that could be relied on. Two vertical boilers, a, Eigs. 1 and 2,' 
were therefore constructed of equal dimensions, 6 in. diameter and 
2 ft. long, with a single tube, b, in the centre of each, 2 in. external 
diameter and No. 14 wire gauge thickness, of brass and iron respec- 
tively. The two boilers were filled with water of the same quality and 
of the same temperature, and alternately placed upon a stand in the 
same position over a gas flame, c ; they were each exposed to the action 
of the gas for the same length of time, which was equivalent to the 
same quantity of fuel being consumed in each case ; and the height of 
water was carefully gauged after each experiment as soon as ebullition 
had ceased. The experiments were first made during the day, and 
afterwards at night, at times when there was the least probability of a 
change of pressure in the gas-pipes during the period of the experiment, 
by lighting or extinguishing the gas in the town. 

The annexed Table shows the results of eight experiments made with 
the above apparatus, the quantity of water evaporated being measured 
by the number of inches that the level of the water in the boiler is 
lowered in each experiment: the average shows that 2 lbs., cwts., or tons 
of fuel, with brass tubes, evaporate the same quantity of water as 2 J lbs., 
cwts., or tons of the same fuel with iron tubes ; hence the evaporating 
power of brass is to that of iron as 125 : 100, or brass will evaporate 
about 25 per cent, more water than iron with the same quantity of fuel. 

Table of Experiments on the Relative Evaporating Power of Brass 
and Iron Tubes. 



Description 
of 


Quantity of Water Evaporated. 


Tubes. 


No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 8. 


No. 4. 


No. 5. 


No. 6. 


No. 7. 


No. 8. 


Average. 




Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 




2 


3 

4 


2i 


% 


3 


31- 


3| 


3 


21 


Iron 


If 


3 
8 


2 


n 


2f 


2| 


2f 


2i 


2 



Further experiments were made with brass and copper tubes, and 
copper was found to be fully as much superior to brass as brass is to 
iron ; so that the evaporating power of copper is to that of iron as 
156 : 100, or copper will evaporate about 56 per cent, more water than 
iron with the same quantity of fuel. 



Mr. McConnell inquired whether the two sets of tubes used in the 
experiments were exactly the same gauge in thickness, since a little 
difference in that respect would sensibly affect the result of such experi- 
ments, as they were on a small scale comparectajvith actual practice. 

Mr. Tosh replied that the tubes were gauged as exactly as possible, 
special care being taken to make sure of having the same thickness in 
all ; the water was also gauged when cold in each case, to avoid any error 
from expansion of the water ; and from the precautions taken to pre- 
vent sources of error in the experiments, the results obtained could be 
attributed only to the different conducting power of the two metals. 

Mr. W. B. Johnson asked how the uniform pressure of the gas 
throughout all the comparative experiments had been ensured, and 
whether a meter had been used to measure the consumption exactly, as 
the quantity consumed might vary so much with ordinary variations of 
pressure as to affect the results materially. 

Mr. Tosh said the consumption of gas had been regulated only by 
having the same burner burning for the same length of time. Measuring 
the quantity by a meter would certainly have been more complete ; but 
he thought from the precautions taken there could not be any perceptible 
error from that cause. Application was made to the gas works at the 
time of the experiments, and a uniform pressure ensured during the -time 
they were in progress, which was only half an hour on each occasion. 

Mr. W. B. Johnson was much surprised at the result obtained from 
the experiments, as it was quite different from the results of his own 
experience, and he had been led to the conclusion that there was no 
appreciable difference between the two metals in effective evaporating 
power. He had had a good opportunity of comparing them on a large 
scale in two boilers of 160 H.P. each, which had been made exactly alike, 
except that one had iron and the other copper tubes ; and the result of 
their working was found to be so equal that no difference could be 
decided upon between them. He inquired whether, in the experiments 
described, each pair of experiments that were compared together were 
made at the same time. • 



Mr. Tosh said that each pair of experiments were made not at the 
same time, but immediately following each other ; first the brass tubes, 
and then the iron tubes, forming the pair for comparison ; and then the 
same alternation again. He was now preparing for carrying out the 
experiments on a large scale, and hoped soon to obtain more extensive 
results ; in all the experiments that he had tried, iron and brass only 
were employed, not copper, as his object was to ascertain the relative 
value of tubes made of iron and brass. 

Professor Rankine observed that a number of experiments had been 
tried many years ago by Mr. James R. Napier with experimental boilers 
of iron and copper of various thicknesses heated over the same gas 
flame, and he found only a small difference in evaporating power of 
about l-20th or l-30th in favour of the copper. In all experiments of 
the kind the state of the heating surface was important, whether smooth 
or rough, and whether perfectly clean or incrnsted to any extent. The 
effective evaporating result or transmission of heat through the metal 
depended on three properties : — 1st, the resistance of the first surface to 
absorption of heat from the heated air and gases ; 2nd, the resistance of 
the internal particles of the metal to the conduction of heat ; and 3rd, 
the resistance of the second surface to giving off heat to the water. 
Those three properties were not possessed in the same proportion by 
different bodies; the resistance to internal conduction was less in copper 
than in iron, but the resistance of the surface was greater in copper. 
Peclet found, in one of the best series of experiments on the subject yet 
made, that when the surface became dull the transmission of heat 
through all metals was very nearly the same. 

Mr. Siemens thought the difference was so great and so uniform in 
the results obtained from the experiments described in the Paper, that 
it could not be accounted for by any unobserved variation in the quantity 
of the gas consumed, as that would not have caused a marked difference 
all on one side; he thought the experiments did not afford a true criterion 
of what brass and iron tubes would do in a locomotive boiler, as the 
mode of action and the currents of heated gases differed so much in these 
vertical tubes heated by gas flames below, from those in the numerous 
horizontal tubes of a locomotive boiler. With the small gas flame, the 
air before coming in contact with the sides of the tube might be cooled 
down nearly to the temperature of the water, and the relative effect of 
resistance at the surface of the metal, and in the interior would be 
materially altered, a low temperature leaving but little difference between 
the two bodies to overcome the resistance ; the proportion of air carried 
through the two sets of tubes might also be varied by the effect of the 
temperature on the draft. The brass tubes might gain an advantage 
from their smoother surface causing less adhesion of the minute bubbles 
of steam during slow ebullition, though that circumstance would not 
apply in rapid ebullition. The internal conducting power of copper 
had been proved by Dr. Ure's experiments to be so good that the thick- 
ness of the metal did not perceptibly retard the rate of evaporation, 
though with iron the result was decidedly affected by the thickness. 

Mr. R. Roberts thought the trial of the converse experiment of the 
time of cooling from the boiling point in two similar vessels of copper 
and of iron might be serviceable. He had found that the thickness of 
metal with copper as well as with iron materially affected the evaporat- 
ing power, and that the thickness of plate when considerable much 
retarded the passage of heat, and caused the metal to be injured by over- 
heating, the heat not being carried off by the water fast enough ; he had 
found "brass tubes of No. 18 wire gauge last considerably longer than 
others of No. 14 wire gauge under the same circumstances, and supposed 
that was owing to their transmitting the heat to the water more quickly, 
and therefore the metal suffered less than in the thick tubes. 

Mr. Hawkes suggested the trial of corresponding experiments with 
tubes made of brass, copper, and iron, the lengths of which should be 
inversely as the conducting power of the metal. 

Mr. Craig thought the temperature should be also tried in the experi- 
ments by a thermometer put into the tubes ; the circumstances were 
certainly different in the experiments from those in locomotive boilers, 
in consequence of the exposure of the experimental tubes to currents of 
air. He had not found much difference in practice between brass and 
iron tubes in locomotive boilers, and did not know any definite result in 
favour of either of them as to evaporating power. 

Mr. Henry Matoslay observed that, in steam-engine boilers, particu- 
larly marine and stationary, there were often other reasons affecting the 
question of the use of copper or iron, besides merely the conducting 
power for heat ; such as durability under exposure to rusting or corro- 
sion, and the relative accumulation of incrustation. He had known a 
case of nine marine boilers ordered for Naples, of copper, to allow of 
laying up without suffering from rust ; for iron boilers were sometimes 
seriously damaged in eighteen months, whilst copper boilers were not 
affected ; and this became then a more important question than original 
cost or conducting power. 






The Artizan, "] 
February 1, 1858. J 



Improved Construction of Upright Steam Boilers. 



35 



DESCRIPTION OF AN IMPROVED CONSTRUCTION OF UPRIGHT STEAM BOILERS.* 



By Mr. Thomas Dunn, of Manchester. 



The early forms of upright boilers, with the chimney placed through 
the crown of the boiler, or in the side near the top, allowed a great 
portion of the heat to pass into the chimney flues. An attempt was 
made some years ago to retain this heat by placing tubes of small dia- 
meter in the crown of those boilers; this, however, caused a liability to 
the collection of dirt and sediment on the top of the tube plates next 
the fire, causing them to become burned away, as also the ends of 
the tubes. 

These objections led the writer to endeavour to produce a boiler which 
should retain the heat without the use of tubes, and should also cause a 
mixture of the gases for the purpose of burning the smoke. This boiler 
is shown in Figs. 1 to 4. 

Figs. 1 and 2 represent a vertical section and sectional plan of an 
improved upright boiler with two furnaces, a and b, the heat and gases 
from each furnace rising into the crown of the boiler, c, in which they 
meet and combine, the alternate working of the fires causing the flame 
from one fire to burn the smoke formed in the other, and vice versa ; 
the heated current then turns down through the space d, passing again 
through the water before entering into the chimney flue, e. Several of 
these boilers have been made and tested, and have proved in work very 
satisfactory. One of them has been at work nine months at the writer's 
•works, which is of the following dimensions: — Diameter of outer shell, 
4 ft. 6 in.; height from ground line to top of crown, 10 ft.; diameter of 
inner fire-box, 3 ft. 11 in.; width of down draught flue, b, 5 in. The 
whole of the fire-box and boiler is of Staffordshire iron, the outer shell 
being I in. thick, and the inner fire-box and flue f B in. thick. The heat- 
ing surface measures 145 sq. ft., and the fire-grate is 7| sq. ft. area. 



The flat water spaces forming the down draught are 3 in. wide, and 
stayed with screw stays 5 in. apart, similarly to a locomotive fire-box. 

The following general results were obtained in a set of experiments 
made with this boiler, taking the mean of three days' working with each 
description of coal, the steam pressure being maintained at 65 lbs. per 
square inch throughout, and the temperature of the feed-water at 62° 
Fahr. : — 5-90 lbs. of] water were evaporated per lb. of coal, with best Lan- 
cashire coal, at 10s. per ton delivered, burning 16 - 48 lbs. per square foot 
of grate per hour; 4'38 lbs. of water were evaporated per lb. of coal, with 
Burgy or the refuse of coal pits, at 5s. 6d. per ton delivered, burning 
20-90 lbs. per square foot of grate per hour. The outer shell of the 
boiler was not clothed, which caused a considerable loss of heat by radia- 
tion in the experiments. 

After trying several of these boilers, the writer constructed one with 
a circular down draught flue, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, for the purpose 
of saving the expense of stays. This plan did not give quite so much 
heating surface, but allowed rather more grate area, and the results of 
this boiler were found very similar to those of the former experiments. 
The fire in this boiler is not divided, as in Figs. 1 and 2, and the gases 
are therefore allowed to combine in the fire-box, e p. 

This plan of boiler is well adapted for the interior of buildings, where 
dust and dirt from ordinary boilers would be an annoyance, as the ash- 
pits are below the surface of the floor, and are made to hold the accumu- 
lation of a week's ashes. No external iron chimneys or pipes being 
required, there is also less risk of accident by fire. The expense is not 
more than that of the ordinary upright boilers. These boilers have 
been proved with water pressure to 1 50 lbs. per square inch. 



DUNN'S UPRIGHT STEAM BOILERS. 




Fig. 1. — Veritcal Section. 



Fig. 3. — Vertical Section. 



ON A NEW WATER CONNECTION BETWEEN LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES AND TENDERS.* 

By Mr. James Fenton, of Low Moor. 



Since the first introduction of the locomotive engine, now more than 
a quarter of a century ago, several plans have been adopted for connect- 
ing the feed pipes of the engine and tender, capable of resisting for a 
time, without leakage, the great wear that takes place in the ordinary 
course of running, which is accelerated by blowing steam from the 
boiler of the engine into the tender tank. All these plans, however, 
have been expensive, either in first cost, or to keep in repair, or both. 
Those most generally in use are the ball and socket pipes, and the 

* Papers read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



flexible tubes or hose pipes. Other and more recent inventions have 
been tried, but the author believes they have not been attended with an 
amount of success sufficient to insure their general adoption. The ball 
and socket connections prove a continual source of annoyance and 
expense to all who have them in use on their locomotive stock ; and the 
flexible tubes or hose pipes are scarcely less troublesome. 

With the view of remedying this acknowledged defect in one of the 
details of the locomotive engine, the author's attention was directed to 
the subject, and the water connection described in the present Paper is 
the result. 



36 



On the Manufacture of Puddled or Wrought Steel. 



tTlIE Aktizan, 
February 1, 185H. 



Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of the water connection, and Fig. 2 

H 





Fig. 2. 
Section at e, h. 



FEED FIFE CONNECTION.— Fig. 1. 

a transverse section. Fig. 3 is a full sized section, 
showing the rolling packing ring. 

a a are two cylinders of brass or iron, one of which 
is bolted in the usual manner to the feed-pipe of the 
engine, and the other to that of the tender; they are 
both bored out smooth and. parallel. BBis a connecting 
tube of brass or iron, having >Jhe ends turned, the part 
from c to d, Fig. 3, being parallel, and that from r> to e 
coned. The collars, r, are curved, 
as shown in the figure, g g are 
elastic rings of vulcanized india- 
rubber, which, when at work, 
roll between the cylinders, a a, 
and the connecting tube, b. i i 
are light chains used for the pur- 
pose of keeping the tube, b, in 
its proper position; they are each 
left slack to an extent of one-half 
the greatest amount of travel re- 
quired between the engine and 
tender. 

The advantages which this 
arrangement appears to possess 
are its extreme simplicity, and 
consequent cheapness, both in 
first cost and current repair, and 
the great durability of the only 
wearing parts, the motion of 
the elastic rings when at work 
being a rolling instead of a rub- 
bing action ; also the absolute 
tightness of the joints when 
steam is blown from the boiler 
into the tender tank, as the elas- 
tic rings, g g, are then forced up 
the cones, d e, by. the increased 
pressure, and are only prevented 
from being blown out by the 
collars, f, which are curved, as 
shown in Fig. 3, for the purpose 
F ]g .3.-Sechonato,fuU SK e. of enablin | the rings P a | ain 

readily to adjust themselves to their proper position when the pressure 
is removed, which they do as soon as the engine is put in motion. 

The india-rubber rings, g, are made slightly larger than the space into 
which they fit, for the purpose of ensuring a thoroughly water-tight 
joint. The cylinders, a, are 3-Jj in. inside diameter, and the tube, b, 2 in. 
outside diameter, as in the figure; the ring is made 3 J in. outside dia- 
meter, and 11 in. inside diameter, the section of the ring being a circle 
| in. diameter, 

Should either of the tender valves get out of order on the journey, and 
it becomes necessary to stop the feed by other means, it is only requisite 
to slack back the bolts which hold the flanges, k, together, and introduce 
a piece of sheet iron or zinc between them of sufficient width to cover 
the orifice of the feed pipe. This simple and effectual mode of stopping 
the feed was suggested and adopted by Mr. Eamsbottom, of the London 
and North Western Kailway, on which, as well as on several other lines 
of railway, this water connection has been in successful operation for 
several months. 

ON THE MANUFACTURE OF PUDDLED OE WROUGHT 
STEEL, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF SOME OF THE USES TO 
WHICH IT HAS BEEN APPLIED. 

By William Clay, of the Mersey Steel and Iron Worts.* 
In the Paper which I am now about to submit to your notice, I have 
endeavoured to treat of this comparatively new process, viz., the manufacture 
of puddled or wrought steel, with an account of some of the uses to which it 
has been applied, only in a mechanical and practical point of view, and to avoid 
entirely any questions as to the chemical change which takes place in the con- 
version of the crude cast iron into steel ; and I have also endeavoured to avoid 
instituting any comparisons between this process and any others which seek 
the same result, viz., the manufacture of cheap steel. 

* Paper read before the Society of Arts. 




It will be well known to many interested in the manufacture of metals, and 
more especially to any who may have lately had occasion to 
visit the continent of Europe, that the manufacture of pud- 
dled steel has now been practised there for many years, and 
that the make is rapidly increasing, but, as yet, the uses to 
which this material has been put are very limited when com- 
pared with the vast advantages which would be derived from 
adopting so strong and durable a materia!, when produced at 
a moderate cost. 

The process I am about to deseribp, was patented in the 
year 1850, by Mr. Ewald Riepe, and it may be asked how it 
conies to pass that so valuable a patent has been allowed 
to remain almost entirely unknown in this country, when 
it was granted so long ago as 1850. One reason is the bad state of health of 
the patentee, who has seldom been able to devote more than a few days, at 
any one time, to the subject in this country, without becoming so ill as to bo 
incapacitated from attending tcbusiness again for a considerable time. Another 
reason (as I am informed) is that the patentee, about the date of the patent, 
came over here and entered into working arrangements with one of the most 
important firms in this country, viz., the Lowmoor Iron Company, who have, 
up to this time, made about 1,000 tons of the puddled steel, but Who have not, 
I believe, carried the manufacture of it beyond the puddling process, but have 
sold the puddled bars to various Sheffield houses for them to carry into the 
further stages of manufacture, and more especially to Messrs. Naylor, Vickers 
and Co., of that town, who have used this material very largely for the manu- 
facture of their cast-steel bells, which, I may mention by the way, are also the 
subjei t of another patent by the some inventor. 

In describing the process of making the puddled steel, I cannot do better 
than read an extract from the specification ot the patentee: — 

" Eiete's Patent. — These improvements consist — Firstly, In a peculiar 
method of working in the puddling furnace. Secondly, In converting pig iron 
or alloys of pig iron and wrought iron, into steel, with the co-operation of clay 
in the furnace. Thirdly, In or by the co-operation of atmospheric air. 

" Firstly. I employ the puddling furnace in the same way as for making 
wrought iron. I introduce a charge of about 280 lbs. of pig iron, and raise the 
temperature to redness. As soon as the metal begins to fuse and trickle down 
in a fluid state, the damper is to be partially closed, in order to temper the 
heat. From twelve to sixteen shovelfuls of iron cinder discharged from the 
rolls or squeezing machine are added, and the whole is to be uniformly melted 
down. The mass is then to be puddled with the addition of a little black oxide 
of manganese, common salt, and dry clay, previously ground together. After 
this mixture has acted for some minutes, the damper is to be fully opened, 
when about 40 lbs. of pig iron are to be put into the furnace, near the fire- 
bridge, upon elevated beds of cinder prepared for that purpose. When this pig 
iron begins to trickle down, and the mass on the bottom of the furnace begins 
to boil and throw out from the surface the well-known blue jets of flame, the 
said pig iron is raked into the boiling mass, and the whole is then well mixed 
together. The mass soon begins to swell up, and the small grains begin to 
form in it and break through the melted cinder on the surface. As soon as 
these grains appeal' the damper is to be three-quarters shut, and the process 
closely inspected while the mass is being puddled to and fro beneath the cover- 
ing layer of cinder. During the whole of this process the heat should not be 
raised above cherry redness, or the welding heat of shear steel. The blue jets 
of flame gradually disappear, while the formation of grains continues, which 
grains very soon begin to fuse together, so that the mass becomes waxy, and 
has the above mentioned cherry redness. If these precautions are not observed, 
the mass would pass more or less into iron, and no uniform steel product could 
be obtained. As soon as the mass is finished so far, the fire is stirred to keep 
the necessary heat for the succeeding operation ; the damper is to be entirely 
shut, and part of the mass is collected into a ball, the remainder always being 
kept covered with cinder slack. This ball is brought under the hammer, and 
then worked into bars. The same process is continued until the whole is 
worked into bars. When I use pig iron made from sparry iron ore, or mixtures 
of it with other pig iron, I add only about 20 lbs of the former pig iron at the 
later period of the process, instead of about 40 lbs. When I employ Welsh or 
pig iron of that description, I throw 10 lbs. of best plastic clay, in a dry granu- 
lated state, before the beginning of the process, on the bottom of the furnace. 
I add at the later period of the process about 40 lbs. of pig iron, as before 
described, but strew over it clay in the same proportion as just mentioned. 

"I do not claim the commencement of the above described process for 
making steel in the puddling furnace ; but what I claim is the regulating the 
heat in the finishing process, and excluding the atmospheric air from the mass 
in the manner as described, and also the use or addition of iron, to the mass 
towards the later part of the process." 
The remainder of the specification it will not be necessary" to allude to. 
The balls, instead of being rolled into bars, may be hammered into slabs or 
blooms, for such uses as forgings, rails, plates, or any hammered or rolled steel 
which requires to be perfectly solid ; but for ordinary use, puddled bars are 
made, at the Mersey Iron Works, from 2 to 14 in. wide, which are afterwards 
cut up and piled for various purposes. 

In using the puddled bar steel, it has been found very desirable to test each 
bar before using it, and to closely inspect the quality, and to select such as is 
best adapted to the purposes required ; for instance, for steel rails, or railway 
points, or switches, which I roll at one operation direct to the regular taper- 
form desired, under a patent which I have " for rolling iron or other metals of 
taper form." I select the most crystalline steel for the upper and under surface 
of the rail or switch, and for the interior that which is of a more fibrous and 
tougher description. Between the centre and top and bottom of the rail, I 
place steel of an intermediate grade, which causes the whole pile or mass to 
weld up easily and work solid. 
It is necessary in this, as in any operation in which steel is used, to take the 



The Artizax, "] 
February 1, 1858.J 



On the Manufacture of Puddled or Wrought Steel. 



37 



greatest possible care in the heating and working of the material; but from 
the first commencement there has been found no difficulty in heating, rolling, 
or forging this steel into any form or shape, as it has been made into steel 
plates, bars, angle steel, rivet steel, rails, railway points, and forgings of all 
kinds, with perfect ease and with success; and ever since the manufacture was 
commenced at the Mersey Steel and Iron Works, this steel has been used for 
almost everything that was required to be of a strong and durable nature, or 
to repair any of those breakages which are of such constant occurrence in every 
iron work. 

It is somewhat worthy of remark that, although this process is so novel, 
and, apparently, of so delicate a nature, yet, -with the specification as my only 
guide, having never before heard of or seen the operation, it succeeded per- 
fectly in the first trial which was made, and produced so excellent a steel that, 
after working about 100 tons, it has hardly been surpassed. I have used pig 
iron of all descriptions, North Welsh, South Welsh, Staffordshire, and Scotch, 
with the same result, viz., the production of an excellent steel ; but I have not 
found, so far, anything' like the great difference that I expected between hot 
and cold blast iron. Most excellent results have been obtained from both; 
this is more particularly important, as it shows that the extent to which this 
manufacture may be carried need not be circumscribed by the very limited 
supply of cold-blast pig iron. 

Having thus described the "process of manufacture, it will be necessary to 
show a few of the qualities of the material produced. 

The puddled-steel bar when broken shows a clear crystalline and even frac- 
ture, and has the usual sonorous musical tone when struck. The crystals 
appear much finer and more regular than in ordinary blister steel;' in fact, 
to the unpractised eye, the appearance was quite like that of the best cast 
steel, and it has all these distinguishing features by which steel is known from 
iron. It hardens to any degree that may be requisite, taking all the colours 
which develop themselves under the different degrees of heat, and may be made 
into such articles as ordinary chisels direct from the puddled bar ; it will take a 
very fine polish, and has the same amount of elasticity that steel usually 
possesses. 

In fact, I believe it to be useful in the Arts for all purposes for which steel 
is required, except, perhaps, for the finer descriptions of tools and cutlery. 

One extraordinary feature in regard to this wrought steel is, that it can be 
produced either of a harsh, hard unyielding character, or of a soft silky fibrous 
structure, or of any of the grades between these two points, and that a bar when 
quite cold may be bent up double and perfectly close (with extreme difficulty, 
certainly, on account cf the great stiffness of the material) without the slightest 
sign of fracture, but, when forced back again, a beautiful long silky fibre is 
apparent ; or if a piece of steel plate be partly cut through with a chisel, and 
then broken, it appears beautifully fibrous ; if made into a tool, for instance, 
and hardened, it at once assumes the crystalline character peculiar to steel. 

In a series of experiments with regard to the improvements and deteriora- 
tion which result from oft-repeated heating and laminating of bar-iron (under- 
taken when writing a Paper on " The Forging of Wrought Iron in Large 
Masses," for a work entitled " The Useful Metals and their Allovs," and 
detailed at 318 of that work), I found " that taking a quantity of'ordinary 
fibrous puddled iron, and reserving samples marked No. 1, we piled a portion 
five high, heated and rolled the remainder into bars marked No. 2; again 
reserving two samples from the centres of these bars, the remainder were piled 
as before, and so continued until a portion of the iron had undergone twelve 
workings. 

"The following Table shows the tensile strain which each number bore :- 
No- lbs. 

1. Puddled bar 43,904 

2. Re-heated 52,864 

3- „ 59,585 

4- „ \ 59,585 

5- „ 57,344 

6- „ 01,824 

7- „ 59,5&5 

8- „ 57,344 

9- » 57,344 

10 - „ 54,104 

H- „ 51,968 

12. » ; 43,904 

" It will thus be seen that the quality of the iron increased up to No. 6 (the 
slight difference of No. 5 may perhaps be attributed to the sample being slightly 
defective), and that from No. 6 the descent was in a similar ratio to the pre- 
vious increase." 

In a somewhat similar series of experiments undertaken with this steel, it 
appears that, after the first piling, when the bars become solid, a deterioration 
in respect to tensile strength takes place, which is slow and gradual, but in a 
regularly increasing degree, as will be found by the foUowing Table :— 
No. 1 Puddled steel-bar bore 96,911 lbs. per square inch. 

2 Piled „ .121,408 ,, 

3 „ „ 111,608 
* » „ 121,408 
5 „ „ 111,608 
g » » "1,608 
I » >, 91,136 

8 „ » 91,136 

9 „ „ 91,136 
10 „ „ 91,136 

Mem.— The -weight increased 20 cwt. at a time. 
The steel used for these trials was what chanced to be at hand, and was not 
particularly remarkable for any extraordinary degree of strength. The ap- 
pearance of the fracture of the sample bars, when broken by the hammer in the 



usual manner, presents to the eye a very slight difference, the colour and size 
of the crystals being, to all appearance, much the same in No. 2 as in No. 10 ; 
but when torn asunder by a machine for the purpose, a very marked difference 
is observable, the higher numbers having a very fibrous silky fracture; and yet 
the characteristics of steel are perfectly preserved, for No. 10 hardens, takes the 
usual colours, in fact, possesses all the distinguishing properties of steel. 

I would wish especially to call attention to this steel as a material for large 
forgings and for ordnance purposes. 

It is generally understood in this country that cast steel has been, to a 
certain extent, a failure for such uses, and that it has been found that, unless a 
considerable amount of hammering or rolling be applied to the cast-steel 
material subsequently to the founding process, that the strength of such cast- 
steel material is very inferior to that where it has been consolidated by the 
action of the hammer or the rolls, and that it is not at all suitable where 
sudden strains are inevitable. 

Mallet, in his valuable work on "The Construction of Artillery," argues that 
cast steel is not suited for ordnance on account of its deficiency in point of 
elasticity when compared with wrought iron or gun metal. 

I imagine that this want of elasticity may be partially accounted for in this 
manner, viz. — Cast steel requires a very high temperature to render it fluid for 
founding, which necessarily causes a considerable amount of shrinking in the 
casting when passing from the fluid to the solid state, and the casting is of that 
peculiar crystalline structure which is produced under such conditions 
(weakened to a great extent also by the strain caused by shrinkage), unless 
the steel casting is afterwards subjected to the hammering or rolling process 
before mentioned, by which the particles of steel are relieved from their 
shrinking strain, and are consolidated and allowed to assume a comparative 
state of repose. 

Inthe manufacture of forgings from puddled steel, the case is very different. 
We possess, in the best puddled steel, as great, if not a greater amount of 
strength, as in cast steel under the most favourable circumstances, and as the 
particles of wrought or puddled steel are never in a state of fusion from the time 
of their first formation in the puddling furnace, the enormous contractile strain 
incident upon the transition of the steel from the fluid to the solid state, is 
avoided in the first place, and also the grain of the puddled steel may be so 
placed in the forging to be made, as the strain which it will be called upon to 
resist may require, and the different descriptions of steel, whether crystalline 
or fibrous, may be arranged in the best positions as regards strength and 
durability. Take, for instance, a large gun forging ; the interior may be made 
of hard crystalline steel, to resist the enormous wear and tear, and the 
exterior of a softer and more fibrous description, as above described, a result 
evidently impossible with cast steel, which must necessarily be homogeneous, 
and be either entirely hard or entirely soft. 

It would not surprise me if, with more experience of this new manufacture, 
it should be found that wrought steel bears the same relative position with 
regard to cast steel that wrought iron does to cast iron. 

There has of late been a considerable controversy respecting an alleged dete- 
rioration of wrought iron when being made into large forgings from a supposed 
crystallisation of the material employed. I have always endeavoured to 
maintain, and in my work already referred to I have attempted to show, that 
where this crystallisation took place it was purely the result of carelessness or 
incompetence. 

With wrought steel the danger from this cause is very materially lessened — 
indeed, rendered almost impossible, for the heat at which it welds is much less 
than that required to weld iron, as also if the steel be heated too much (and 
long before any deterioration from crystallisation could set in) the forging, 
when brought to the hammer, would be so tender that it would fall in pieces, 
and would in that manner be wasted for the purpose required ; there is, there- 
fore, little fear that crystallisation, otherwise bad workmanship, can materially 
injure this tell-tale production. 

Steel forgings have been made at the Mersey Steel and Iron Works into 
piston rods (some with the piston forged solid, 18 in. diameter, for a 
Nasmyth hammer), large roll screws, shear pins of all sorts, rolls for rolling 
iron, hammers, and anvils, and for a variety of other purposes. In making 
these forgings no difficulty was experienced ; rather more time was required 
on account of the necessity of heating the steel slowly, and also because the 
hammer did not make the same impression on it that it does upon iron. 

The effect of forging upon this steel is to consolidate it, and when broken in 
the usual manner the appearance of the crystals is much finer than when it is 
rolled, as might be expected. Of all the various uses to which this steel may 
be applied, there are perhaps none so important as its application to marine 
and railway purposes. For the former use the material offers directly so con- 
siderable a saving in regard to weight, with an equal amount of strength 
(putting out of the question its durability and other advantages), that its 
universal adoption can hardly be doubted. A commencement has been made 
by the Board of Admiralty, who have used considerable quantities of Howell's 
homogeneous metal in the manufacture of marine steam boilers, as stated in 
the " Times " newspaper of July 6th, which says : — " In consequence of the 
successful trials which have been made at Woolwich of Messrs. Shortridge, 
Howell, and Jessop's homogeneous metal, Government have given directions 
for the use of that metal in the construction of steam boilers, one of which 
is ordered to be made for the 17 gun steam-sloop Malacca, Captain Arthur 
Farquhar." 

For railway purposes it is nothing new to propose steel for rails, points, and 
crossings, &c, as the attention of engineers has long been directed to it, both 
in this country and abroad ; but the difficulty has hitherto been the cost of 
steel for such purposes. Some attempts have been made to harden the face of 
rails, and to steel the working parts of tyres, but I believe the result has not 
been altogether satisfactory, and the cost considerable ; but with wrought steel 
the tyres, points, or rails, may be made altogether of hard crystalline steel, or 
an outer surface of hard and an inner portion of fibrous steel, "as required, and 



38 



On the Manufacture of Paddled or Wrought Steel. 



r The Artizan, 
L February 1, 1858. 



at a cost very materially less than that at which steel has hitherto been 
produced. 

With regard to the ultimate resistance to tension of steel as compared with 
iron, we find by the tables recently published in the reports of experiments on 
the strength and other properties of metal for cannon made by officers of the 
United States Ordnance Department, that the strength of various descriptions 
of English, American, and Russian wrought iron, tested by thein, varied from 
53,903 lbs. to 62,644 lbs. per square inch. 

The ultimate cohesion of tilted cast -steel bars, as published in Table No. 9 of 
Mallett's work on the construction of artillery, is stated at 142,222 as the 
highest, with 88,657 as the mean per square inch. 

Other estimates of the ultimate cohesion of steel give — 

Tempered cast steel at 150,000 lbs. 

Cast steel 134,256 „ 

Shearsteel 124,400 „ 

Blister steel 133,152 „ 

With wrought steel I have also found considerable variation in regard to 
tensile strength, more particularly when experimenting, as it is necessary con- 
stantly to do in a new manufacture, with various descriptions of pig iron and 
different charges. But when working regularly I have found no more difficulty 
in obtaining an uniform result than in the manufacture of iron, and with more 
experience we may safely expect some improvement even in this particular. 

The first bar that was tested broke at 173,817 lbs. per square inch. This 
extraordinary endurance I have not since equalled, the nearest approach to it 
being 160,832 lbs. per square inch. 

The average tensile strength of the steel, however, may be estimated at 
about 50 tons per square inch, or 112,000 lbs. 

Of four samples tested at the Liverpool Corporation chain-proving machine, 
on the 8th January, 1858, the first bar, which was made as hard as fire and 
water could render it, broke at something less than 112,000 lbs., but the exact 
weight was not ascertained. (This trial bar was from the same steel as No. 3, 
which, as will be seen, bore the heaviest test> in its natural state.) Test bar 
No. 2 broke at 112,000 lbs., or 50 tons per square inch. No. 3 broke at 125,440, 
or 56 tons per square inch. No. 4 broke at 98,560 lbs., or 44 tons per square 
inch. 

Mem. — This last sample had a slight flaw, which probably caused the differ- 
ence. 



Table A. — Tensile strength of Iron and Steel Bars per square inch. 



Description of Iron and Steel. 



Russian Iron 

English Rolled Iron 

Lowmoor ,, 

American hammered 

Krupp's Cast Steel, average of 3 samples. 

Cast Steel, highest 

„ mean 

» » * ' 

„ tempered , 

Shear Steel , 

Blister „ , 

Mersey Steel and Iron Co. — Puddled ) 
Steel, highest j 

Ditto, another sample 

Average of 3 samples tested at the Liver- ) 
pool Corporation testing machine . . . ] 



Tensile 
strength. 



02,044 
56,532 
56,103 
53,913 



111,707 
142,222 
88,657 
134,256 
150,000 
124,000 
133,152 



173,817 
160,832 
112,000 



Authority. 



American Board of 
Ordnance 



Minister of War, Berlin 

Mallet 

Ditto 



This steel will also be found most useful for chains and ships' cables, and 
although the few samples which I have had made all broke at the weld, 
evidently from want of experience on the part of the smith in working this new 
material, yet the strains borne at the Liverpool Corporation chain-testing 
machine, even with imperfect welds, are tolerably satisfactory, as will be seen 
by the following : — 

Government proof strain. 
Tons. Tons. Cwt. 



Chain -^ in., close link, broke at 12 3 

Chain ^ in., stud link, broke at 13 5 



15 

10 



Table B gives the deflection of hammered and rolled bars of steel and iron 
with increasing weights. 



TABLE B.— TESTS OF STEEL, &c. 

BARS 2 INCHES SQUARE, 3 FEET BETWEEN SUPPORTS, WEIGHT IN THE MIDDLE. 





HAMMERED PUDDLED STEEL BAR. 


HAMMERED IRON BAR. 


ROLLED PUDDLED STEEL BAR. 


ROLLED IRON BAR. 


c 

o . 

js £ 


c 
o 

C V 

a 


1§ 
.2 '-3 
is v 

? c ■ 


e — 

V IV 

BCD 

o ° 


ffi 


c 
•3-2 


Additional 
Deflection. 


c m 




c 
— .2 


Additional 
Deflection. 


Is ! 

§03 
11 

IS 5 


c 4) 

.2 5-" 
Nil 


E 

— - 

V) 

Q 


- = 

E O 
O *£ 


B *S 

IB Q> 
C OD 

e*3 
11 


is 

<|S 


T. C. 

3 18 


•18 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


•28 


Nil 


•14 


Nil 


•56 


Nil 


•37 


•84 


Nil 


•65 


Nil 


4 18 


•37 


•18 


•14 




1-03 


•74 


•79 


•65 


1-12 


•56 


•84 


•46 


1-21 


•93 


•93 


•28 


5 18 


•75 


•37 


•51 


•37 


1-45 


•42 


1-21 


•42 


1-78 


•65 


1-5 


•65 


2-15 


•37 


1-87 


•93 


6 18 


1-12 


•37 


•79 


•28 


2-03 


•57 


2-25 


•9 


2-57 


•79 


2 -25 


•75 


3-56 


1-4 


3-28 


1-4 


7 18 


1-68 


•56 


1-31 


•51 


3-84 


1-81 


3-6 


1-35 


3-37 


•79 


3-0 


•75 


5-06 


1-5 


4-68 


1-4 


8 18 


2-15 


•46 


1-78 


•46 


4-93 


1-09 


4-96 


1-51 










6-75 


1-68 


6-37 


1-75 


9 18 


2-62 


•46 


2-25 


•46 






















• • 




10 18 


3-46 


•84 


3-09 


•84 




. , 
















• • 


• • 


• • 


11 18 


4-12 


•65 


3-75 


•65 




, . 






. . 


. . 










• • 


12 18 


4-68 


•56 


4-31 


•56 




'• 








•• 















TOTAL DEFLECTION. 


ADDITIONAL DEFLECTION. 


PERMANENT TOTAL SET. 


ADDITIONAL PERMANENT SET. 


o . 
fcyo c 


"*3 .• 
:- 5 

2fQ 
c — 
|| 


-3 

Is 


c 

O (D 
OS" 


•a a 

o c 
K g 


T3 . 

11 

a* 


B 3 


CD 

•a 3 


B 
p 

•a 3 

o 


© u 
E ^ 
S3 


11 
11 


— ~ 


B 
O 

T3 3 

»« 

•o 
« 


tam 


S.PQ 
II 


"3 

■a 3 

is 

r3 


c 
2 _ 

•o 3 

sm 

PS 


T. C. 

3 18 


•18 


•28 


•56 


•84 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


•14 


•37 


•65 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


4 18 


•37 


1-03 


1-12 


1-21 


•18 


•74 


•56 


•93 


•14 


•79 


•84 


•93 




•65 


•46 


•28 


■5 18 


•75 


1-45 


1-78 


2-15 


•37 


•42 


•65 


•37 


•51 


1-21 


1-5 


1-87 


•37 


•42 


•65 


•93 


6 18 


112 


2-03 


2-57 


3-56 


•37 


•57 


•79 


1-4 


•79 


2-25 


2-25 


3-28 


•28 


•9 


•75 


1-4 


7 18 


1-68 


3-84 


3-37 


5-06 


•56 


1-81 


•79 


1-5 


1-31 


3-6 


3-0 


4-68 


•51 


1-35 


•75 


1-4 


8 18 


2-15 


4-93 




6-75 


•46 


1-09 




1-68 


1-78 


4-96 




6-37 


•46 


1-51 




1-75 


9 18 


2-62 








•46 








2-25 






. „ 


•46 






. . 


10 18 


3-46 




• .. 




•84 








3-09 








•84 








11 18 


4-12 








•65 








3-75 








•65 








12 18 


4-68 








•56 






■• 


4-31 








•56 









The samples, as I have since discovered, were of too soft a description, and 
better results would have been obtained with harder steel, or perhaps the best 
results might be obtained by a mixture of hard and soft steel, the hard being 



placed above the neutral axis, the part which is deflected by compression, and 
the soft, which is deflected by extension, below. 

In experimenting upon the strength of this steel, I found the weight requisite 



The Artizan, T 
February 1, 1858.J 



Royal Scottish Society of Arts. 



39 



to punch steel and iron plates was relatively as follows. The plates were all 
|-in. thick, and the size of the punch J-in, (circular). 

Tons. Cwt. 

Ordinary boiler plates, punched with a pressure of 8 18 

Charcoal „ „ 8 3 

Steel „ „ 15 10 

In several trials of the tensile strength of steel plates it was found that the 
strain required to break a square inch of this steel varied from 44 to 55 tons. 

It may perhaps be well to mention also that there is no difficulty in working 
this steel, either hot or cold, in any manner in which the best descriptions of 
iron are worked, and that no particular knowledge or skill is required on the 
part of the workmen who use it. 

These results show the importance of steel as a material for boilers and ship- 
building purposes, as also for girders and bridges, as the economy in the weight 
of material required is of the greatest importance for these and for many other 
similar purposes. 

In conclusion, I beg to apologise for the very imperfect Paper that I have 
had the honour of laying before you ; but I would plead in excuse the very 
limited time that has elapsed since I first commenced the manufacture of this 
material, and also that, from the extraordinary and novel nature of this steel, 
I have been often much perplexed and puzzled, and have had to renew experi- 
ments again and again before I could fully comprehend the sometimes appa- 
rently contradictory facts which presented themselves ; and added to this that 
it was in the first place necessary to unlearn a good deal of what I had always 
been accustomed to look up to as the foundation of all knowledge of the iron 
and steel manufacture, a task much more difficult than the acquisition of any 
new idea, when the mind is not occupied with preconceived notions and old 
established prejudices. 

In the experiments which I have tried I have taken every care to be as accu- 
rate as possible, and as the trials have gone on I have had more and more 
cause to feel confidence in the result obtained, and, had time permitted, I 
should have been glad to have extended the trials, as the more I investigated 
the nature of this material the more satisfactory I found it. 

I do not for a moment anticipate that steel manufactured by this patent pro- 
cess will supplant the best description of steel; but I feel confident that it must 
come largely into use for most ordinary purposes, where cast steel, from its 
great cost, cannot be used. 

Indeed, if I might indulge somewhat in prophecy, I would express my 
belief that, in a few years, the manufacture of this wrought steel will have 
become as important a branch of our national industry as that of iron now is. 

If the few facts which I have, however imperfectly, placed before this Society 
lead to further inquiry by others more competent, and having more leisure to 
conduct them to a successful issue, I shall be amply repaid for the time and 
pains that I have bestowed on the subject. 



ROYAL SCOTTISH SOCIETY OF ARTS. 

14th December, 1857. 
Edward Saks, Esq., P.R.S.E., President, in the Chair. 
The following communications were read : — 

1. Improved jEleclrle Lam]). By Mr. William Hart, philosophical instru- 
ment maker, 7, North College-street. Communicated by Dr. Stevenson Mac- 
adam. — It was stated that it is now many years since electricity was found 
capable of yielding a light of dazzling brilliancy, and numerous suggestions 
were made as to the introduction of the light into lighthouses, but the want of 
a proper lamp or burner which should admit of the continuous exhibition of the 
luminous arc had hitherto retarded its practical application. Dr. Macadam 
stated that Mr. Hart had succeeded in constructing an arrangement which 
admits of the electric light being observed in a manner which has not been sur- 
passed for brilliancy, and has not been equalled for the continuous nature of 
the light. _ His lamp was described, and exhibited in action, the principal 
novelty being an elegant, simple, and ingenious arrangement devised by Mr. 
Hart, whereby the lamp is made self-adjusting, in respect that the points of the 
electrodes are always kept at the proper distance from each other. The steadi- 
ness and brilliancy of the light called forth general admiration. 

2. Improvement in Graduated Lever Steelyards. By Henry Cadell, 
Esq., Grange, Bo'ness. Mr. Cadell stated that while fitting up some steelyards 
upon the ordinary construction, having a weight travelling upon a graduated 
lever, he was struck with the fact that the weight indicated, although coming 
very near, did not correspond exactly with the result which by calculation 
should have accrued. This, he thought, must arise from the sliding weight not 
starting from the centre of gravity of the lever, and therefore in part entering 
into the balancing of the machine ; and this seems to have been adverted to by 
some makers, who remedied the error by balancing- the lever without the 
travelling weight, and commenced the scale at the proper point— the centre ; 
but, as the travelling weight could not get forward to the centre for the eye, 
its reading commenced at three or four cwt., below which the principal sliding 
weight had to be removed, and a small one, reading another denomination on 
the same scale, substituted ; and as the great point is to have one correct 
standard weight moving upon a defined scale, this method did not answer its 
purpose well. The method devised, which thoroughly corrects the error, and 
tells any weights within, its range accurately, was by making the graduated 
lever with two arms, coming from near the short end, having the bearing- 
centres at their ends, and bent so as to bring the bearings into line with the 
zero of the scale, and so far asunder as to allow the sliding weight to pass longi- 
tudinally between, as shown in the sketch and model exhibited. He aiso formed 
the suspender of the sliding weight, so that the scale reads from its centre. 
By these means the lever may be first balanced alone, and the sliding weight, 
when put on at zero, should also balance ; and upon testing some of the 



machines thus constructed, he found that they answered exactly to the calcu- 
lated weight. In the model exhibited, which weighs up to 28 lbs., the pounds 
are marked on the arm of the lever, the intermediate divisions marking 
ounces ; and by a vernier attached to the sliding weight drams are indicated. 



11th January, 1858. 

The following communications were read :— 

On the Forms of Plants in Teneriffe. — By Professor C. Piazzi Smyth,. 
V.P. Illustrated by photographs, electrically illuminated by Mr. Hart.— The 
author began by treating of the forms of plants in general, and of the Grecian, 
acanthus in particular, in their relation to architectural decoration ; and dis- 
cussed the reasons which have led to the general employment of the latter plant, 
to the exclusion of forms of native growth. He did not allow that the modern 
workmen were at all inferior to the ancient ; but he found that great difference 
existedbetween the upper classes of the two periods in the intense appreciation 
of originality and nationality which pervaded all the money expenditure of 
ancient Greece. He also attached some importance to the natural aptitude of 
the plants of Greece, as one of the hot and dry countries of the world, for 
architectural decoration ; and stated that the same natural characteristics uni- 
versally prevail in Teneriffe, but have never yet been employed in art. To 
spread a knowledge, or rather to promote a study, of some of these rich and 
rare forms, was a leading object in the paper, the reading of which was con- 
cluded by an exhibition of photographs of some Teneriffe plants, magnified to 
9 feet square, and illuminated by Mr. Hart's new self-adjusting electric light. 
They were shown with a brilliancy and a vigour which was positively startling ; 
and spoke volumes for the success which has attended Mr. Hart's contriv- 
ances for making the electric light practically useful. 

Description of a self-acting Air-Door jor Mines, to open and shut 
ivithout any exertion of the passer-through. — By Mr. William Johnston, 
mineral manager, Carroh Co., Falkirk. A working model was exhibited and 
presented to the Society by Mr. Johnston. — This air-door is intended for the 
better securing a steady ventilation in mines. It is so constructed that, upon 
the approach of any person passing along the road, the door opens and shuts 
perfectly air-tight, without any exertion of the passer-through. Tins is 
effected by two small platforms fixed on each side of the door in the centre of 
the road, and is so constructed that, by means of the levers under the platform, 
when the weight of the passer-by depresses one of the platforms so as to open 
the door, it, at the same time, raises another platform on the other side of the 
door, preparatory to again shutting it when the passer-by passes over this 
second platform. 

Description of a Machine for Transporting and Laying large Gas 
and Water Mains. — By Mr. William Procter, Engineer, Gas Works, Forfar. 
A working model was exhibited. — The machine is a compound of mechanical 
appliances so arranged as to raise from the ground and convey to any place 
required, also to lower into a trench, gas and water pipes of a large size. It 
consists of a crane attached to a movable carriage, the tackling of which works 
over pulleys erected on the carriage, whereby the pipe is either raised from the 
ground or lowered into the trench with very little trouble. The advantages of 
this machine over the old method of conveying and laying pipes of a heavy 
description will be readily perceived when rightly understood. The advantages are 
— 1st. The narrow trench required, having no use for more space than sufficient 
to drive home the pipe — the pipe hanging in the tackling of crane while being 
driven home; 2nd. The ease to the men laying, and saving of labour — requiring 
very few men to work the machine; 3rd. The saving of time, and facility with 
which the work is done-^which is a great consideration, especially in laying 
pipes along a busy thoroughfare. 



LIST OE THE PRINCIPAL INVENTIONS OF THE LATE 
BRIGADIER-GENERAL SIR SAMUEL BENTHAM, K.S.G., 
Inspector General of H.M. Naval Works, &c, &c. 
We have on various occasions alluded to the extensive list of inven- 
tions and improvements introduced by the late General Sir Samuel 
Bentham, K.S.G., and have made the following selection therefrom, 
extending from the year 1773 to 1829, and we have classified them, 
according to the subject, under several heads. 



Machinert, Tools, Implements. 



An improved chain-pump 

A machine for planing wood and forming 
mouldings 

Pile-driving machine 

A concealed way -metre acting in a car^ 
riage wheel 

Improvement of planing and moulding 
making machine of 1783 .», 

A compound work-bench i 

A great variety of inventions for the 
working of wood, metals, stone, and 
other materials, viz.: — 



Dates. 



1773 
1781 

1783 

1791 
1793 



Voucher. 



Ny. Bd. to S. B. 

S. B. to British Am- 
bassador at St. 
PetersBurgh. 

P. L. — Describing the 
machine. 

P. L. — Describing the 

metre. 
Patent, No. 1838. 

Do. Do. 



Specification of the 
Patent. 



40 



Sir Samuel Benthams Inventions. 



[The Aktizan, 
February 1, 1958. 



Machinery, Tools, Implements. 



Engineering and Architectural Inventions. 





Date. 


Voucher. 






No. 1951. 




Do. 


Wedges applied to the piece when 










Do. 


A saw formed of circular segments... 




Do. 


Different cutters for cutting circular 






grooves, dove-tailed grooves 




Do. 






Do. 






Do. 


A circular tool to cut mouldings 




Do. 






Do. 


A tilting bench to form waves or 




Do. 


other curvatures 




Do. 


A double cutter, for cuting both sides 










Do 


Compound saws, or other cutters ... 




Do. 






Do. 


Tubular borers for various purposes, 




open at the end 




Do. 






. Do. 






Do. 


The crown saw 




Do. 


Machine for making mortices, whether 




square, oblong, round, &c 




Do. 






Do. 


A scoring cross 




Do. 


A double lathe, or lathe with two 










Do. 


A presenting bed 




Do.. 




1793 
1795 


Patent, No 1967. 




In use at Q. S. P. 


Steam dredging apparatus 


1800 


S. B. Ady. 


Floating steam-engine on a navigable 




river, for dredging purposes 




Do. Do 


Steam-engine on wheels 


1801 
1801 


Do. Do. 




Minutes of Visitation 






of the Admiralty. 


Coque sinking tools 




Do Do 


Treenail making tools and augers 




Do. Do. 


Eotatory tools, for forming the heads and 






points of treenails 




Do. Do 


Punches for treenails 




Do. Do 


Auger- shanks with universal joints 


Do. Do. 


Apparatus for making nuts for copper 






bolts, and for forming screw-points .... 




Do. Do. 


Wedge-shaped punches for sheathing 






and bolt-nails 




Do. Do. 


Saws for converting mast timber by steam 








1812 


S. B.— Ny. Bd. 



1781 



Salt Works. 



Engineering and Architectural Inventions. 
The heat of steam from salt beneficially 

applied to the heating a supply of brine 
Baising a double quantity, by making the 

upper part of the pipe double, with a 

piston in each pipe 

Panopticon, or inspection-house 



Eire-proof buildings . 



Speaking-tubes 

The improvement of Portsmouth Harbour 
Excavating under water in a harbour, so 

as to procure deep water 

Floating breakwater, to form a boat-pond 
Waterworks, combined with fire-extin- 
guishing works 

Double drawbridge 



New combination of the materials used 
in the construction of abridge 

Apparatus below the structure of draw- 
bridge ; 

Egg-shaped drains 

Covered docks 

Timber seasoning houses 

Keeping timber dry instead of under 
water 



1787 

1793 

1794 
1796 

1796 

1797 



1801 



1809 



1810 



Do. Do. 
Jeremy Bentham's 

works. 
Naval papers, official 

plans,and accounts. 
Q. S. P. 
S. B.— Ny. Bd. 

S. B.— Ny. Bd. 
S. B.— Ady. 

Ditto 
S.B.— ToSelect Com- 
mittee of the House 
of Commons. 

Do. Do. 

Do. Do. 
Existing drain in 

Sheerness dockyd. 
S. B.— Ny. Bd. 

Do. Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Date. 



Apparatus for masting vessels worked by 

steam power machinery 

Floating breakwater of wood 1811 



Breakwaters formed of cylindrical masses 
built afloat 

Breakwaters formed by a semi -subaqueous 
bridge 

Buoyant masses of cast-iron for forming 

foundations 1813 

Naval basin and canal at Portsmouth 
harbour 1810 

The construction of a double canal com- 
municating with the sea 

Foundation masses of brick or stone to be 

floated to their places 1811 

Masses pressed into bad ground 

A weighted probe to ascertain the weight 
that ground will bear 

Temporary exclusion of water to examine 
underground waterworks 

Ventilation from underground 

Underground covered roads 1815 

Watertight cylinderfor examining ground 
under water 

Natal Architecture. 
Amphibious carriage 1781 



Vermicular vessels, formed of separate 
links, so as to twist about in tortuous 
rivers 



Diagonal arrangements of the planks of a 

vessel 

Amphibious baggage-waggon 

Metal for the shell of a navigable vessel 

Fixed bulk-heads — diagonal trusses and 
braces — thick strake pieces in lieu of 
knees — timber butting against the ends 
of the vessel — straight decks — metallic 
tanks for water — metallic canisters for 
powder — thick glass illuminators — 
hawse holes and rudders at both the 
stern and head of a vessel — chain- 
plates fixed to the thick strake of the 
vessel — copper pintles and braces, all 
alike — mechanical steering apparatus 
— safety lights — step-shaped treenails 
— short metal screws in lieu of long 
bolts — form of vessel 

Coques, for preventing the sliding of one 
part on another 

Screws, pointed bolts, with plates, &c 

Bolt-nails, wedge-shaped 

Metal used in a hollow form in lieu of a 
solid mass, and the vacuities used as 
receptacles for provisions, &c 

Hollow iron pillars to serve as ventilators, 
&c 

Coating treenails, &c, with a pigment 
when inserted 

Winches in lieu of capstan-braces 

Masts of a vessel to act as braces 

Ordnance. 

Connecting two pieces of ordnance to- 
gether, so that the recoil of one draws 
out the other 



1789 

1794 
and 
1810 



1794 

1802 
1805 
1808 



1810 



1829 



S. B.— Ny. Bd. 

S. B. — Ny. Bd. — 
Model in the United 
Service Institution. 

S. B. Ny. Bd. 

Do. 

Plans for Sheerness 
dockyard. 

S. B. Ny. Bd. 

Weale's " Quarterly 
Beview." 

Patent, No. 3429. 
200 feet of wall at 
Sheerness. 

Sheerness dockyard. 

Do. Do. 

S. B.— Ny. Bd. 
Plan for Sheerness. 

Patent, No. 3544 

S. B. — To British. 
Ambassador at St. 
Petersburgh, and 
used at Perme. 

Used at PrincePotem- 
kin's works ; and 
to convey the Em- 
press Catherine II. 
down the Dnieper. 

" United Serv. Gaz." 
Used at Jassy. 

Ex. on the Thames, 
and at Q. S. P. 

S. B.— Ny. Bd. 



Experimental vessels. 

S. B.— Ny. Bd. 
S. B.— Ny. Bd. 
S. B.— Ny. Bd. 



S. B.— Ny. Bd. ; also 
"Mechanic's Maga- 
zine," No. 1313. 



Do. No. 1407. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



1787 



Naval essays; Naval 
Papers, No. 7 



! 



The Artizan, "1 
February 1, 1858.J 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 



41 



Ordnance. 





Bate. 


Voucher. 


Placing ordnance on ship-board, in the 

intermediate spaces left by the guns. 
Dividing the aim of ordnance 


1788 

1829 
1830 


' United Ser. Journal.' 


New mode of fixing a small one with a 


Do. 



Metallurgy, &c. 
A new mode of converting iron into steel 1784 
A new variety of Reamur's porcelain ... 
Mixture of metals, so as to increase the 
hardness and strength of the alloy 1810 

Miscellaneous Inventions. 

A chart of the absolute and comparative 

population of a part of Russia 1783 

The performance of a great variety of 
operations in vacuo, specified as 
follows: — 1. Preservation in point of 
substance; 2. Distillation; 3. Effectua- 
tion of contact; 4. Intromission into 
tubular or other cavities; 5. Impreg- 
nation; 6. Transfiction and Percola- 
tion; 7. Mixture ; 8. Regulation of 
heat; 9. Exsiccation 

Improved means of protecting premises 
by a more efficient mode of placing the 
guards 1800 

Giving two different employments to the J , 

same individual in the dockyards ) . a ° » 



S. B. to his Father. 
Do. Do. 

Experimental vessels. 



Made for the Empress 
Catherine. 



Patent No. 2035. 



) Proposed Naval Se- 
V minaries. 
) S. B.— Ny. Bd. 



REVIEWS. 

The Revolver : its Description, Management, and Use, fyc. By P. A. Dove, 
Author of the article, " Gun Making," in the latest edition of the 
" Encyclopaedia Britannica." Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black. 
Pp. 57. 

This little book is devoted chiefly to a description of Adams's excel- 
lent patent revolver pistol, which is very accurately illustrated in 
detail. 

It is well worthy of perusal; and, in respect of the topography and 
illustrations, is well got up. 

The sanguinary colour of the binding, which is in keeping with the 
character of the illustrations on the. cover, produces quite a startling 
effect. 

Facts for Factories : being Letters on Practical Subjects, suggested by expe- 
rience in Bombay, E. I. By W. Walker. Bombay, 1857. Pp. 53. 
This pamphlet contains, in a series of letters, twenty in number, some 
valuable practical hints upon an endless variety of subjects, more parti- 
cularly, but not exclusively, of local interest. These letters were origi- 
nally addressed to the editor of the " Bombay Gazette," and were published 
in that journal between the 16th August and the 23rd November last. 

We have not the slightest notion who Mr. Walker (the author) is, but 
we have concluded that he is a cute observer, and all his suggestions have 
the great merit of being practical and common sense. 

The author very justly falls foul of the packers and shippers of machi- 
nery, and all kinds of goods and merchandise, from this country to India, 
for the gross carelessness with which they pack such things. But it is 
not for the purpose of fault-finding that the author has written and pub- 
lished his letters, but to point out defects, warn those on this side of 
the world, and suggest remedies for the mischiefs complained of. 
Amongst the articles and things mentioned by the author, as having 
come under his observation, and as having suffered by carelessness, we 
may cite those we have most to do with — viz., iron water pipes, platform 
weighing machines, weigh-bridges, railway semaphores, hand lever- 
pumps, steam and other machinery, iron castings, axle-boxes, and an 
endless variety of other things, the annual losses upon which', from 
breakages and other damages arising from bad packing, which occurs 
on goods received inward at Bombay alone, is stated by the author to 
amount to £500,000!! This seems almost incredible; but we are assured 
by the author it is a fact. 

Amongst the many valuable suggestions contained in this series of 
interesting letters, the author points out the importance of introducing 
.travelling cranes, and other such tackle, for hoisting and removing heavy 
goods on the wharfs and landing places of Bombay. He suggests that 
there is an admirable field opened for enterprising ironmongery and 
hardware dealers to establish themselves in the town ; and beyond point- 
ing out the want of an establishment on an extensive scale, he enters 



into details as to the kind of stock required, the system of doing busi- 
ness, and generally gives such admirable advice that we strongly advise 
some of our Birmingham and Wolverhampton friends to step forward 
and respond to the inquiry he makes in his concluding paragraph: — ■ 
" Who will step in and enjoy this Canaan, overflowing with rupees, sell- 
ing good ironmongery at moderate rates? " Amongst a heap of valuable 
suggestions, he points out the absurdity of using common or unprotected 
ironware for the spiral distending core of vulcanized India-rubber tubing, 
as in India; it very rapidly becomes corroded through, and then cuts and 
destroys India-rubber tubing. He says all tube-distending wire should 
be galvanized; and when so prepared,, he thinks it preferable even to 
copper wire. 

Complaining of the trash which has recently been sent out to India as 
"vulcanized India-rubber," he says: — "I have had vulcanized India- 
rubber packing rings in my possession for seven years past, and they 
are as good and elastic as when made, which, I think, is a fair proof that 
it is owing to adulterations, and, probably, insufficiency of sulphur in 
the manufacture, which affects the durability of articles made from it 
and used in India." 

Of iron blocks made in England and sent out he says, "either iron 
in this climate undergoes a very considerable alteration in its cohesion 
of particles, or manufacturers make the strength of hooks considerably 
below the weight they profess to carry." And he points out other 
mechanical defects in these articles ; but we might go ou quoting page 
after page with profit and advantage to a large number of our readers, 
and we only regret the citations we have made, being those we find 
first mentioned, are not even fair specimens of the admirable manner in 
which the author has dealt with a number of very important subjects 
of great interest to engineers, manufacturers, and shippers of goods, as 
also to the clever mechanic seeking employment, and who does not 
object to the climate of India ; and it is much to be regretted that we 
are unable to state where this book is to be obtained in London, but any 
subscriber to The Artizan, who may feel interested and desire to read 
the pamphlet, may peruse it at the Publishing Office. 
Lax-ton's Builder's Price Book for 1858. Thirty-sixth edition. 

This annual thoroughly sustains the high reputation which it has 
acquired in the course of the thirty-five previous editions. Considerable 
additions have been made to the previously extensive stock of useful 
information it contained, and in its present form will be found of great 
assistance to mechanical engineers, machinists, founders, and others. 
The Geologist: a Popular Monthly Magazine of Geology. London : 

Simpkin and Co. Kenilworth : Walter T. Parsons. Vol. 1, No. 1. 

January, 1858. 

We have received the first number of the above monthly, and wish 
it every success. Such a work has long been wanted, and if conducted 
with talent and a liberal spirit, we have no doubt that it will meet with 
support. The first number is creditably got up, though wanting in 
quantity of matter. We are glad, however, to see that they have an 
excellent foreign correspondent in Dr. T. L. Phipson, of Paris, contri- 
butions from whom we hope to find in the pages of the future numbers 
of "The Geologist." 
A Centuary of Suggestions addressed to the Sleepy. By one of Themselves. 

Mountcastle's Library, King Street, Covent Garden. Pp. 51. 

This is a series of one hundred suggestions, many of them excellent, 
and many more with which we cannot agree, and some few that we do 
not rightly understand the value of ; but the book is well worthy of 
perusal, and should be read by every one who can afford to spend 
sixpence for its purchase, for every one who reads it may find in it 
something to afford him ample profit and pleasure in return for the 
investment. 
Lron Ship Building, with Practical Illustrations. By John Grantham, C.E. 

London : John Weale. 1858. 

We are reluctantly compelled to postpone until next month the publi- 
cation of our second notice of this excellent work, in consequence of our 
inability to find space for it, and for several other notices of books, &c 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND NEW EDITIONS OF BOOKS. 



B TJRX (R. S.) — Mechanics and Mechanism : being Elementary Essays and Examples for 

the use of Schools and Students. Edited by Robert Scott Burn. 3rd edit., 8vo, pp. 1:26, 

cloth, 2s. (Ward and L.) 
GRAHAM (T.) — Elements of Chemistry ; including the Applications of the Science in the 

Arts. By Thomas Graham and Henry Watts. 2nd edit., 2 vols. Vol. 2, 8vo, pp. 80u, 

cloth, 2 s. (Library of Illustrated Scientific Works.) (Bailliere.) 
GRIFFIX (J. J.) — The Radical Theory in Chemistry. By John Joseph Griffin. Post 8vo, 

pp. 570, cloth, 12s. 6d. (Griffin.) 
HAIKETT (P. Q.)— Guideway Steam Agriculture. By. P. Q. Halkett. With a Report by 

— Braithwaite, Esq., 8vo, pp. 15, sewed, 6d. (Ridgway.) 
HUMBER (W.) — A Practical Treatise on Cast and Wrought Iron Bridges and Girders, as 

applied to Railway Structures and to Buildings generaUy : with numerous Examples, 

drawn to a large scale, selected from the Public Works of the most eminent Engineers. 

By William Humber. Folio, half-bound, 70s. (Spon.) 



42 



East Indian Railways. — Correspondence 



[ The Aiitizav, 
L February 1,1858. 



JUKES (J. B.)— The Student's Manual of Geology. By J. Beete Jukes. Post 8vo. (Edin- 
burgh), pp. CIO, cloth, 8s. fid. (Longman.) 

KIPPING (It.)— Elementary Treatise on Sails and Sallmaldng, with Draughting, and the 
Centre and Effort of the Sails; also Weights of Ropes, Mastimr, Rigging, and Sails of 
Steam Vessels: with Dimensions for Jibs, Mainsails, &c., relative to every class of 
vessels. "With Appendix, &c. By Robert Kipping. 12mo, pp. 184, cloth, as. 6d. 
(C. Wilson.) 

LAXTON'S Builders' Price Book for 1858, containing upwards of 8,000 Prices, carefully 
corrected from the present Prices of Materials and Labour, &c. By William Laxton. 
36th edit., 12mo, pp. 300, cloth, 4s. (Knott.) 

MAIN (T. J.) and BROWN (T.)— The Indicator and Dynanometer, with their Practical 
Applications to the Steam Engine. By Thomas J. Main and Thomas brown. 3rd. edit., 
8vo, pp. 64, cloth, 4s. 6d. (Longman.) 

*MASON (G. C.)— The Application of Art to Manufactures. By George C. Mason. 12mo. 
(New York), with 150 illustrations, pp. 344, cloth, London, 10s. 6d. 

MONRO (B. J.) — Tables for Calculating Measurement ; Freights, Inwards and Outwards, 
at Rates ranging from 2s. 6d. to £20 per ton, of 40 and 50 cubic feet, and embracing 
Measurements from 1 inch to 6,0i0 cubic feet. By B. James Monro. 12mo, pp. 90, 
Cloth, 10s. (Ricliardsons.) 

PHILLIPS (W. H.)— The Gas Ram a Hundred Times more powerful than the Hydraulic 
Ram for launching the Leviathan. 8vo, pp. 12, sewed, 3d. (Partridge.) 

•PIERCE (E. L.)— A Treatise on American Railroad Law. By Edward L. Pierce. 8vo. 
(New York), pp. 613, boards, London, 25s. 

*REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF PATENTS for the year 1856. Vols. 1, 2, 3, 
— Arts and Manufactures, pp. 640, 518,592; Vol. 3, containing the plates and Index. 
Vol. 4 — Agriculture, pp. 558, with 50 plates. 8vo. (Washington), cloth, London, 
together 24s. 

•REPORTS OF EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS, to ascertain the most practicable and 
economical route fir a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pncific Ocean, made 
under the direction of the Secretary at War in 1853-54, according to Acts of Conquest of 
March 3, 1853; May 31, 1854; and August 5, 1854. Vol. 3, pp. 164, with three geolo- 
gical maps. Vol.4, pp.288. 4to. (Washington), cloth, London, each 42s. 
* American Works. 



EAST INDIAN RAILWAYS. 
Construction of Bridges and Viaducts. 

An interesting test, in reference to the strength of iron railway bridges for 
Indian railways, took place on Thursday, January 21st, at the works of Messrs. 
Westwood, Baillie, Campbell, and Co., London Yard, Isle of Dogs. 

Colonel Kennedy, the chief engineer of the Bombay and Baroda Railway 
Company, has, in a series of very able Papers, pointed out to the consideration 
of his directors, and those who are interested in the cheap and rapid construc- 
tion of railways in India, the importance of completing- a system under which 
all the bridges and viaducts should be carried out on a principle which will 
admit of the adaptation of the portions of any one of these structures to the 
repair or reformation of any other, or all of them. In fact, Colonel Kennedy's 
system is that the bridges and spans of all his similar works shall be identical 
in their parts — a system which (he states), if it had been applied to the con- 
struction of such works in this countiy, and to the building of our locomotives, 
would have effected a saving of some hundreds of thousands per annum in the 
repairs of our permanent ways and rolling stock. 

The iron bridge tested is of 60 ft. span ; it is elegant in structure, and its 
economy will be understood from the fact that the whole weight of it is within 
21 tons. The entire load placed upon the bridge was 108-J tons. With 15J tons 
upon the centre the deflection was 3-lGths of an inch ; with 31 tons, 5-16ths ; 
with 4GJ tons, 7-10ths ; and with the gross weight mentioned, ll-J-16ths. 

The test had reference to the Nerbudda Bridge on the Bombay and Baroda 
line, and it was one of a series of tests to which the parts of these structures 
are put as often as any large number of girders are prepared at the establish- 
ment. The mode in which the strength of these materials is tested is to select 
indiscriminately from the constituent portions of about 40 girders the portions 
necessary to make up one span, so that it amounts to a double proof, namely, 
the strength of the principal girders and the general accuracy of the work- 
manship of the whole of the materials. The result of the test was precisely 
analogous with the results which we understand had preceded it. The load 
placed upon the bridge was double the w.eight that can possibly be placed upon 
it in the working of ordinary railway traffic. After taking the extreme deflec- 
tion with the full load the waggons were removed, and the bridge came back 
to its original position, without any appreciable permanent set ; a fact highly 
creditable to the manufacturers, inasmuch as the amount of permanent set 
usual in structures of this character may be fairly considered a measure of the 
perfection or imperfection of workmanship. We may observe, that the " camber" 
before and after the experiment was precisely 2j inches. 

The party having satisfied themselves that there was not any permanent set 
in the structure, Colonel Kennedy ordered the workmen to withdraw the pin 
on the lower tension bar nearest to the pier, where the structure sustains the 
greatest strain, and upon a close examination it was found that the pin was not 
in the slightest degree strained. A great deal in reference to the progress of 
the railway system in India will probably depend upon the adoption of an 
economical system of constructing bridges and viaducts Tunnelling and 
masonry to a very great extent regulate the periods in which railways, especi- 
ally in India, can be carried out. The rivers of India offer the chief impedi- 
ment to rapid construction. The principle adopted by the Bombay and Baroda 
Company is to manufacture both the superstructure and the piers of the bridges 
in the forges of England ; and by the adoption of Warren's principle for bridges, 
and Mitchell's screw piles for p'iers, the least possible work has to be effected 
for placing them in their position, and masonry is to the utmost possible ex- 
tent dispensed 'with. If our memory serves us correctly, Colonel Kennedy 
stated at the last meeting of this company that he would be able to complete 
the line at a cost little over £6,000 per mile, including bridges and viaducts.— 
Evening Herald.. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



ON THE COMPARATIVE CAPABILITIES OF STEAM SHIPS 
AS DEPENDING ON THEIR MAGNITUDE. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — Various discussions on " Steam-sllip Capability" having been promi- 
nently brought forward in The Artizan, I have to request the favour of 
your publishing my present communication, which was in part obligingly pub- 
lished in the " Society of Arts Journal," of 25th ult, and I now wish to avail 
myself of The Artizan, as, from communications which I have lately re- 
ceived, it appears that my Paper on the purely abstract question (which its 
title enunciates), has given rise to inferences of a purport that I do not 
recognise. I therefore beg to observe that I do not raise the question whether 
steam-ships of unprecedented size, as measured by their load displacement 
(for tonnage, whether by builder's measurement or register measurement, is 
no measurement at all as to the effective sizes or weight-carrying capabilities 
of ships) can or cannot have such conditions of service assigned to them as 
shall commercially — that is, profitably— defy the competition of smaller vessels. 
As an engineer, I do not take up tlie mercantile considerations of the case ; 
but admitting, as I do, the inherent superior capability of large ships as com- 
pared with smaller vessels of the same type of form, in a MECHANICAL point of 
view, irrespectively of mercantile demand, and mercantile and nautical man- 
agement, my object has been to establish a system of calculation, whereby we 
may determine theoretically to what extent, and on what pecuniary conditions, 
ships of unprecedented magnitude may undertake the obligation of steaming 
at a higher rate of speed, combined with a greater length of passage, without 
re-coaling, than is undertaken by smaller vessels ; the test of competition 
being the prime cost rate of expenses incurred per ton weight of cargo con- 
veyed, assuming the vessels to be always fully loaded. Such is tin; investiga- 
tion intended to be agitated by the following Paper, published in the 
" Society of Arts Journal," as above referred to : — 

" Experience of the past four years, especially in connection with the Steam 
Transport Service of the Crimean war — events now in progress as respects our 
steam communication with China and India for military purposes — the present 
aspect of the probable future, opening up as it does a totally new era and 
order of things as respects mercantile intercommunication between England 
and the far distant regions of India, Australia, China, California, and Japan, 
involving the circumnavigation of the globe by the agency of steam — are 
circumstances which at the present time give peculiar significance to an 
inquiry which of late I have been instrumental in agitating — viz., an inquiry 
into the capabilities of steam-ships of extraordinary magnitude as compared 
with the capabilities of vessels of ordinary size. Under the influence of these 
convictions, as to the material importance of this subject, vitally connected as 
it is with the future advancement of arts, manufactures, and commerce, I heg 
to be permitted to avail myself of the facilities afforded by the Press to pro- 
mulgate certain inquiries and investigations on the subject referred to, and 
which, though previously brought forward elsewhere,* have never been sub- 
jected to the ordeal of public discussion, such as the importance of the inquiry 
undoubtedly demands. 

" Having thus briefly explained the purpose of my communication, I proceed, 
with your permission, to bring before the notice of your numerous readers the 
views which I entertain in demonstration. 

" 1st. As to the superior capabilities of large ships, as compared with smaller 
vessels, in a purely mechanical point of view, for the performance of any 
specified length of voyage, without re-coaling, at any given rate of speed. 

" 2nd. As to the mercantile limitations at which the admitted mechanical 
advantage which results from increased size of ship becomes neutralised, if, on 
the strength of increased size alone, we undertake mercantile obligations involv- 
ing the stipulated performance of an increased rate of speed, combined with an 
increased distance without re-coaling,' such, for example, as making a long 
passage direct without touching at intermediate coaling stations, which may 
be accessible to, and made available by, smaller vessels. 

" The elemental data on which the following tabular statements have been 
calculated are as follow, viz. : — That the weight of the hull and equipment 
(exclusive of the engines and coals), when ready for sea, will appropriate 
40 per cent, of the mean displacement ; that the weight of the engines, boilers, 
&c, in complete working order, will be 5 cwt. per indicated H.P. ; that the 
consumption of coals will be at the rate of 4j lbs. per indicated H.P. per hour; 
that the type and condition of vessel, and the performance of the engines, will 

Vs D a 
be such as when deduced from the formula — 3 = C, will give a co- 

Ind. H.P. 

efficient or index number (C) equal to the number 215'5, which is believed to 
be a high average estimate of the scale of duty performed by steam -ships 
at sea. 

•'' With these elemental data, it is purposed to show, in tabular form, the 
respective capabilities of a series of vessels of the following progressive sizes, 
as measured by their mean sea-displacement, viz., 5,000 tons mean displace- 
ment, 10,000 tons, and 20,000 tons mean displacement, the mutual relations of 
displacement, power, and speed being calculated by the formula above stated. 

" Table No. 1, showing the superior capability of large ships, as indicated by 
a progressively increasing rate of speed corresponding to a progressively increas- 
ing size of ship; Hie proportion of displacement to power being assumed, in 
all cases, constant, namely, 2 tons weight of displacement to 1 indicated H.P. 
of 33,000 lb., raised 1 ft. per minute : — 



Appendix to Atherton's " Steam Ship Capability" (2nd Edition). 



The Artizax, ~) 
February 1, 1858. J 



Correspondence : Comparative Capabilities of Steam-Ships. 



43 



Displacement. 
Tons. 


Indicated 
H.P. 


Speed. 
Knots. 


5,000 
10,000 
20,000 


2,500 

5,000 

10,000 


12-27 
13-25 
14-31 



Hence it appears that the same proportion of power to displacement which 
drives ships of 5,000 tons displacement 12 knots an hour, will drive a ship of 
10,000 tons, on the same type of build, at 13 knots, and a ship of 20,000 tons 
-at 14 knots per hour. 

" Table No. 2, showing the superior capability of large ships as indicated by 
the progressively reduced ratio of power to displacement, whereby a constant 
•speed is given to vessels of progressively increasing size ; the calculation being 
made for th^ constant speed of 15 nautical miles an hour : — 



. Displacement. 
Tons. 


Speed. 
Knots. 


Indicated 
H.P. 


Itatio of Displacement 
to Indicated H.P. 


5.000 
10,000 
20,000 


15 
15 
15 


4,569 

7,252 

11,513 


100 to 91 
100 to 72 
100 to 57 



" Hence it appears that, to attain the speed of 15 knots an hour, the ship of 
5,000 tons displacement requires 91 indicated H.P. for each 100 tons of dis- 
placement; but the ship of 10,000 tons displacement, on the same type of 
build, requires 72 indicated H.P. for each 100 tons displacement; and the ship 
of 20,000 tons, on the same type of build, will require only 57 indicated H.P. 
for each 100 tons of displacement. 

" Table No. 3, showing the superior capability of large ships as indicated by 
the progressively increasing- distance capable of being run, without re-coaling, 
at a given rate of speed (say 15 knots an hour), and with a given per centage 
of the displacement appropriated to cargo (say 10 per cent.) 



11 id-passage 
Displacement. 


Speed. 


Indicated 
H.P. 


Cargo (10 per cent, 
of Displacement). 


Coal. 


Distance (without 
re-coaling). 


Tons. 

5,000 
10,000 
20,000 


Knots. 
15 
15 
15 


4,569 

7,252 

11,513 


Tons. 

500 

1,000 

2,000 


Tons. 

2,710 

6,374 

14,244 


Naut. Miles. 
4,440 
6,555 
9,240 



" Hence it appears that, at the speed of 15 knots an hour, and with 10 per 
cent, of the displacement appropriated to cargo, the ship of 5,000 tons dis- 
placement will steam a distance of only 4,440 miles without re-coaling ; but 
the ship of 10,000 tons will, under the same conditions, steam 6,555 miles without 
re-coaling; and the ship of 20,000 tons will, under the same conditions, steam 
9,240 miles without re-coaling, at the speed of 15 knots per hour. 

"Table No. 4, showing the superior capability of large ships as indicated by 
•the reduced consumption of fuel per ton of cargo at which goods will be con- 
veyed a given distance, without re-coaling, at a given speed ; supposing, for 
example, that the distance, without re-coaling, is to be 3,250 nautical miles, 
and the speed 10 nautical miles an hour : — 



Mid-passage 
Displace- 
ment. 


Speed 

(per 

hour). 


Indicated 
H.P. 


Distance. 


Coal. 


Cargo. 


Tons of Coal 

per Ton of 

Cargo. 


Deep- 
draught Dis- 
placement. 


Tons. 

5,000 
10,000 
20,000 


Knots. 
10 
10 
10 


1,354 
2,149 
3,411 


iVaut. Miles. 
3,250 
3.250 
3,250 


Tons. 

884 

1,403 

2,227 


Tons. 
2,219 
4,762 
10,034 


•40 
•29 
•22 


Tons. 

5,442 
10,701 
21,113 



"Hence it appears that, in the case of a 3,250 miles direct passage at 10 
knots an hour, by increasing the size of the ship from 5,442 tons to 21,113 tons 
of deep-draught displacement, the consumption of coal per ton of cargo con- 
veyed is reduced from -™, down to ^_, being a reduction of nearly 50 per cent, 
in favour of the larger ship. 

" The foregoing tables having thus illustrated the superior capabilities of 
large ships as compared with smaller vessels for the performance of any special 
service under the same specific conditions of speed and distance without re- 
coaling, the following table (No. 5) is intended to show how soon the admitted 
advantages which result from increased size become neutralized, if, on the 
strength of increased size alone, we undertake obligations which involve; on 
the part of a large ship, an increased rate of speed combined with an increased 
distance, without re-coaling; to demonstrate which, we will assume that in 
the prosecution of a steam-ship project on a line of communication extending 
a distance of 12,500 nautical miles (such, for example, as the line between 
England and Calcutta), it is intended to employ shipping to the aggregate 
extent of about 20,000 tons, to be propelled by steam-power in the proportion 
of 2 tons of displacement to 1 indicated H.P. The problem now is to deter- 
mine whether, as respects speed and the consumption of coal per ton weight of 
cargo conveyed, the proposed service will be most advantageously performed by 
" Scheme No. 1, viz. : 

" Ore vessel of 20,000 tons, mean or mid passage displacement and 10,000 
indicated H.P., making the passage of 12,500 nautical miles direct, at the 
speed o:' 14-31 nautical miles an hour ; or by 



" Scheme No. 2, viz. : 
"Two vessels, each of 10,000 tons mean or mid passage displacement and 
and 5,000 indicated H.P., making the passage in two stages of 6,250 nautical 
miles, at the speed of 13-25 nautical miles an hour ,- or by 

"Scheme No. 3, viz. -. 

" Four vessels, each of 5,000 tons mean or mid passage displacement and 
2,500 indicated HP., making the passage in four stages of 3,250 nautical 
miles, at the speed of 12-27 nautical miles an hour. 

" It will be found, by calculations based on the data before referred to, that 
the mutual relations of displacement, power, speed, length of passage, cargo,_ 
and coals, which result respectively from the above mentioned three schemes of 
shipping, will be as represented by the following Table, No. 5 : — 





> , 






§S 




°*a 




O 






8« . 


c. 


o 




£ 


c f. 




O - 


01 


u 


B-ftl 


•^ 


3 
p. 




S 


*3 O J3. 

s s 




3 z: 


If 


c 
3 

CG 


s U 

r3 


& 


(a 
<u 

P. 
02 


C 3 

5 


5 

W2 


3 "3 53 

CO o c 

gO o 


o 
to 




5 
o 


_ 5 
a 




Tons. 




3S T .M. 


1 stage of 


D.H. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


1 


20,000 


10,000 


14-31 


12500 
2 stages of 


36-10 


17,550 


725 


24 


28,775 


2 


10,000 


5,000 


13-25 


6250 = 12500 

4 stages of 


39-8 


9,478 


2,381 


4 


12,369 


3 


5,000 


2,500 


12-27 


3250 = 13000 


44-3 


5,316 


1,711 


3 


5,664 



" From the above Table we observe the following results, viz. -. — 

"The steaming speeds by the above proposed three schemes respectively 
will be at the rate of about 14, 13, and 12 nautical miles per hour ; the steam- 
ing time at sea on the passage of 12,500 miles wiil be about 36, 39, and 44 days, 
by the three schemes respectively, and allowing four days for re-coaling the 
10,000 tons ship (Scheme No. 2) at the one intermediate station, and two days' 
for re-coaling the 5,000 tons ship (Scheme No. 3) at each of the three inter- 
mediate stations, being altogether six days, then the whole time of passage 
between England and Calcutta by the three schemes respectively would be 
36 days, 43 days, and 50 days, being 14 days shorter time of passage in favour 
of the one ship (Scheme No. 1 ) as compared with the four ships (Scheme No. 3) : 
but the mercantile sacrifice which attends this saving of 14 days, by Scheme 
No. 1, as compared with Scheme No. 3, is, that by Scheme No. 1, 17,550 tons of 
coal are consumed in the conveyance of only 725 tons of cargo, being at the 
rate of 24 tons of coal per ton of cargo, while each of the four ships of Scheme 
No. 3 consumes 5,316 tons of coal in the conveyance of 1,711 tons of cargo, 
being at the rate of 3 tons of coal per ton of cargo. Thus, notwithstanding the 
superior capabilities of large ships as compared with smaller vessels iter perform- 
ing any special service on equal conditions, in regard to speed and distance 
without re-coaling (as shown by Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4), we see, in the case now 
before us (as shown by Table No. 5), assuming each ship to make the same 
number of passages per annum (for the larger ships, though a shorter time at 
sea, will be detainecl the longer in port), tTiat the four ship Scheme, No. 3, as 
compared with the one ship Scheme, No. 1, is, under the different conditions as 
to speed and coaling stations above stated, capable of transporting- between 
England and Calcutta, nearly ten times the aggregate weight of cargo per 
annum with I-8th of the consumption of coal per ton of cargo conveyed, but 
with an admitted sacrifice of 14 days on the time of passage. 

" If, however, the consumption of fuel on board of ship be reduced from 4| lbs. 
per indicated H.P. per hour, on which the foregoing calculations have been 
based, downrto 3 lbs. per indicated H.P. per hour, which is theoretically pos- 
sible, and, therefore, it is hoped, may be achieved, then, on the same principle 
of calculation and under the above stated conditions as to loss of time by Scheme 
No. 3, it would still be found that the four ship Scheme, No. 3, as compared 
with the one ship Scheme, No. 1, would transport about double the weight of 
cargo per annum between England and Calcutta with about one-half of the 
consumption of fuel per ton of cargo conveyed ; but, as before stated, with an 
admitted sacrifice of 14 days on the time of passage. 

" The consumption of fuel per ton of cargo conveyed is, as one item of expense, 
perhaps the best criterion of the relative merits of different schemes of steam 
navigation as respects mercantile economy ; and, on inspecting Table No. 5, 
with reference to this point, it will be observed that the second and third schemes 
are very nearly on a par with each other; that is, under the assumed working- 
arrangements of these schemes as above set forth, a vessel of 5,664 tons deep- 
draught displacement, fitted for steaming at 12 knots per hour, and re-coaling 
at intervals of 3,250 miles, will convey cargo somewhat more economically than 
a vessel of 12,369 tons deep-draught displacement, fitted for steaming" at 13 
knots per hour, and re-coaling at intervals of 6,250 nautical miles ; and as com- 
pared with a vessel of 28,775 tons deep-draught displacement, fitted for steaming 
at 14 knots per hour, and making the passage of 12,000 miles direct, without 
re-coaling at any intermediate station, the difference in point of freight economy, 
as indicated by the economy of coal per ton of cargo conveyed, is so greatly in 
favour of the smaller vessel, time excepted, that a vessel working under such 
conditions, viz., 14-knot speed combined with a 12,500 mile distance, without 
re-coaling, can only lie regarded as a packet-ship for mails and passengers not 
profitably available for mercantile cargo. 

" If, however, the ship for Scheme No. 1, be constructed for a deep-draught 
displacement of 26,000 tons, and be fitted for the reduced speed of 12 knots per 
hour, the direct passage of 12,500 miles would then occupy 44 days, the con- 
sumption of fuel at 3 lbs. per indicated H.P. per hour would be 12,000 tons , 



44 



Correspondence : Coefficiency of Strength for Wrought Iron Beams. 



tTiiE Abtizaw 
February 1, 1858. 



and tho displacement available for cargo would be 4,000 tons weight, being at 
the rate of 3 tons of coal per ton of cargo conveyed, or about the same expendi- 
ture of coal per ton of cargo as that incurred by each of the 5,064 tons ships 
(Scheme No. 3), steaming" at the same speed, viz., 12 knots per hour, but 
re-coaling at intervals of 3,250 nautical miles, and taking, including stoppages 
(6 days) for re-coaling, 50 days for the passage; being an admitted superiority 
of 6 days in favour of the direct passage of the ship of 26,000 tons. The ques- 
tion is, whether this result, viz., the saving of 6 days by the large ship, will 
adequately compensate for the extraordinary requirements of its realisation. 

" In all the foregoing statements, the mutual relation of displacement, power, 
and speed, have been calculated without reference to the influence of wind and 
current, which, indeed, maybe regarded as obstructing the regular performance 
of „a high speed service ; for, a favourable wind such as might help a vessel 
steaming at 12 knots an hour (as in Scheme No. 3), may afford no aid, or even 
oppose a vessel steaming at 14 knots an hour (as in Scheme No. 1) ; and an 
adverse wind will obstruct a vessel steaming at a high speed in a greater ratio 
than it would obstruct the low speed ship. 

" Sailing clippers scarcely average 7j knots per hour ; an average speed of 
10 knots may be expected from the joint action of sail and auxiliary steam- 
power ; but an average speed of 15 knots outruns even a favourable wind, and 
can only be depended upon f:om steam alone. 

" The foregoing remarks presume on there being no limitation to the 
draught of water whereby the ship of extraordinary magnitude may be pre- 
vented from having that type of form, as respects the proportions of length 
and breadth to depth, which is found to be most conducive to the realisation of 
a high scale or coefficient of dynamic duty, and which may be adopted in the 
construction of the smaller vessels, its rivals. This is one obstacle tending to 
limit the magnitude of ships ; and another obstacle of a somewhat analogous 
character consists in this, viz., that the cost of the construction of ships, and 
in some respects the working charges on shipping, are regulated by their 
nominal tonnage, either builder's tonnage or register tonnage ; and it admits 
of demonstration, that neither the builder's tonnage nor the register tonnage 
is any definite or proportional measure of the respective weight-carrying 
capabilities of ships of different proportions of build, but it is found that the 
shallower a ship is in proportion to her beam, the smaller will he her weight- 
carrying capability in proportion to her builder's or register tonnage. For 
example : a ship of 1,000 tons builder's measure, of which the load-draught of 
water is one-half of the beam, may be able to carry 800 tons weight, hut 
another ship of 1,000 tons, having the load- draught of water only one-third of 
the beam, would probably carry only 450 tons; and yet the cost of construction 
of both these ships may he nearly the same, though one is capable of carrying 
nearly double the weight of the other.* Hence, therefore, the probability of a 
ship of extraordinary length and breadth, but comparatively shallow depth, 
being constructively an expensive ship in proportion to her capability for 
carrying tons weight of cargo, even though always loaded down to her deep- 
draught line ; hut it is to be observed that such vessels, though unfavourable 
for heavy cargo, afford great accommodation for the conveyance of passengers. 

"Such are a few deductions, from mechanical principles, which, irrespectively 
of commercial considerations as to the loss winch may result from monster 
ships being laid up for repairs, or inadequately loaded on the one hand, or the 
market of their destination being suddenly glutted on the other, manifestly 
constitute most serious matter for reflection in connection with monster ships; 
times and circumstances may demand their use, but times and circumstances 
also impose limits, both mechanical and mercantile, to the advantageous con- 
struction and employment of monster ships, which, if not duly considered, are 
likely to result in a monster mistake." 

The foregoing Paper refers almost exclusively to the mutual relations of 
displacement, speed, and coals ; it does not fully embrace the consideration 
of cost expenses incurred in steam-ship transport service; and I now beg to 
extend my remarks thereon with reference to the conditions of service under 
which steamers of different sizes will be on a par with each othe^ as respects 
the prime cost expenses incurred per ton weight of cargo conveyed, observing, 
that calculations of this description can only be based on assumed data appli- 
cable to the circumstances of the service on which the vessels are to be 
employed ; but, for illustration of the principle of such calculations, I refer 
to the examples given in the tabular statement at pages 84 and 87 of the 
above-named Essay (" Steam-ship Capability," 2nd Edition), with' the assumed 
data on which the calculations are founded, presenting the following results : 

1st. That on a direct passage of 3,250 nautical miles a ship of 2,788 tons 
load displacement, fitted for steaming at 10 knots per hour, taking 13| days on 
the passage, may be expected to compete (very nearly), as respects cost of 
freight per ton weight of cargo conveyed, with a ship of 5,551 tons load dis- 
placement, fitted for steaming at 11 knots per hour, taking 12j days ; or with a 
ship of 11,229 tons load displacement, fitted for steaming at 13 knots per hour, 
taking 10^ days ; or with a ship of 22,264 tons load displacement, fitted for 
steaming at 14 knots per hour, taking 9f days. 

2nd. That on a passage of 6,500 nautical miles to be steamed direct, without 
re-coaling at any intermediate station, a ship of 3,077 tons load displacement, 
steaming at 10 knots per hour, taking 27 days, may be expected to compete 
(very nearly) with a ship of 6,103 tons load displacement, steaming 11 knots, 
per hour, taking 24§ days ; or with a ship of 12,458 tons steaming at 13 knots, 
taking 20| days ; or with a ship of 14,528 tons load displacement, steaming at 
14 knots per hour, taking 19J- days. 

3rd. That on a passage of 12,500 nautical miles to be steamed direct, with- 
out re-coaling at any intermediate station, a ship of 3,209 tons load displace- 



* See The Artizan, August, 1857 : " Suggestions for Statistical Inquiry into the Extent 
to which Mercantile Steam Transport Economy is Affected by the Constructive Type of 
Shipping, as Respects the proportions of Length, Breadth, and Depth," by Charles 
Atherton. 



ment, fitted for steaming at 8 knots per hour, taking 05 days, may be expected 
to compete (very nearly) with a ship of 6,418 tons, fitted for steaming at 

9 knots, taking 58 days; or with a ship of 12,791, tons fitted for steaming at 

10 knots, taking 52 days ; or with a ship of 20,389 tons load displacement, 
fitted for steaming at 12 knots per hour, taking 43J days. 

4th. That on a passage of 12,500 nautical miles, a ship of 5,055 tons load 
displacement, fitted for steaming at 12 knots per hour, and re-coaling at three 
intermediate stations, taking 51 days on the whole voyage, including 6 days 
re-coaling, may be expected to compete with a ship of 12,094 tons, fitted for 
steaming at 12 knots, and re-coaling at one intermediate station, taking 49 days, 
including 4 days re-coaling, or with a ship of 26,389 tons load displacement, 
fitted for steaming at 12 knots per hour, and performing the whole distance 
direct without re-coaling, taking 43J days on the voyage of 12,500 nautical 
miles. 

Such appears to he the conditions of service on which ships of various sizes 
as determined by their respective load displacements, and all of the same type 



or scale of dvnamic merit as determined by the formula 



V-'DJ . 



ludTH^P. C = 215 - 5 ' 

can compete with each other in the matter of goods conveyance per ton weight, 
of cargo conveyed, observing, however, that in the foregoing calculations, 
mercantile and nautical considerations, as differently affecting the various sizes of 
ships, are not taken into the account ; the vessels are assumed to be in all cases 
fully loaded, and to be at sea the same number of days per annum. 

Hence, it appears that the superior capability of large ships, as compared 
with smaller vessels, is, in a theoretically-mechanical point of view, unques- 
tionable, though not so to such an extent as has been generally presumed to be 
the case ; and, in fact, this admitted mechanical superiority appears to be so 
limited as respects the combination of an increased rate of speed with greater 
distance without re-coaling, that mercantile considerations with reference 
to the requirements and convenience of trade, and the special conditions or 
requirements of the service to be performed, especially m regard to speed, 
constitute essentially the data on which the size and power of steam-ships 
requires being regulated. The Dynamic aspect of any steam-ship project, so 
far as dependent on construction, admits of being approximately calculated. If, 
however, the requirements of trade be not judged of by existing statistical data, 
but made the subject of prophetical anticipation, the adaptation of vessels to 
meet such anticipations then becomes a matter of speculation, the success or 
failure of which cannot be predicated by any system of mercantile steam trans- 
port arithmetic. I am, Sir, your very obedient servant, 

Royal Dockyard, Woolurieh, Chas. Atherton. 

18£A January, 1858. 



ON THE COEFFICIENT OF STEENGTH FOE WEOUGHT- 

IEON BEAMS. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — A question of very considerable importance has been raised by Mr. 
Hughes's papers on the strength of beams and girders — viz., the validity of 
the conclusions arrived at by Mr. Fairbairn, from his experiments on wrought- 
iron beams. In replying to a communication of mine, Mr. Hughes reiterates 
that " it is impossible, from the experiments (of Mr. F.), to fix on a proper 
coefficient for the strength of wrought-iron beams." This is a matter of no 
little moment, for, as this material is daily more and more employed, it is of 
increasing importance that we should know the principles which regulate its 
form, and the rules which determine its strength. Mr. H. tries to invalidate 
the only experimental lcnowledge we possess — would destroy our reliance on a 
beautiful series of experiments which have led to the most important practical 
results — and yet, can ask our confidence for no other. 

The data in question are as follow : — 

Table I. — Breaking Weight of Box-Beams. 











Breaking weight 




No. of 


Breaking weight 


Area of 


Ratio of 


reduced to unity 


Gave wav 


Experiment. 


in tons. 


section. 


bottom to top 
flange. 


of length, depth, 
and area. 


by 


(1) 15 


1-74 


4-04 


1 : 0-53 


•78 


Compression 


(2) 17 


8-03 


8-00 


1 : 0-60 


1-60 




(3) 25A 

(4) 14 


3-20 


2-90 


1 : 0-61 


1-51 




1-71 


3-20 


1:1-01 


•96* 




(5) 25 

(6) 15A 

(7) 14a 


5-05 


2-90 


1 : 1-62 


2-39 




3-24 


4-04 


1 : 1-88 


1-47 


Extension 


3-73 


5-32 


1:3-36 


1-27 


» 



Now, on examining the above table, the first point for remark is the con- 
sistency of the last column. The beams being made with a varied distribution 
of material, and the area of the section of the top flange being successively 
augmented at the expense of that of the bottom flange, we notice that until the 
bottom flange bore a ratio of 1 : 1-62 to the top flange, the beams gave way 
by compression ; but that when that proportion was further increased, the 
beams yielded by extension. In other words, the weakest part giving way 
first, up to experiment 5, the top was weakest, and in the remaining experi- 
ments the bottom was too small ; the point at which the top and bottom were 
of corresponding strength, or the strongest form of beam, being when the 
bottom bears to the top the ratio of about 1 : VI. 



* Somewhat anomalous : Mr. Fairbairn's remark in regard to it is, "top side doubled 
up, and sides bulged close to injured part." 



The Artizan, "J 
February 1, 1858. J 



Correspondence: Coefficiency of Strength for Wrought Iron Beams. 



45 



In column 5 the breaking- weight is reduced to unity of length, depth, and 
section ; and hence the numbers represent the comparative strength of each 
arrangement of material, or the weight a given amount of wrought iron would 
sustain in each of the forms experimented on. This column shows that the 
strength increases from 0-78 to 2-39 or (threefold), as the ratio of the flanges 
increases from 2 : 1 to 1 : 1^. There is no anomaly in this. In experiment 1 
much material is completely wasted, and the strength per unit of section is 
reduced accordingly. In experiment 5 the distribution is nearly perfect, all 
the material has its powers taxed to the utmost, and the strength is corre- 
spondingly high. So, again, as the material in the top flange is still further 
increased, the strength per unit of section is diminished, and in 7 there is 
almost as ineffective a distribution of material as in 1. 

Now, bearing in mind that these were experiments to determine primarily 
the relative strengths of various forms of beams, I ask any candid reader 
whether Mr. Hughes can maintain his assertion, that these experiments are 
" not a bit more consistent than he at first represented them," or that " such 
anomalies exist that it is impossible to decide with anything like confidence 
what is the proper coefficient to be taken." In the experiments on cast-iron 
beams, some bore as little as 2,300 lbs. per sq. in., others as much as 4,000 lbs. ; 
yet Mr. Hughes had no doubt then that the constant was to be derived from 
the beams of the best form, rejecting altogether those in which the distribution 
of material is out of proportion. Applying the same rule to these experiments, 
and recognising- from them the proper ratio of the flanges in these beams to 
be 1-0 : 1'7, we sec that the only results which need be considered in deducing 

a constant, are(5) and(G). From these, and using W = — - — in preference 

to Mr. Hughes's novel manner of stating the formula : — 

(5) gives C= 28-6 

(0) „ = 17-8 

Mean 23-2 

This constant is probably a little too low, neither of the beams being quite 
true in form ; but that it is not far from the true value is singularly confirmed 
by the series of experiments on the model tube 75 ft. long, in which the top 
being made at first of enormous strength, in proportion to the bottom, the 
latter was increased by successive additions, until the best Jbrm was attained, 
the breaking weight being ascertained at intervals. 

Table II. — Breaking Weight of Model-Tube. 



Table III. — Breaking Weight of Plate- Beams. 



Tu>. of 
Exper. 


Breaking 
weight in tons. 


Area section, 
inches. 


Ratio of 
bottom to 
top flange. 


Breaking weight 

reduced to unity 

of length, depth, 

and area. 


Gave way by, 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


35 
43 

56 
66 
86 


41-8 
45-8 
458 
50-8 

, c 5 4* 


1 : 2-73 

1 : 1-87 
1 : 1-87 
1 : 1-34 
1 : 1-07 


1-16 
1-37 
1-69 
1-80 
2-18 


Extension 

Twisting 

Extension 

Compression 



This series is singularly beautiful and uniform in its results. In experi- 
ment '5 the resisting powers of the bottom are within very small limits, 
equal to those of the top, and the material is distributed in its best form. 
Here, model tube 5 gives C=24 - 4; and this result nearly agrees 
■with C = 23 - 2, derived from the former table, whilst the experiment is on 
so large a scale, and the additions to the bottom flange so small in 
comparison to the whole area, as to obviate any ground of cavil. In one respect 
the above table presents a marked contrast to the former. In the model tube, 
the top, being cellular, is so well fitted to resist compression, and prevent the 
buckling, which affected the results on box beams, that it requires to be only 
1-llth greater than the bottom. This also explains why, for box beams, the 
constant derived from the whole area must, in every case, be slightly less than 
for tubular beams, each being of the best form. Had the top flange of beams 
5 and 6, Table I., been as adapted to resist compression as in 5, Table II., 
and the area reduced in proportion, we should have obtained C = 24 nearly ; 
a still closer coincidence between the two series of experiments. 

Taking these experiments as a whole, I believe that the anomalies are 
by no means greater than in the celebrated series on cast-iron beams ; and 
although fewer in number, they point as conclusively to a constant lying 

between the limits of 23 - 5 and 24-5 in the formula W = — — -, where A is 

the whole area, and W the breaking weight of cellular and box beams. The 
difficulties in obtaining uniform results were, doubtless, very considerable, 
both from the varying rigidity of the plates, and the impossibility of uniting 
them into a homogeneous mass. 

Another series of experiments remain for consideration — viz., those on 
rolled iron and plate beams. These in every case gave way by lateral flexure, not 
being supported, as when ordinarily used by the thrust of arches. The results 
are, therefore, lower than if the beams had given way by extension or com- 
pression. The results are as follow : — [See Table III.] 

The rolled beams in this table give a remarkably low constant. Mr. Fair- 
bairn dismisses them with the remark that " they are obviously very inferior 
in strength to the hollow rectangular girders." Their resisting powers appear 
never to have been fully tested, as they bent laterally as much as 2£ in. ; no 
doubt, in consequence of the extreme narrowness of the top flange ; and it 
appears to have been deemed unsafe to continue the experiments further. 





No. of 
Experi- 
ment. 


Area 
section. 


Ratio of 
flanges. 


Breaking weight 

reduced to unity 

of length, depth, 

and area. 


Constant 
C. 




*© 


30 
31 
32 


6-29 
7-44 
7-59 


1 : 1-6 
1: 1-4. 
1: 1-5 


1-21 

1-21 
1-44 


14-3 
14-5 
17-3 


Bent laterally 
Distorted 
Bent laterally 


£ -* 

— i« 


34 
35 


6-3 
6-3 


1: 0-9 
1:09 


1-72 
l - 55 


20-7 
18-7 


Top rib twisted 
Bent laterally 



The remaining experiments are quite consistent with Table I., though it is 
perhaps to be regretted that there are no others on plate-beams with the flanges 
proportioned as in 25 or 15a, by which the constant thence derived might have 
been verified. Practically these experiments indicate the correctness of Mr. 
Fairbairn's reduction of the constant in the ratio of 80 to 60. This diminution 
gives C = 18, instead of 24, derived from Table I., exactly coinciding with the 
only reliable experiments in Table III. 

Thus far I believe that I have vindicated the perfect agreement of this 
series of experiments, and am confident that the more closely they are com- 
pared the more their truthfulness and consistency will be shown ; and, further, 
they appear fully to establish the ordinarily received constants — 

c C n 

For tubular girders 80 24"5 2-0* 

For large plate-beams 75 23*0 1-9 

For small plate-beams unsupported 

laterally 60 18-3 1-5 

London, January 13th. U. 



* Mr. Hughes has miscalculated this = 45, and has several errors in consequence. 



STEAM-SHIP CAPABILITY, &c. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — I am content to leave Mr. Mansel's vituperation, his visionary con- 
ceptions of vis viva, and what I have written, to the dispassionate judgment of 
your readers. He now tells us that vis viva is not "force, but the effect of 
force," which (seeing that vis, in Latin, means force in English), is tantamount 
to telling us that force is not force ! This effect, it would seem, is of a very 
complex and indefinite character, and is to be measured by the dynamometer, 
in conjunction with the thermometer, the electrometer, and also (Mr. Prater 
would insist) by the sonometer. This is, no doubt, very recherche and in- 
teresting ; but, I think, bears very remotely indeed upon the cube theory under 
discussion. 

We are referred also to some thermal phenomena ; among them, the evolving 
of heat by pouring water into a pail. A very pretty philosophical " pearl," no 
doubt : albeit I have never heard of people keeping aloof from the basins of the 
Crystal Palace fountains on account of their warmth. According to travellers, 
" Thor's icy throne" might be where the Falls of Niagara " boil in endless 
torture." There, 33 millions of tons of water fall per hour, the leap of the 
Cataract being 133 ft., and the .previous fall in the Rapids, 200 ft. Mr. Baker 
says, " The work of the water may be readily determined in horse power; that is, 

H P = 33000000 x 2240 * 333 = 23432000 
60 x 33000 
The river, therefore, is capable of performing more work than twice the work 
of all the steam-engines in the whole world." According to " thermo- 
dynamics," the space beneath this sheet of water — the " aqueous arch " under 
which intrepid travellers venture— ought to be as hot as an oven : and tropical 
fruits and flowers ought to be perennial in the vicinity of the production of so 
much heat ! 

A word or two with regard to Mr. Mansel's formula. I have shown that the 
normal resistance of the Battler's g-reatest transverse immersed section at a 
certain velocity would be 42,000 lbs. — the actual resistance of the ship was 
6,000 lbs. ; the effect of form thus taking off 6-7ths of the normal resistance. 
She might have had ends reducing the resistance to 3,000 lbs. Now, whether 
it is 3,000 lbs., 6,000 lbs., or 42,000 lbs., Mr. Mansel has no factor in his 
algebraic formula to represent this all-important and extensively varying effect 
of form ; but " some small fraction whose value depends upon the form of the 
ends." True, practically we do not build vessels that encounter the maximum 
resistance referred to ; our steamers are not prisms, or half cylinders ; but we 
do build them of such various forms, some so bluff and others so sharp, that 
although " some small fraction " might accidentally do for one ship, a very 
large fraction would be required for another. 

Let us consider this " small fraction" mathematically. Is it to be constant ? If 
so, it is superfluous ; the mere area of the midship section would do just as well 
without it. Is it to be varied? If so, Mr. Mansel does not drop the slightest 
hint how. I may be abused for it, but really I cannot help smiling at such a 
mathematical abortion. 

He concludes a paragraph composed of sophistry, the most puerile imagin- 
able, with the following sentence : — " Uniformly accelerated velocity of the same 
weight, drawing a plane through water, is, therefore, a physical impossibility, 
and its supposition an absurdity." Disregarding suppositions, let us look at 
facts. The Marquis de Condorcet, M. d'Alembert, and the Abbe Bossut 



• In this case the weight of the tube is taken into account, as more accurate than in the 
tuble above. The difference resulting is, however, slight. 



46 



Correspondence. — Law Cases. 



(" The Artizan, 
L February 1, 1858. 



superintended a set of well-known experiments in France with falling weights, 
and they report that " the motion became perfectly uniform after a very 
little way." And Beaufoy's experiments in the Greenland Dock, with a 
falling weight, show the same result. His first Table, at page 2, shows that 
the weight went on falling at an accelerated velocity for about 56 seconds, 
and then the velocity became constant. Thus the floating body, drawn by a 
falling weight moves from rest to equable velocity through a stage of ac- 
celerated velocity, which, whatever may be its increments, must be, by the 
laws of dynamics, uniform. But my position was this : — I contemplated 1 the 
weights falling with a constant velocity; and I repeat that a 20-lb. weight 
falling with a constant velocity, drawing a floating body through the water at 
10 ft. per second, must have the resistance of that body reduced to draw it at 
20 ft. per second. And that a weight of 80 lbs. falling at 20 ft. per second, 
will draw a body through the water which has four times the resistance of the 
latter, and not of the former. 

In other words, the quicker the weight falls constantly, the less work it doe3 
on the resisting body per foot. This truth I have shown to be incompatible 
with the cube theory. 

Smeaton very justly states that the raising of a weight in a given time is 
the proper measure of power. I most cordially acquiesce in this statement. 
And Mr. Mansel quotes from him the following argument : — " For if a power 
can raise twice the weight to the same height, or the same weight to twice the 
height that another power can, the first power is double the second ; " the 
same time in both cases being implied. A mass of matter raised twice the 
height in the same time, has a doubled velocity ; and this, Smeaton says, 
requires a double power; thus the measure of power is as the increase of 
velocity. Contrast this with vis viva as defined by Mr. Mansel. He says, 
" This principle, in its simplest form, asserts that a material particle moving 
with anyvelocity, must, to produce that velocity, have had an amount of power 
expended upon it proportional to the product of its mass by the square of its 
velocity." 

Which is right, Smeaton or vis viva? I anticipate some amusement from 
Mr. Mansel's attempt te reconcile his authority with his theory ; to me they 
appear to jar irreconcilably. 

I have called vis viva an ignis fattius. It has led Mr. Mansel through 
strange " wandering mazes," and I feel strongly an inclination to follow him ; 
but I must resist the allurement. Your readers will appreciate his attempts to 
botch up his blunders. I have sent you " Earnshaw," to test the accuracy of the 
uotation which he impugns. The symbol m represents mass in the abstract ; 
the solecism " mass of a particle " has its origin in Mr. Mansel 's ingenuity. 

Now, Sir, I should be sorry to speak disparagingly of Davy's thermal experi- 
ment with ice ; or even of Count Rumford making a kettle of water boil by the 
friction of a blunt drill — I revere such minds as those of Liebig and Farraday 
— admire the investigations of Mr. Joule ; but I seek for my evidence of the 
resistance and capabilities of floating bodies in another direction. 

I quote, in conclusion, a passage from Auguste Comte, which conveys' a 
salutary hint. 

" The tendency to a priori suppositions, drawn by us from analysis, where 
Newton wisely had reference to observation, has made our exposition of the 
science of Rational Mechanics less clear than those of Newton's days. 
Inestimable as mathematical analysis is for carrying the science on, and 
upward, there must be first a basis of fact to employ it upon." 

G. J. Y. 



THE LAUNCH OF THE "LEVIATHAN." 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — The launch of the Leviathan having of late attracted a great deal of 
public attention, I venture to offer, for the consideration of your readers, the 
few following remarks on the means adopted to accomplish the same, taking 
the particulars of the arrangements from the November Number of The 
Artizan. 

I wish, however, here to disclaim any intention of putting forward my 
opinions on the subject with a view to their adoption in the case of the 
Leviathan, for I am well aware that the present plan will be persisted in until 
the vessel is afloat, however tedious the operation maybe; but I would take 
the Leviathan as a practical illustration, and simply argue therefrom, whether 
the means adopted were the best possible, or would be so for any similar under- 
takings that may hereafter occur. 

By referring to The Artizan, as stated, it will be found that the pressure 
on the wrought-iron plates and rails on the launching ways, taking weight 
of Leviathan to be 12,000 tons, would amount to about 30 tons per square 
foot, or 4 cwt. per square inch on the surface actually in contact. With this 
insistent pressure the total friction, supposing no unguent to be supplied, 
would not be less than .5,000 tons, according to experiments made by M. Morin; 
but the accelerating force on the inclined plane, which is 1 in 12, = 1,000 
tons, .-. resistance to be overcome = 4,000 tons ; but allowing the surfaces to 
have a small amount of unctuosity, the resistance would be reduced to 1,000 
tons ; it is, however, evident that this might at any time be increased, and 
from the arrangements of the parts, and the excessive pressure — viz., 4 cwt. 
per square inch— it is most likely to be so : consequently a force equal to 4,000 
tons should be provided to meet all contingencies. 

Tte errors which I perceive, therefore, to exist in the present arrangements 
are :— First. The amount of surface in contact is too small ; it is, moreover, too 
divided, i.e., in separate bars and plates, not close together, whereby the 
unguent is not retained between the surfaces., but forced into the spaces beside 
them. Secondly. The mechanical power required is enormous. The nature 
of the arrangements for supplying the requisite amount of power is likewise 
faulty, inasmuch as no provis ; on is made to produce continuous motion, 
the result of which is increased friction after every stoppage, and a large 



amount of money spent in labour, the operation extending over several 
weeks. 

To obviate these existing evils, the power required should be reduced to a 
minimum, which it certainly is not. at present : for 4,000 tons resistance is a 
very large amount to have to provide for, and the surface should be increased 
and so formed that the unguent supplied will remain between the cradles and 
the ways, which it cannot now possibly do. 

I suggest, therefore, that by forming plane surfaces of 75 feet in extent on 
each of the present ways (in the longitudinal direction of the vessel), either in 
wood or iron, the bottoms of the cradles being treated in a similar manner, the 
surface in contact would then amount to 0,000 sq. ft. in each way, instead of 
200 sq. ft., as at present, and the insistent pressure would be 1 ton per square 
foot, instead of 30 tons. With a proper coating of tallow, which would remain 
between the surfaces, the friction would be 000 tons, instead of 5,000 tons, as 
at present; but the accelerating force on the inclined plane remaining 1,000 
tons, there would be, instead of 4,000 tons resistance, an excess of force on the 
inclined plane = 400 tons. 

Let but the 400 tons be amply provided for, in the sliape of efficient check 
tackle, and the magnificent vessel might be gently and safely lowered down 
to the extremity of the ways in a few hours, and thence floated off as 
arranged. 

I must add that experiments should be made, on a sufficiently large scale, to 
determine whether the 400 tons here deduced would be the exact amount for 
which to provide ; and should 400 tons be considered too great a force to deal 
with, a slight difference in the inclined plane would reduce it to 200 tons, which 
force I consider would be sufficient to launch the vessel. 

The necessary alteration in the inclined plane, to reduce the excess of 
accelerating force over friction to 200 tons, would be to make it 1 in 15, instead 
ofl in 12. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

Greenwich January 11,1858. W. B. 

LAW CASES. 

THOMAS v. FOX. 

In this case, which was an action for the infringement of the Plaintiff's patent for a 
sewing machine, and which lias been already twice tried, and the verdicts found 'for the 
Plaintiff, Sir F. Kelly moved for a rule to show cause why the verdict found for the 
Plaintiff at the last trial should not be set aside, and a new trial granted, on the ground 
that the verdict was against the weight of the evidence. He also moved, pursuant to leave 
reserved, for a rule to enter the verdict for the Defendant. Lord Campbell said the learned 
counsel might take a rule to show cause. His lordsliip, in very strong terms, condemned 
the practice which prevailed in patent causes of giving notice of such numerous objections 
to patents, and hoped that rules of Court would he made, whereby such notices should be 
required to be signed by counsel, as a means of checking the abuse. 

Kule nisi granted. 



THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL v. BARRY. 

This case was tried before Mr. Baron Bramwell, when a verdict was found for the Crown. 
Sir Fitzroy Kelly (with whom were Mr. Bovill, Q.C., and Mr. Welsby) now moved for a rule 
to show cause why the verdict should not lie entered for the Defendant, or a new trial 
granted. This was an information at the suit of the Attorney-General, claiming penalties 
from the Defendant for carrying on business as a paper manufacturer without a license. 
In the year 1854, a person named Brown obtained a patent for " making artificial skins for 
the manufacture of parchment, &c." The real question at the trial was, whether the 
article so manufactured under the patent, was paper within the meaning of the Act of 
Parliament, which imposes a duty of l£d. per lb. on the manufacture of paper, and requires 
the manufacturer to be licensed. In the process of manufacture, the hides are reduced to 
a pulp in precisely the same manner as rags are in the manufacture of paper, and then the 
parchment is produced. A specimen of the Defendant's manufacture was handed up by 
Sir Fitzroy Kelly to Mr. Baron Martin, when his lordship said that he should say the speci- 
men was parchment, and not paper, and that the former was not subject to a duty. 

Rule granted. 



FATAL BOILER EXPLOSION. 
A roilee explosion, which resulted in the deaths ^ofjthree persons, has occurred at the 
Aberychan Iron Works. The boiler belonged to the winding engine of one of the pits, and 
was of large size, and formed of massive plates of iron. About 12 o'clock the engineer 
who attended to it turned the top cock on, and the water flowed out, showing that it did 
not require replenishing. A few minutes afterwards the catastrophe took place, from 
what cause is not yet ascertained. A man who was feeding the fire was so severely burnt 
that he died very soon afterwards ; and two boys, who were walking about 15 yards off, were 
hurled a distance of 30 yards, and instantly killed. A piece of the boiler, weighing about 
2 tons, was forced away the same distance, and another fragment, weighing about 2£ tons, 
was carried 20 yards away, where part of it lies firmly embedded. Some small pieces were 
even found at a distance of 300 yards. The boiler-house was completely demolished. 

NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Messes. Maudslay and Co. have provided, for the use of their workmen at Lambeth, 
a spacious reading room and mess room. 

A Directory or Canada has been recently published by Mr. Lovell, of Montreal. 

Calcutta is now lighted with gas. 

We regret to announce the death of Mr. John Hendeeson, of the late firm of Fox and 
Henderson, at Helvin Grove, near Birmingham. Mr. Henderson was in the 47th year of 
his age. 

Newspaper Articles may not be copied into other journals in Denmark without acknow- 
ledgment. This is under the new law of the press. 

January 15th the compulsory prepayment of postages was extended to all letters 
addressed to the following colonies: — Malta, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Antigua, 
Demerara, Berbice, Bahamas, Honduras, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Vincent, St. 
Lucia, St. Kitts, Tortela, Tobago, Curaeqa, and Grenada. Letters posted in the colonies 
mentioned, addressed to the United Kingdom, required to be prepaid. 

Coals to London.— 1 .246,299 tons were conveyed by railway to within 20 miles of 
London in the year 1856, and 1,206,775 tons in the year 1857, showing a decrease of 
39,524 tons. 



The Artizan, ~| 
February 1, 1858. J 



Notes and Novelties. 



47 



Allot of Chromium. — M. Fremy has obtained an alloy of chromium and iron, by 
reducing chromate of iron with charcoal under a high heat in a crucible. The alloy is very 
hard, and resembles brass. 

Practical Engineers. — We understand that measures are being adopted to organise 
an engineering club in London. A preliminary meeting will shortly be held, at which, 
among other matters, it will be proposed to include every branch of engineering science, 
■whether in mining, railways, or canals. Amongst the objects in contemplation are an 
extensive library and a lecture theatre for the convenience of the members.— Mining 
Journal. 

Strata of Auriferous Soil have been discovered at Lingenfleld, on the Rhine. 

Ax Immense Mass of Alum Shale, excavated from a mine at Westerdale, York, has 
spontaneously- ignited, and is emitting vast volumes of nauseous vapour 

A New Chimney', in connection with the works of Messrs. Crossley, at Dean dough, 
which will be of extraordinary dimensions and weight, is nearly completed. Although 
placed in a valley, it has attained a level with the summit of Beacon Hill. Its height is 
127 yards, the width at the bottom being 10 yards. The weight of brick and stone used in 
the erection is estimated at 9,685 tons. 

College for the Wobkisg Classes. — It is proposed to found colleges in various 
parts of the metropolis for working men and their families. The first of these institutions 
will be forthwith establish. d in the parish of St. Anne, Soho. Attached to the college will 
be a free library and reading-room for the working-men, a public lecture-hall, and a 
chapel. 

KAIL-WAYS. 

The East Kent Line has been inspected prior to being opened for public traffic. Mr. 
Brassey is stated to have undertaken the construction of the Worcester and Hereford. The 
estimated cost of the following new lines, &c. is ; — South Wales (to Pembroke Dock, &c), 
£250,000 ; Belfast and County Down, £250,000 ; Stockton and Darlington, North Riding 
Lines, and Bridge over the Tees, £147,746; Border Counties Extension, £90,000 ; Merthyr 
Junction, £o0,000; new branches and improvements of Whitehaven Junction, £65,000; 
Mid Kent, Croydon Extension, £40,000 ; Stockport, Disley, and Whaley Bridge, to Haytield, 
£35,000; Burton-on-Trent, £20,000 ; and East Suffolk Branch, £10,000. A satisfactory 
conference has taken place between deputations of the Boards of the Birkenhead, Great 
Western, London and North 'Western, and Birkenhead, Lancashire, and Cheshire Junction 
Companies, on the question of the new Birkenhead Dock plans. Arrangements were 
mutually agreed on, and it is believed that one of the conditions is that the works shall be 
completed within six or se^en years. The shareholders of the South Staffordshire have 
accepted the terms of an agreement for leasing their property to the London and North 
Western 

New Works of the London and North Western Railwat. — The financial declaration 
of the directors of this company to Parliament has been made in respect of the new powers 
they seek for in the ensuing session to make extensions of their line from Longsight to 
Hyde and Stalybridge ; to make a branch and alter canal at Shrewsbury ; to make new roads 
at Willesden, Watford, Coventry, Crewe and Stafford; to make new works at Coventry 
and Nuneaton ; to abandon part of St. Alban's branch ; to take additional lands at Linsdale, 
Northampton, Pitsford, and in Manchester and Salford, and to widen the bridge over the 
Irwell 

The proposed West End Railway Terminus will occupy the most central position in West- 
minster and Pimlico. It will be within 400 yards of Buckingham Palace, 800 yards of Belgrave 
Square, 1 ,100 yards of Hyde Park Corner, 1 ,100 yards of Westminster Abbey, and 900 yards 
of Pall Mall. As the line will pass along the Grosvenor Canal, a dead level will be obtained 
for the railway, and the extent of accommodation at the terminus is magnificent for railway 
purposes. 

Brentford and Richmond. — The estimated parliamentary expense for constructing 
the new line, as certified by the engineer, is £80,000. 

Stockport, Disley, and Whaley Bridge. — The estimate of the Company's 
engineer for constructing the proposed railway to Hayfield, is £35,000. 

Merthyr Tydvll. — Estimated cost of constructing new line and works, including 
purchase of land, &c, £80,000. 

Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire. — This company propose con- 
structing a new lir.e'frora Newton to Compstall ; their engineer, Mr. Russell, reports that it 
will cost £130.000. 

Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire. — During the past half-year the 
contractor for the permanent way has taken up the whole of the stone blocks on the line, 
and completed the fishing of the permanent way between Manchester and Retford, on both 
lines, with the exception of three miles of single line. The works in progress are — the 
Graving Dock at Grimsby, which is expected to be completed by the 1st of February, upon 
which £25,112 ha3 been expended; a new hoist, at Manchester, estimated to cost about 
£3,850 ; extensions of sidings at'Ardwick, estimated cost £2,000, which are expected to be 
completed by the end of February. A new warehouse has just been completed at Ardwick, 
at a cost of £1,900. The short branch to Hyde is in course of completion, and is estimated 
to cost about £6,500. The curve at Lincoln to connect the Midland and Great Northern 
lines is also in progress. 

Guerln's Brake. — A trial of these brakes is about to be made on the South -Western 
Railway. 

Border Counties Extension. — The engineers of this line, Messrs. Tone and 
Charlton, have estimated the cost, including land, at £90,000. 

London Tramway. — The estimated expense by Mr. J. Samuel, the engineer of this 
undertaking, including contingencies, is reported to Parliament to amount to .£31,000. 

London, Brighton, and South Coast.— The cost of the proposed new lines of 
this company from Shoreham to Henfield, to join the Mid-Sussex Railway, is estimated, 
including the purchase of land, at £155,000. 

Andover. — The works required to convert the Andover canal into a railway, including 
the construction of the proposed new line, are estimated at £130,000. 

South Wales Railway. — The financial statement of the directors of this company 
to Parliament in respect of their proposed new railway to Pembroke Dock, additional land 
at Newport, and extension of power of leasing to Great Western Railway, sets forth that 
the expense thereof will be defrayed out of a surplus of £260,000, remaining unexpended 
out of the £4,800,000 which they have been authorised to raise. 

Caledonlan.. — The cost of the construction of this company's branch railway, from 
the Clydesdale junction, near Rutherglen, to Dalmarnock, is estimated at £36,850. 

Carron. — The estimate of the engineer for the construction of this line from the 
Stirlingshire Midland Junction to the Can-on Works, is £13,000 for the railway, and £5,000 
for the canal . 

France. — The section of the Bourbonnais Railway, comprised between Roanne and La 
Palisse, is to be opened to the public in the course of the month of March next. The open- 
ing of this section, which is the only gap which exists between the Bourbonnais and the 
most direct line from St. Etienne to Paris, will shorten the distance between those towns 
by 30 miles. The section between Langres and Vesoul, which has been inspected by 
Government engineers, will be open to the public in a few days. The section from Vesoul 
to Mulhouse is so far advanced that it may be opened to the public within three months. 

Baris to Mulhouse. — The section from Belfort to Dannemarie will be opened for 
passengers on the 15th February. A direct communication from Paris to Mulhouse will 
thus be opened through Troyes, Chaumont, Langres, Vesoul, and Belfort. The section from 
Seyssel to Bellegarde, on the Lyons and Geneva Railway, is almost finished. The torrent 
of L'Hopital, of which the deep and rugged banks present an interruption of some extent 
above the aqueduct cut in the rock for the waters ' to «un off, is entirely filled up. The 



works of the tunnel of Surjaux, favoured by fine weather, are finished, and thus all the 
difficulties are overcome. The handsome viaduct of the Vegerance will be shortly finished. 
The road is already open from this point to the terminus of Bellegarde. 

The Athenian Railway. — The concession of this line of railway has been given to a. 
French company 

The Italian Railway Company (Compagnie du Cliemin de Fer de la Ligne (Pltalie) has- 
obtained from the Sardinian Government and the State Council of the Canton of Geneva 
the following concessions: — 1. Line from Geneva to the Sardinian frontier. 2. The 
Chablais line, from the Genevese frontier to the extremity of the Lake of Geneva. 3. The 
lines of the Haut and Bas Valais, from the eastern end of the Lake of Geneva to Brigg at 
the foot of the Simplon. 4. The Simplon Pass Railway, from Brigg to Domo d'Ossola.- 
5. The Lac-Major Railway, from Domo d'Ossola to Arona. 

BRIDGES. 

The Victoria Bridge at Montreal. — The place where this bridge crosses the 
St. Lawrence is about half a mile to the westward of Montreal, a short distance below the 
" Lachine " Rapids, and about 9 miles from St. Anne"s, the place immortalised in Moore's 
" Canadian Boat Song." The total amount of masonry in the bridge will be about 
3,000,000 cubic ft., which, at 13J ft. to the ton, gives a total weight of about 222,000. The 
total weight of iron in the tabes will be 10,408 tons. The material for the second tube has 
reached Canada ; and preparations are in progress for the despatch, from England, of eight 
more tubes, so as to insure their erection next slimmer. Mr. A. W. Ross, the engineer, 
having completed his duty as Engineer-in-Chief of the Grand Trunk Railway, now directs 
his skill and attention exclusively to this structure. The bridge will cost about £1 ,250,000. 
The first tube has just been placed in position. It weighs nearly 1,000 tons, and when left 
to support itself deflected only l£ in-. 

Westminster New Bridge. — The works of Mr. Page's new bridge are now rapidly 
progressing. The whole of the piers will soon be completed above high-water level. 

Fall of the Chain Suspension Bridge over the Severn at Caerhowell, 
near Montgomery, North Wales. Two waggons, laden with lime, with their teams, 
were passing at the time. The chains instantaneously gave way, without any warning, 
precipitating the waggoners, waggons, and horses into the river. One of the waggoners 
was drowned. The bridge was of cast iron, built about two years ago, at a cost of £2,000. 
An examination of the bridge will be made, and an inquest held on February 3rd. 

The New Iron Lattice Bridge crossing the river Taff at Pontyrhun, of about 
90 ft. span, has now been completed. The work was executed by the Usk Side Iron Com- 
pany, under the direction and superintendence of Mr. J. W. Harrison, survevor to the 
Merthyr Tydvil Board of Health. 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEERING. 

Atlantic Telegraph. — The bill of this company, to be laid before Parliament, 
proposes an increase of capital by the creation of new shares, and the borrowing, on mort- 
gage or bond, the original capital of £350,000, now all paid up, being found, "in conse- 
quence of circumstances beyond the control of the company," inadequate for the purposes 
of the undertaking. 

The Submarine Cable in the Straits of Messina is broken. The operation of laying 
it down is to be recommenced. 

A contract has been entered into between the Government and a telegraph company to 
unite Greece, by means of the electric cable, with the Ionian Islands, and thence with 
Trieste on the one hand, and, on the other with Turkey and Vienna by Syria and Con- 
stantinople. 

The United States Steam Frigate "Nlagara" will again be employed in 
laying down the Atlantic Cable in June next. 

Australia. — It is proposed to connect Tasmania with the Australian continent by 
means of a Submarine Cable. The telegraph will be shortly completed between Adelaide 
and Melbourne. A great project has been mooted at the latter place for securing tele- 
graphic communication with London 

The Telegraph from Malta to Corfu. — The Elba took three days to complete 
the operation. The route taken by- Mr. Newall was that of keeping as near to the coast of 
Italy as possible, owing tothe great depth in the direct course between Malta and Corfu. 
Opposite Mount Etna the depth was found to be immense. The weather was very favour- 
able, and the submergence was effected most successfully. 

MILITARY ENGINEERING. 

Plymouth. — Major Jarvis, Assistant Inspector-General of Fortifications, is at Plymouth, 
on special duty, to make arrangements with the Earl of Mountedgcumbe and Mr. W. Pole 
Carew, for the purchase of portions of their lands for the purpose of constructing a chain of 
ortifications on the western side of the town. 

Defences for the Coast of Scotland. — We understand, says the " Aberdeen 
Herald," that the arrangements between the Town Council and the Government for the 
protection of this city and harbour have been completed. There are be three batteries- 
one, a four-gun battery, will be erected on the Links, near the sea-beach, opposite to 
Garvock Street, commanding the bay and entrance to the harbour; another on the site of 
the old North Pier Battery, to be armed with one gun of the heaviest calibre, to command 
the approaches ; and the third, a nine-gun battery, on the town's lands at Torry, near the 
t'Shortness, covering the entrance and approach into the harbour. 
HARBOURS, DOCKS, CANALS. 

The King and Queen of Greece went to Chalcis on the 29tbjDecember, to inaugurate the 
opening of the canal of Euboea, which is brought to a successful termination. 

The Suez Canal, Constantinople. — M. de Lesseps 'arrived last week from 
Trieste, just at the period of Lord Stratford's departure. In the firman given by the Porte 
to Mehemet Ali of Egypt, the latter is obliged to obtain the consent of the Porte to all 
public undertakings of any magnitude. This M. de Lesseps is now assiduously striving to 
obtain. 

The amount of the estimates for the completion of the Birkenhead Docks is £1,700,000; 
this, with the present debt of £1,300,000, will raise the debt to £3,000,000. 

Harbour at Peterhead. — A deputation from the parliamentary trustees of the 
harbour of Peterhead, in Aberdeenshire, have been visiting Newcastle and Sunderland, 
with the view of eliciting an expression of interest on the part of the public bodies in favour 
of a harbour at Peterhead, for serving the purposes of refuge in Scotland. Such an under- 
taking is of course only expected after Parliament has sanctioned a similar harbour for the 
moresouthem coast, and from the trade betwixt Newcastle and the north of Scotland. 
We have little doubt that the subject of a harbour of refuge for Scotland will meet with 
the attention which it deserves. 

Sunderland Harbour. — Mr. R. Stephenson has visited the Port of Sunderland, 
under the request of the P.iver Wear Commissioners, with a view to the immediate im- 
provement of the bar and harbour. The eminent engineer was supplied with elaborate 
plans, drawn by Mr. Meik, the Commissioners' engineer, and a thorough survey was made ; 
after which Mr. Stephenson had an interview with a Committee of the Commissioners, 
the result of which will be that the contemplated work will be commenced without delay. 

MARINE ENGINEERING, SHIPBUILDING, &c. 

The Shipbuilding Department at Chatham Dockyard now presents 
great activity, in consequence of an Admiralty order which has recently been received, 
directing the completing, with all despatch, of the screw steamers, and other vessels now 
constructing at that establishment, in order that several additional large steamers maybe - 
laid down. 

The American Steamer Ariel has put back to Queenstown— mainshafj broken. 



48 



Notes and Novelties. 



r The Aktizan, 
L February 1,1858. 



The Australian Postal Service. — The Government have allowed the Glasgow 
company quietly to he absorbed into the Royal West India Mail Company ; not only so, but 
without public competition have renewed tlie contract with the "West India Mail Company, 
and now pay them yearly £455,000. 

Broadside Ship Launches.— At Maryport, Cumberland, this mode of launching 
vessels has been practised tor about fifty years. 

The wreck of the steamer Rapid, lately sunk of Great Yarmouth, has been inspected by 
divers. Some of the cargo may be saved. 

The Strike of the Wear Shipwrights has terminated.— The men are to 
get the old wages of 5s. per day. 

Launches on the Wear. — During the first four days of the new year thirteen vessels 
were thrown off— an aggregate tonnage of 6,000 tons. 

The passage through Torres Straits is growing up very fast with coral islands and reefs. 
Few ships attempt it now. 

The Victor Emrnanuel,9\ screw two-decker has been fitted for trial with a new four-bladed 
propeller. 
The affairs of the Australian Steam Clipper Company are to be wound up. 
.Irregularity of the French Mails. — Great complaints are being made about the 
irregularity of the French mails to the East. This irregularity is due, it is said, to the new 
class of vessels employed by the Company of the Messageries Imperiales, which have 
proved a complete failure. 

Weekly Steam Communication with India. — The Peninsular and Oriental 
Company intend to despatch four steamers per month from Southampton to Alexandria 
instead of two, as at present. This important extension of the company's operations will of 
course demand an increased number of steamers. To meet this demand, four or five 
new steam ships will be ready during the next three or four months ; the Malabar, 1,080 
tons ; the Benares, 2,500 tons ; the Halsette, 1,500 tons ; and the Sortham, 1,500 tons, now 
building at Messrs. Summers and Day's yard, Southampton. In addition, the Malta 
(paddle), is being converted, at Glasgow, into a screw steamer, and her new boilers are 
being made at Birkenhead. 
The total number of wrecks during the past year was 2,002. 

The Amoor River. — The Russian Government have had two iron steamer3 built in 
Philadelphia. They were brought out in two sections, and erected during the winter. 
They are small boats intended to run a distance of 2,200 miles up the Amoor. The 
Russians expect to have three more next year. There are two American engineers in the 
employ of the Government upon this river. 

London, Isle of Dogs. — Some eighteen months s"ince the eight acres upon which the 
works of Messrs. Westwood, Baillie, Campbell and Co., have been erected, were simply 
brick-fields. During the period mentioned, the firm have erected an extensive range of 
workshops, in which are to be found all the conveniences of drilling machines, punching 
presses, lathes, and, in fact, everything necessary for carrying on a large trade in ship- 
building, wrought-iron bridges, and other works. The firm have turned out, during the 
eighteen months, 2,000 tons of iron bridges tor the East Indies. They have completed 
other bridges and pontoons to the extent of 1,000 tons, and constructed the landing pier at 
Milford Haven for the Leviathan, a work which has met with the entire approval of 
Mr. Brunei ; they have built three vessels, a caisson for the East and West India Dock 
Company, and 40 mud vessels for the Turkish Government. These were turned out within 
two months, with other works, including a number of steam boilers. 

Progress of the Launch of the " Leviathan." — Jan. 5. — At 5 o'clock, when work was 
discontinued, she had made 2G slips in all, in lengths varying from 2 to 5 in. each, according 
as the pressure was great and the elasticity of the timber threw her off with more or less 
force. Her whole progress was 8 ft. 3J in. aft, and 3 ft. 1 in. forward. The reason of this 
great difference between the progress of the stem and stern is, because the fore part of the 
vessel is already so much in advance as to have twisted the cradles on the ways. In ' 
addition to the admirable arrangement of joining the rams in threes, each machine is now 
fitted with a pressure gauge, which records the exact weight per circular inch on each 
ram. Each ram also, though nearly all are capable of bearing a pressure of four or five 
tons to the inch, lias been gauged, and the escape-valve so weighted as to let out the water 
at a pressure of 30 cwt. to the inch. With these precautions, it is next to impossible that 
they can now be burst. The united pressure of all the 21 rams now fixed, and working at 
30 cwt. the circular inch, would amount to no less than 4,000 tons, which, as the resistance 
of the Leviathan has never yet been known to exceed 1 ,900 tons, is of course more than 
double the force they are likely ever to be wanted to exert. From a record kept yesterday 
of the pressure iipon the rams when each slip was made, it seems that the average strain 
required to move was 1,300 tons. The variations above and below this standard, however, 
were constant, and occurred in a most unaccountable manner ; sometimes 'she slipped 
when the register barely reached 1,000 tons pressure, and then probably at the next move- 
ment a force of 1,700 tons was exerted before they could get her to move an inch. 

Jan. 6th. — Operations were resumed, as usual, at Millwall, and continued without inter- 
ruption throughout the day, when the signal board showed a further progress of 10 ft. aft, 
and about 9 ft. 6 in. forwai - d. During the previous night the precaution had been taken of 
completely emptying all the hydraulic machines with their pumps and feed pipes, so that none 
were frozen ; and the whole apparatus was at work at 9 o'clock. The pressure exerted on 
Tuesday, never exceeded 1,700 tons, and the vessel even slipped at as low a force as 
1,000 tons; the average of the whole 6 ay being about 1,300 tons. Yesterday the average 
pressure exerted showed a decided increase of resistance on the part of the ship to the 
amount of nearly 200 tons ; and, in one or two instances, the strain required to overcome it 
was almost double in amount to that at which she had slipped the previous day. At the 
first starting at 9 o'clock', she never slipped at all, but ground slowly down the launching 
ways at the rate of about an inch in four or four-and-a-half minutes. At this rate she 
continued to progress slowly, but very steadily, till the men left for dinner. When the 
efforts were resumed, after an hour's interval, it was found at once, that from some unex- 
plained cause or another, she had abandoned her slow mode of grinding down and taken 
again to short slips from 2J in. to 5 in. in length, the average being about 3 in. As was 
the case on the day previous, the pressure gauges on the hydraulic rams at each slip 
showed that the weight of the vessel overcome the elasticity of the wood, and left a pressure 
of 2 cwt. to the circular inch on each machine. Judging from this, it is evident that a slight 
continuous strain would suffice to keep her in motion for a distance of probably 1 ft. or 2 ft. 
The hauling tackle towards the river was not used, at least the steam power was not 
applied to it, though a few men at each end worked it with a fourfold purchase, and 
at the stem, at least, again exerted sufficient strain to crush in the iron drum of the 
windlass. 

Jan. 1th. — 11 ft. was accomplished on the fore and aft cradles. The whole of this dis- 
tance was traversed by the gigantic vessel in a series of short grinding slips, varying in 
.'ength from 3 to 6J in., and taking place at regular intervals of ten minutes or so between 
each. The amount of pressure exercised by all the hydraulic machines varied from about 
2,000 to nearly 2,500 tons ; the average, however, showing that the resistance offered by 
the ship was rather less than on the previous day. The river tackle was only used to a 
very limited extent. 

Jan 8th. — Advanced 12 ft. 8 in. aft and 11 ft. forward. The vibrations more violent and 
continuous than before. 

Jan. 9th. — The launching was continued as usual, and resulted in a further advance of 
10 ft. fore and aft. The fore part of the vessel seldom moved until all the forward hydraulic 
presses were worked up to the full power which they are now allowed to attain, namely, 
30 cwt. on the circular inch. The aftermost cradle, on the contrary, was, as usual, much 
inclined to slip, and generally started when the pressure of the rams at that end had reached 
SCcwt. or 23 cwt. on the inch. The fore part on Saturday therefore gained considerably 



on the stem, for, the compression of the wood forward being very great under the heavy 
strain, when the monster did slip, its expansion naturally forced her down a greater distance 
in the ways than at the after part, where the effect of the pressure was lost in the move- 
ment of an inch or so 

Jan. llth. — An average advance of 20 ft. was made in the course of the day, the gauges 
on the hydraulic presses seldom indicating a pressure of more than 20 cwt. per circular 
inch at each slip ; vibration diminished. 

Jan. l'2lh. — Before dinner time 20 ft. was accomplished in almost continuous movement 
of short slips. The gauges on the hydraulic presses registered 15 cwt. 

Jan. Ht'h. — A short time before the tide had reached its highest, three of the hydraulic 
machines aft, and three forward, were set to work to move the vessel nearer down the 
ways. She moved in quick short slips, with the utmost ease; the gauges of the few hy- 
draulic machines in use seldom averaging more than 10 cwt. to the inch, and each slip taking 
place at short intervals, and with an almost total absence of vibration. In a comparatively 
short time a distance of 13 ft. aft and 3 ft. 5 in. forward was accomplished, the after part 
showing such a tendency to slide away on the least pressure that it was impossible to 
regulate the ship's movements with the same relative accuracy as heretofore. 

Jan. 23rd. — The moving of the Leviathan to the extremity of the ways, where she will be 
left to float at the full spring tide of Saturday next, the 30th inst., was resumed this morn- 
ing, and attracted an unusual number of royal visitors. The operations were recommenced 
at half-past 7 o'clock, Mr. Brunei, Mr. Hepworth, Captain Harrison, and Mr. Prowse being 
at their respective posts. The ship moved readily on the pressure of the hydraulics being 
applied, owing, no doubt, to her having several feet of water under her. She progressed 
nearly 3 ft. in the first hour. As the tide receded, however, the power had to be consider- 
ably increased, and frequently it was only on the almost full pressure being put on that she 
advanced. This is accounted for partly by the mud which had accumulated at the end of 
the ways, by the falling tides, and the distance the ship has progressed from the rains, from 
some of them as much as 150 ft., the ram-heads which run from the piston of the ram to 
the cradles being formed of heavy baulks strongly bolted and ballasted to prevent the tide 
floating them from their position. When the men ceased operations in the afternoon, the 
ship had advanced upwards of 8 ft. during the day, which, with Friday's work, brought her 
down some 1G ft. more than when the work ceased some 10 days ago. She is now within a 
few feet of the very extremity of the ways, and at the ensuing spring tides she will have 
amply sufficient water under her to be fairly floated. Indeed, on Wednesday, when there 
was a very good (neap) tide, she showed very lively symptoms of freeing" herself from 
bondage, and, as if anxious to bound into her future element, was seen to lift at her stem 
.and stern. As a matter of precaution to check her buoyancy, 1 ,500 tons of water was put 
into her compartments to keep her down. 

Mr. Daniel Russell, the nautical engineer who saved the royal mail [steamer Tyne, after 
grounding near St. Alban's Head, offered his services to launch the Leviathan in a month's 
time, at a cost not exceeding £5,000 or £G,000, " provided all the machinery and gear now 
in use be cleared away." 

THE GREAT EASTERN STEAM-SHIP "LEVIATHAN." 

We have the satisfaction of being able to inform our readers tliat this 
ship has, at the time we write (the 28th January), been successfully 
pushed down some 20 ft. beyond the extreme end of the launching-ways, 
where she remains awaiting a sufficient rise of tide at high-water to float 
her oft" clear of the cradles, &c. The tide this day (28th) was sufficient 
to lift the vessel and after cradle slightly off the after launching-way; 
yesterday at noon there was within 3 to 6 in. sufficient depth of water. 
The cradles are being taken to pieces, so as to enable the ship to be 
more easily hauled off. 

Four of the most powerful steam tugs employed on the Thames have 
been engaged by Captain Harrison to be in readiness to-morrow to haul 
her off and take her in tow. We have been informed that the tugs 
engaged are, the Victoria, the Napoleon, the Friend of All Nations, and 
the Perseverance ; a very appropriate selection of names for the occasion. 

We have, therefore, every reason to believe that about the time the 
February Number of The Aktizan is in the hands of our provincial sub- 
scribers, the Great Eastern, or Leviathan, will be safely moored off 
Deptford. 

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

J. E. B. — Taylor and Co., Britannia Works, Birkenhead. We know of no other manufac- 
turer. 

Q. — Mr. Bright, is still the Engineer to the Atlantic Telegraph Company ; and Mr. Everitt, 
the Chief Engineer of the Niagara, U. S. steam frigate, has been appointed by his 
Government to co-operate with Mi-. Bright in making arrangements for the laying down 
of the Atlantic Cable. 

R. S— We are informed by Mr. A. D. Mills, of Crane Court, Fleet Street, that S. B. Rogers's 
work upon Iron Metallurgy, is not yet issued to the public. 

C. K. — Your inquiry is not of a character which we can reply to through The Artizan. 
If we were to answer such inquiries, and advise as to where to seek employment, &c.,we 
might easily fin the twenty-six pages of the present Number. Had you complied with 
the rule to be observed by correspondents addressing us — viz., to send their correct 
name and address — we should have been enabled to reply through the post, which we 
are willing to do when we can be of any service to our subscribers. Do this, and we will 
write you at length, and give our best advice. 

W. H. Nash. — The subject you wrote to us upon some time ago will be treated of very 
shortly. We are preparing numerous interesting facts connected with the subject. 

Radix. — There are no specific rules for the length of the link in " link-motions." The 
action of the link, in regulating the movements of the valve, is substantially the same 
with any length of link. But it is plain that the shorter the link the greater is the angu- 
larity or obliqueness of its action on the valve-rod connections ; and, in order to reduce 
this angularity, and the consequent angular strain, to the lowest limit, the link should be 
made as long as may be convenient. 

Radix (No. 2).— The subject upon which you wrote a short time ago would require too long 
a reference to permit of our giving it here, and having lost your address, think it best 
to refer you to D. K Clarke's excellent work on Railway Machinery, where the subject 
is treated at considerable lencrth, in the first part of Section 2, pp. 38—53. 

A. Lowentbal, V., Q. C, and others, whose communications are not inserted in the present 
Number, shall be inserted in our next. 

Vulcanized India-rubber.— An esteemed foreign correspondent, H. C. B., makes the follow- 
ing inquiry: — "Having to construct large pumping works requiring a considerable 
quantity of vulcanized India-rubber, I wish to know a good means for testing the quality 
of this material, and of the efficacy of the vulcanizing. Accordingly, I will feel much 
obliged on being informed, through your valuable Journal, if such a test is known, and 
how it is to be applied." 



The Artizan, "1 
February 1, 185S.J 



asi of New Patents. 



49 



LIST OF NEW PATENTS AND DESIGNS FOE ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 
ALLOWED. 
Dated 11th August, 1857. 
2147. R. Husband, Manchester — Hats. 

Bated 20th August, 1857. 
2213. G. Spill, Stepney-green— Treating fabrics employed in 
the manufacture of hats, caps, and bonnets, and for 
other purposes, so as to render the same impervious 
to moisture and grease. 

Bated 18th September, 1857. 
2428. G. E. Dering, Lockleys, Hertford— Laying down elec- 
tric telegraph cables, in obtaining soundings, and 
in ascertaining the position of and raising submerged 
electric telegraph cables and other bodies. 
Bated Wth October, 1857. 
2060. J. Schmidt, Essex-street, Strand — Making tyres for 

railway wheels. 
266S. M. F. Cavalerie, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris— Motive 
power. 

Bated 2lst October, 1857. 
2687. J. B. Slawson, New Orleans, U.S.— Boxes for receiving 
the fares of passengers in public conveyances, for 
the prevention of fraud on the part of the persons 
authorised to attend to the receiving of the fares as 
well as on the part of the passengers. 
Bated 2nd November, 1857. 
2784. J. Apuerly and W. Clissold, Dudbridge, Gloucester- 
shire — Feeding fuel to furnaces. 

Bated 3rd November, 1857. 
2786. P. A. le Comte de Fontainemoreau, Paris, London, 
and Brussels — Marine or condensing steam engines. 
2794. A. C. Sacre, Brussels — Measuring water. 

Bated 5th November, 1857. 
2806. G. R. Simpson and D.C.Simpson, No. 78, High-street, 
Whitechapel, and No. 5, George-terrace, Commer- 
cial-road — Spring blinds. 

Bated 10th November, 1857. 
2D06. P. E. Coffey, Bromley, Middlesex— Distilling. 

Bated 24th November, 1857. 
2935. E. 0. Bordas, 30, Bond-street— Billiard cues. 

Bated 25th November, 1857. 
2942. F. Lemaire, Tavistoek-st, Covent-garden — Petticoat. 
2944. F. H. Maberly, Stowmarket, Suffolk— Polishing ma- 
chine. 
2946. C. Bernard, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris— Heating 

apparatus. 

2948. E. C. Tisdall, Holland Park Farm, Kensington— Fluids 

containing animal and vegetable substances. 

Bated 36th November, 1857. 

2950. W. Blinkhorn, Sutton, near St. Helen's, Lancashire — 

Grinding, smoothing, and polishing glass. 
2952. J. F. Shoner, 4, Church-street, Kennington — Common 

road carriages. 
2954. J. Ruston, J. Toyne Proctor, Lincoln — Dressing grain. 
2956. W. B. Taylor, Ballymena, Antrim, Ireland— Driving 
looms for weaving. 

Bated 21th November, 1857. 
2958. S. B. Wright and H. T. Green, Rugby— Bricks, pipes, 
and tiles. 

Bated 26th November, 1857. 
2960. B. Peech Leicester— Bedsteads, elastic bed bottoms, the 

seats of chairs and sofas. 
2962. J. Peters, Eupen, Prussia— Spinning. 
2964. A. A. Chassepot, Paris— Breech-loading fire-arms. 
2966. R. Tindall, jun., Fraserburgh, Aberdeen — Harpoon 

. guns and ammunition. 
2968. F. G. Grice, West Bromwich, Staffordshire— Manu- 
facture of bolts, spikes, rivets, screw blanks, and 
other articles of like manufacture. 
Bated 30th November, 1857. 
2970. J. Nichols, Pendleton, near Manchester— Sizing yarns 

or threads. 
2972. T. Kaye, Grange-moor, Whitley-lower, near Dews- 
bury— Looms for weaving. 
2974. P. A. Montel, Paris.— Motive power. 
2976. D.K.Clark, 11, Adam-street, Adelphi.— Combustion 
of fuel without smoke, and communication of heat. 

2978. J. Howard, Bedford— Ploughs. 

2979. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Cleaning carpets 

and other fabrics. 

2980. J. B. Couy, Nantes— Manure, and for the disinfection 

of animal and vegetable matters. 

2981. S. Solomon, Wood-street, Spitalfields - Umbrella, 

parasol, and walking sticks or canes. 
Bated 1st Becember, 1857. 

2983. F. G. Spray, London— Gunpowder. 

2984. R. Hipkiss and W. Olsen, Birmingham— lubricating 

shafts and axles. 

2985. D. Lane, Cork— Lighting, regulating, and extinguish- 

ing street and other gas lamps by means of elec- 
tricity. 

2986. T. J. Thompson, Greenwood-park, Newry, Down, 

Irehn.d — Lighting railway trains witii gas. 
Bated 2?ul Becember, 1857. 

2987. E. C. Shepard, Jermyn street— Magneto-electric ma- 

chines. 
298S. J. Summers, Stalybridge, Cheshire, and D. Wormald, 

Dukinfield — Clog iions, and heels and tips for 

boots. 
2989. J. Eceles, Blackburn— Coloring or ornamenting bricks, 

tiles, pipes, and other articles made of plastic 

earths. 



2990. J.' Hetherington, Birmingham— Bowls of castors for 

furniture. 

2991. W. Bird and R. Ashton, Blackburn, and T. Bird, 

Manchester — Looms and pickers for looms. 

2992. W. Thomson, Dalkeith-park-gardens, Midlothian, 

N.B. — Propelling ships or vessels. 

2993. C. J. M. Moireau, 23, Avenue de la Porte Maillot, 

Passy, near Paris— A composition for bees' wax. 

2994. J. Fowler, jun., 28, Gornhill, and W. Worby, Ipswich 

■ — Ploughing, tilling, or cultivating land. 
2935. J. Francis, United States, and C. Manby, Great 
George-street, Westminster — Waggons and other 
vehicles, applicable to the transport of troops and 
military and other stores on land and water. 

2996. A. Parkes and H. Parkes, Birmingham— Sheathing 

metals. 

2997. J. Livesey, New Lenton, Nottingham— Pile fabrics, 

and machinery employed therein. 
Bated 3rd Becember, 1857. 

2998. L. F. E. Ciceri, 38, Rue Pigale, Paris— White as a 

basis of color. 

2999. G. T. Bousfield, Loughboro'-park, Brixton— Collaps- 

ible boats. 

3000. R. Hazard, Thanet-plaee, Temple-bar— Self-acting 

reclining chair or couch. 

3001. E. Slack, Glasgow— Use of wheat and other grains, 

and amylaceous vegetable substances. 
8002. J. Reeve, 46, Rutland gate — Propelling vessels. 

3003. C. Henwood, Oxford— Galvanic battery suitable for 

medical purposes. 

3004. W. Parsons and J. Attree, Brighton — Cock or tap and 

flushing apparatus. 

Bated 4th Becember, 1837. 

3005. J. Buchanan, Liverpool — Smoke-consuming appa- 

ratus, applicable to boiler and other furnaces. 

3006. A. Ripley, St. Helen's, Lancashire— Mills for grinding 

myrabolams, valonia, bark, and other similar sub- 
stances. , 

3007. J. Hamilton, Halifax — "Strained wire fencing" for 

dividing fields and parks. 

3008. H. Deacon, Woodend Chemical Works, Widnes Dock, 

near Warrington — Soda and potash. 

3009. J. Rubery, Birmingham — Umbrellas and parasols, and 

new condition of materials. 

3010. J. de Helle, and A. Viscount de Waresquiel, 'Paris — 

Railway rolling stock. 

3011. S. H. Sewers, Curry Rivel, Somerset— Powder for 

dusting turnips, and machinery for distributing 
the same. 

3012. J. Grizard, Nevers, France — Winding up and setting 

watches. 

3013. W. Standring, Bury-rcad, Rochdale— Throstle and 

mule spring for the under clearers of spinning ma- 
chines. 

3014. A. Morton and J. Howden, Glasgow— Motive power. 

Bated 5th December, 1857. 

3015. S. J. Count Ostrorog, Paris— A wind musical instru- 

ment. 

3016. W. Caldwell, Liverpool — Fluid meter, may be used as 

a motive-power engine. 

3017. M. A. F. Mentions, 39, Rue de FEchiquier, Paris — 

Lucifer matches. 

3018. W. Mercer, W. Bodden, and W. Higginson, Oldham— 

Machinery forslubbingand roving cotton. 

3019. T. Sidebottom Adshead, and A. Holden, North-end, 

near Stalybridge, Cheshire —A self-acting combina- 
tion of machinery for the grinding of carding engine 
rollers. 

3020. W. T. Henley, 46, St. John-street-road— Ropes and 

cables fur telegraphic purposi-s. 

3021. J. Brinton and J. Crabtree, Kidderminster- Prepara- 

tion of weft yarn to be used in the manufacture of 
carpets and other pile fabrics. 

3022. J. Sinclair, Hill- street— Cutting or dividing stone and 

marble. 

3024. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Apparatus for 

laying submarine telegraph cables. 
Bated 7lh Becember, 1857. 

3025. D. Hiley, P. Hiley, W. Hargreaves, and E. Haley, 

Bradford — Weaving worsted, cotton, silk, woollen, 
and other fibruus substances. 

3028. J. Stiff, London Pottery, High-st., Lambeth — Drain 

pipes. 

3029. G. C. Greenwell and W. Selby, Radstock— Washing 

coals and other minerals, separating from other sub- 
stances. 

3030. J. Harris, Hanwell, Middlesex— Signalling. 

3031. R. Reeves and J. Reeves, Bratton, near Westbury, 

Wilis — Implements for depositing seed and manures 

Bated tith Becember, 1857. 

3032. G. Holcroft, Manchester, and G. Denholm, Wigan— 

Steam engines. 

3033. B. Shaw, Wellington, Salop— Construction of windows. 

3034. H. Pershouse, Birmingham— Stereoscopes. 

3035. E. Outram, Leeds— Steam regulator. 

3030. C. Nightingale, Wardour-st., Soho— Feeding hair and 

fibres intended to be spun or twisted. 
30S7. H. Dolman, Nelson-st., Greenwich— Slundfor "ohevai" 

and other " dressing" glasses. 

3039. W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-la.— -Obtaining motive 

power. 

3040. W. Rowan, Belfast— Spinning flax and other fibrous 

material, in preparing the same for weaving. 



3041 
3042, 

3043. 

3044. 
3045. 



3046 
3047, 



3049, 

3050, 



3052, 
3053. 



3054. 

3055. 
3056, 
3057. 
3058. 

3059. 



3063. 
3064. 
3065. 

3066. 
3067. 
3068. 
3069. 

3070. 

3071. 
3072. 
3073. 
3074. 

3075. 

3076. 

3077. 
3Q78. 

3079. 

3080. 
3081. 



R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st.— Cocks and valves for 
regulating the flow of fluids. 

T. W. Willett, 89, Chancery-la.— Gunpowder. 
DatedOth December, 1857. 

C. De Bergue, 9, Dowgate-hill — Blowing or feeding air 
into furnaces or other fire-places. 

S. Clark, 55, Albany-st., Regent's-park — Wicks. 

C. Westendarp, jun., Mincing-lane— Material as a 
substitute for ivory, which he proposes calling 
"artificial ivory." 

J. Smith, Walsall, Staffordshire— Securing rails. 

J. Haddon, Glover-street Works, Birmingham — Wood 
screws, a portion applicable in the manufacturing of 
certain descriptions of nails. 

W. Riddle, 4, Stonefield-ter., Liverpool-rd. — Steam 
engines. 

Bated 10th Becember, 1857. 

J. Hoddell, Northampton-sq., Clerkenwell — Watches. 

It. R. Cox, Kentish-town — Fire lighters, and appa- 
ratus or sioves for burning the same. 

G. Ther-Katz, Paris — Hackney-coach and other public 
carriages. 

I. A. Best, St. PauFs-sq., Birmingham — Printing types. 

S. Biggin and J. Biggin, Sheffield— Handles of tea and 
coflee pots. 

Bated 11*7* Becember, 1857. 

J. Clwdwick, Manchester, and A. Elliott, West Hough- 
ton, Lancashire — Spinning, doubling, and throw- 
ing silk. 

J. Tanton, Frederick-st., Caledonian-rd.— Shepherd's 
crooks. 

J. Gedge, 4, Wellington-street South, Strand— Process 
of rectifying liquids. 

J. Stather, Hull — Surfaces in imitation of wood for 
printing from. 

W. Denne, County Lunatic Asylum, Bedford — Lifting 
patients off beds and other surfaces used for reclin- 
ing upon. 

N. R. Hall, Northfleet — Registering the phases and age 
of the moon. 

J. Roberts, St. Leonard's Iron Works, Poplar, and M. 
Beale, Surrey-st., Strand — Obtaining and applying 
motive power, applicable chiefly to the working of 
ships' pumps. 

Bated 12th Becember, 1857. 

J. Parker, 4, Grove-ter., Crove-rd., Forest-vale, Sy- 
denham — Steam power for the movement of vessels 
or other bodies floating on or suspended in water, 
air, or other fluid, and for moving machinery, and 
propelling solid bodies on land. 

F. Walton, Haughton Dale Mills, near Manchester — 
Rollers used in machinery for preparing and 
spinning fibrous materials, and for other purposes 
where elastic pressure is required, also in the 
machinery employed in the manufacture of the 
said rollers. 

F. Puis, Haverstock-hill— Combination of mineral sub- 
stances for the production of artificial stone. 

W. Uren, Redruth, Cornwall— Machinery for cleaning 
and dressing minerals. 

J. de Normann, Naples, and W. T. Henley, St. John- 
street-rd., London— Preventing the overlapping of 
chains or ropes when used on drums or shafts, which 
improvements can be applied to the laying of tele- 
graphic cables. 

C. Cowper, 20, Southampton-buildings, Chancery-la. 
— Photography. 

J. M. Preaud, 53, Chancery-la. — Engine with rotary 
piston. 

H.D.P. Cunningham, Bury — Reefing and furling sails. 
Bated 14th Becember, 1857. 

J. Oldfiekl, Haughton, Lancashire — Cutting and 
separating fur, or hair, or wool, from hides or skins, 
also applicable to cutting vegetable or fibrous 
materials. 

H. Bunting, Colchester — Obtaining and applying mo- 
tive power. 

J. P. Biignon, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris— Forging. 

W. Little, Queen's-rd., Regent's-park — Lamps. 

J. Parker, Liverpool — Bedsteads. 

A. Baird, Finchett-house, near Liverpool — Regulating 
the supply of water and other fluids for domestic and 
other purposes. 

Dated 15t7i December, 1857. 

J. Hogg, jun., 18, St. Andrew-sq., Edinburgh — 
" Copying-paper." 

W. Smith, 10, Salisbury-st., Adelphi — Chromotypo- 

graphical printing presses. 
E. Breffit, 61, King William-st., City— Glass bottles. 
J. Bradley, Huddersfield — Ovens applicable for baking 

bread and pastry, roasting or cooking meats. 
J. Chadwick, Castleton Print Works, near Rochdale- 
Rollers or cylinders for printing or staining the 
surfaces of woven fabrics, yarns, and paper. 

E. Turner, Bradford, Yorkshire, and J. C. Pearce, 
Bowling, near Bradford — Railway wheels. 

F. Bedwell, Bathwick-hill, Bath— Communicating be- 
tween the passengers and guard, and the guard and 
engine-driver, upon railways. 

G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough-park, Brixton— Cast 
steel. 

W. Galloway and J. Galloway, Manchester— Hydraulic 
presses. 



50 



List of Designs. 



[" Tub Artisan, 
L February 1, 1808. 



3092. 



3093 . 



3084. T. Howard, the King and Queen's Iron Works, Rother- 

hithe — Rolling iron bars used in the construction of 
suspension bridges. 

3085. G. A. Everitt, Birmingham— Manufacture of tubes or 

cylinders of copper or alloys of copper. 
Sated 16th December, 1857. 

3086. J. F. Seeley, Everett-street, Brunswick-square— Cut- 

ting out materials used in the manufacture of boots 
and shoes. 

3087. J. G. Gibson, Cheetham, Manchester, and S. Berrisfbrd, 

Stockport, Cheshire— Looms for weaving, parts of 
which improvements are applicable to lubricating 
bearings generally. 

3088. J . Thornton, Nottingham— Apparatus for manufac- 

ture of carpets and other cut pile fabrics. 

3089. J. Marland, Fernlee Vale, near Upper Mill, Saddle- 

worth, Yorkshire — Facilitating the placing of cop 
tubes on to spindles. 

3090. M. Semple, Stonehouse, Devon— Preserving meat, 

fruit, vegetables, and other edible substances and 
fluids. 

3091. E. Hills, AVarsash, Titchfleld, Southampton— White 
lead, and in the working up of the -waste materials. 

H . Gregory, Manchester — Making " lozenges," or 

other similar articles. 
J. H. Dickson, Stanley-ter., Eotlierhithe— Scutching 

and hackling flax, hemp, and other similar fibrous 

materials. 

3094. Dr. J. J. Cregeen, Plough-road, Hotherhithe — Treat- 

ment of India and China grass, pineapple, hemp, 
flax, and other similar fibrous materials. 
Dated Vlth December, 1857. 

3095. M. J. Turner and M. W. Turner, Woodcote, Surrey — 

Improvement of conduit pipes and tubes for sewers, 
drains, conduits, and gas. 

3096. F. M. Blyth, Norwich — Apparatus for cutting and 

pulping turnips. 

3097. W. Blizzard, 14, Victoria-terrace, Notting-hill — Im- 

provements in the treatment of india rubber by a 
new process for the manufacture of a crystalline 
and colourless varnish for waterproofing all kinds of 
textile fabrics and papers, without smell and without 
in any degree altering their appearance, and for 
making divers varnishes and paints. 

3098. J. J. Davis, Pereival-street, Clerkenvvell — Presses for 

printing, or endorsing and embossing. 

3099. M. Mason, Dukinfield, Chester, and T. Markland, 

Newton, near Hyde — Apparatus for printing. 

3101. E. Highton, Begent's-park — Electric telegraphs. 

3102. H. Johnson, Crutehedfriars — Apparatus for drawing 

geometric curves. 

3104. W. Woofe, Tetbury, Gloucestershire— Ploughs. 

3105. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields— Lubricating 

the journals of shafts and spindles. 

3106. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Hulling 

cotton and other oleaginous seeds, applicable also to 
the hulling of cereals. 

Dated 18th December, 1857. 

3107. J , B. Howell and J. Shortridge, Sheffield— Mode of 

rolling steel for springs. 

3108. J. H. Taylor and R. T. Barrett, Victoria Dock-road, 

Essex — Prevention of smoke, and for effecting a 
better consumption of fuel in steam-boiler furnaces. 

3109. D. Bowlas, Reddish, Lancashire -Apparatus for pre- 

paring and spinning cotton and other fibrous sub- 
stances. 

3110. T. C. Wilkinson, Ashford, Kent— Pump-valves. 

3113. J. M. Napier, York-road, Lambeth — Letter-press 

printing machines. 

3114. R. Oxland, Plymouth — Manufacture of alloys or 

compounds containing metallic tungsten. 
Dated 18th December, 1857. 

3115. T. Newey, J. Corbett, and W. H. Parkes, Birmingham 

— Improved method of treating or coating steel pens 
and pen-holders, to prevent the oxidation of the 
same, which method of treating or coating may also 
be applied to other articles of iron and steel. 
3116. A. Lees and J. C'legg, Soho Ironworks, Greenacres- 
moor, near Oldham, Lancaster— Loomsfor weaving. 

3118. R. Eurnival, Manchester — Apparatus for cutting paper, 

cardboard, and similar articles. 

3119. W.Walker, Leeds— Heating and drying. 

3120. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Signalling, to pre- 

vent collisions between trains upon railways. 

312t. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Lime kilns, and in 

apparatuses employed for working the same. 

3122. J. Bartlett, Bristol— Weighing machines. 

3123. T. Coles, Bristol— Chaff cutters. 

3124. W. Bough, 1, Jewin-erescent, Cripplegate — Lamps and 

wicks for burning resin and other oils and fluids, 
parts of which improvements are applicable to 
Argand gas burners. 

3125. R. Mushet, Coleford, Gloucester— Manufacture of iron. 

Dated 21st December, 1857. 

3128. J. Hamilton, Liverpool — Shipbuilding. 

3129. W. J. Kendall, Norwich— Safety signal for railways. 

3130. R. Rennie, Netherwood, Dumbarton — Self-acting 

trap-doors for mines. 

3131. F.Taylor, Romsey — Closets or privies. 

3132. G. T. Bousfield, Loughborough-park, Brixton— Ma- 

chinery used in the manufacture of springs, and in 
the application of springs to carriages. 

3133. W. H. Myers, 202, Whiteehapel-road— An improved 

coffee pot, made of metal or earthenware, to contain 
coffee and milk or cream separately, the same being 
used as a chocolate pot, the same invention being 
applicable to teapots for the same purposes, made 



3135. 
3136. 

3137. 
3138. 

3139. 
3140. 



3142. 
3143. 



3144. 



3146. 

3147. T 

3149. 

3150. 
3151. 
3152. 
3153. 



3155. G 



3156. 
3157. 



3158. 
3159. 



3161. 

3162. 
3163, 
3164. 



3165, 
3166, 
3167, 

3168 



either in metal or earthenware, the same invention 
being applicable to table urns, and the same inven- 
tion being applicable to jugs, made either in earthen- 
ware, or glass, or metal, to contain spirits and 
water or other liquids in different compartments. 

J. Tatlow and H. Hodgkinson, Wirksworth, Derby 
Railway-breaks, and apparatuses for connecting 
shafts or rods for working breaks and signals. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st. — Breech-loading fire 
arms. 

W. Basfbrd, No. 1 5, Lowther-cottages, Liverpool-road, 
Islington — Gas, and retorts and other apparatus 
to be used therein. 

A. Rene le Mire de Normandy, Judd-st., Brunswick- 
sq. — Distilling sea water on board ships and vessels. 

R. F. Sturges, Birmingham — Manufacture of rollers, 
or cylinders for printing fabrics. 

Dated 22nd December, 1857. 

A. C. Kennard, Falkirk Iron Works, Stirling, N.B. — 
Trussed iron bridges. 

S. Rodgett and D. Rodgett, Blackburn— Coupling and 
uncoupling railway, tramway, and other carriages, 
waggons, lorries, trucks, and other vehicles. 

J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-field— signal appa- 
ratus to be attached to common road carriages. 

M. Landou, 25, Pudding-lane — Cooking utensils. 

O. Greenhalgh, and R. Hutchinson, Horwich, Lan- 
cashire—Apparatus for stirring»and mixing colours 
for calico printing and other purposes. 

E. Maw, Doncaster Iron-works, Yorkshire — Orna- 
menting and strengthening metal tubes and rods 
with wood, applicable in the manufacture of bed- 
steads and other articles of furniture and framings, 
and also in the manufacture of the joints or con- 
nections of the posts and framings of bedsteads, 
and other articles of furniture and frames. 

G. Bridge, Bollington, near Macclesfield, and J. 
Hamer, Longsight, near Manchester — Manufacture 
for converting woven silken fabrics, or silk waste 
into a fibrous material fit for being spun into yarn 
or thread, or for being mixed with silk, woollen, 
cotton, or any other material to be spun into yarn or 
thread, and of improvements in machinery to be 
employed in such process or manufacture. 
Dated 23rd December, 1857. 

D. J. Crossley, Hebden-bridge, Y'orkshire— Manufac- 
ture of certain textile fabrics, called Pellones, and 
used for saddle covers, and in the machinery or 
apparatus employed therein, which improvements 
are also applicable for weaving other fabrics. 
Landi, 16, Rue de Boulevard, Batignoles, Paris, 
and C. Falconieri, 20, Charles-st., Middlesex Hos- 
pital, London — Laying subaqueous electrical cables 
for telegraphic communication. 

C. N. Nixon, Ramsgate — Attaching, fitting, and 
securing the rudders of ships, barges, boats, and 
every other description of sailing or steam vessel. 

A. F. Kynaston, R.N., Plymouth — Slip or disengag- 
ing huok. 

J. Moss, T. Gamble, and J. Gamble, Sheffield — Manu- 
facture of cast-steel hoops and cylinders. 

J. Murray, Whitehall-place — Propelling ships and 
vessels. 

C. Norton, 3, Lancaster-pl., Camden-st., Camden-town 
— Carriage door shields to prevent accidents arising 
from the shutting of railway or other carriage doors, 
also applicable to nursery doors, or any other doors, 
where children may have access, or where safety 
from accident may be an object. 

A. W. Williamson, 16, Provost-road, Haverstock- 
hill — Treating scammony root and commercial 
scammony, to obtain the active principletherefrom. 

Dated 24th December, 1857. 
White, 5, Lawrence Pountney-lane, Cannon-st. — 
A semi-melodion, or instrument for demonstrating 
musical writing. 

C. Reeves, Birmingham — Revolving fire-arms. 

S. H. Adderley, of Birmingham— Manufacture and 
ornamentation of pencil cases, pen-holders, reserves 
or cases fur leads, needle cases, and ink-holders, and 
other tubular cases. 

T. Playle, Chatham — Two-wheeled carriages. 

G. Croft, Leeds-st., Keighley, and S. D. Steel, Green- 
gate Mills, Keighly, Yorkshire — Machinery for 
combing and preparing wool and other fibrous 
substances. 

G. Burley, King's-cross-road, near Halifax — Appa- 
ratus for cutting the pile of fustians and other pile 
fabrics. 

H. C. F. Wilson and T. Green, Dunston — Apparatus 
for making rivets. 

H. C. F. Wilson and T. Green, Dunston — Machinery 
for making rivets. 

B. Burleigh, 26, Great George-st., Westminster, and 
F. L. Danchell, 452, Oxford-st. — Manufacture of 
vessels, plates, or utensils used for domestic, sanitary 
electric, and manufacturing purposes. 

Dated 26th December, 1857. 

A. Chaplin, Glasgow — Steam engines, and combustion 
of tuel. 

A. R. Saraiva, Nottingham-st. , Marylebone — Candle- 
stick or holder. 

C. F. Parsons, 1, Duke-st., Long-alley, Finsbury — 
Cleansing and reburning animal charcoal. 

Dated 28th December, 1857. 
A. Bruce, Manchester— Watches and time-pieces. 



SI 69. 
3170. 



3171. 
3172, 



3173. J, 



3176. 


J. 


3177. 


I. 


3178. 


T. 


3179. 


H 



3180. J. 



3181. 
3182. 



3183. 
3185. 



3180. 
3187. 



3188. T, 



3189. 


J. 


3190. 


J. 


3191. 


A. 


3193. 


R. 


3194. 


C. 



Barling, Halifax — An improved paddle for propul- 
sion on water. 

H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn fields —Treatment 
and preservation of skins, furs, wool, and textile 
fabrics, and in the machinery or apparatus employed 
therein. 

, Deacon, Widnes — Purifying alkaline lees. 
Boydell, 65, Gloucester-crescent, Camden-town — 
Carriages propelled by steam or other power. 
Wadswortli, Hazelgrove, near Stockport — Produc- 
tion and management of artificial light, and in 
apparatus applicable thereto. 

T. Griffiths, New Basford, Nottingham — Manufac- 
ture and ornamenting of lace. 
Holden, St. Denis, near Paris— Preparing and comb- 
ing wool and other fibres. 

Dated 29th December, 1857. 
Spencer, 192, Euston-road— Illuminating or light- 
ing gas. 

. Thompson, Liverpool — Use of a certain substance 
as a substitute for glue, paste, cement, varnish, and 
other similar compounds. 

Hargreaves and J. Hargreaves, Liverpool — Wind- 
ing up watches which have not fusees or chains. 
Parkes, Birmingham — Joining or uniting metals. 
, Mourot, 43, Rue de Paradis Poissonniere, Paris — 
Furnaces for heating kilns and ovens used in the 
manufacture of pottery and earthenware, part of 
which improvements are also applicable to furnaces 
generally. 

Gomez and W. Mills, New York, U.S.— Composition 
for trains or safety fusees, and similar purposes. 

Dated SOth December, 1857. 
O. Ward, 12, Cork-street, Burlington-gardens — 
Liberating or producing potash or soda, or botli (as 
the case may be), from natural alcaliferous silicates, 
the residuum of the process being available as a 
material for manure, puzzolano, or hydraulic 
cement. 

. H. Tooth, 9, Sumner-st., Southwark— Furnaces. 
Palling, 134, Princes-road, Surrey — Construction 
of candles, lamps, and candle-lamps, without wicks. 
Booth, Manchester— Treatment of certain vegetable 
matters, and in the application of the same to 
sizeing, stiffening, dressing, and finishing textile 
materials, and which is also applicable to thicken- 
ing colours for printing. 

D. Morrison, Edinburgh— Effecting surgical and 
medical operations by the agency of artificially in- 
duced anaesthesia. 

O'Neill, Liverpool— Apparatus for communicating 
betwixt the guard or passengers and the engine- 
driver on railway trains. 

. V. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane— Machinery for 
cutting corks and bungs. 
. Harmer, Union-st., Spitalfields — Cigarettes. 

Dated Slst December, 1857. 
Buhring, 91, Pratt-st., Camden-town — Combination 
of carbonized and carbonizable with other materials, 
and the manufacture of such compounds into 
various useful articles. 



INVENTIONS WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATION 
FILED. 

3100. J. E. Barton, Kidderminster — Winding worsted on to 
the creel bobbins of carpet looms. — 17th December, 
1857. 

3103. J. Broad, 149 and 150, Drury-la.— The construction of 
a pressure or fountain lamp, to burn with safety 
from ignition in the overflow, and from explosion, 
all bituminous, carbonaceous, and resinous oils, 
spirits, and naphthas, or admixtures thereof, also the 
products of Rangoon earth oil, or petroleum, also to 
adapt all pressure and fountain lamps to burn these 
substances which are found to ignite in the overflow 
and cause explosion, &c, in all such lamps as a 
present constructed. — 17th December, 1857. 

3111. S. Darling, State of Maine, U.S.— Pencil sharpener. — 

18th December, 1857. 

3112. C. Winslow, State of Massachusetts, U.S.—" Elastic 

gore cloth." — 18th December, 1857. 
3175. J. Cottril], Studley, Warwick— Certain descriptions of 
needles. 
2. J. Murphy, Newport, Monmouthshire — Wheels used 
on railways. — January 1, 1858. 



4036. 
4037. 
4038. 

4039, 
4040 
4041 
4042 
4043 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 
Dec. 10. J. J. Welch and J. S. Margetson, Cheapside, 
" The Tourists' or Expanding Collar." 
„ 28. G. Dawler, Birmingham, " Anti-corrosive 

Inkstand." 
„ 29. D. Prosser, Harescomb, Gloucestershire, 
" Feeding Trough for Pigs and other 
Animals." 
„ 29. Dent, Allcroft, and Co., Wood-s(., Cheapside, 
E.C., " The London Shirt, Front." 
Jan. 4. J. Cartwright, Shrewsbury, " Expanding bai- 
lor Chain Harrows." 
., 5. J. Faulkner, 62, St. Martin's-le-Grand, "A 
Paper File." 
6. W. J. Salmons, 100, Fenchurch - street, 
" Salmons' Calosynthetic Stereoscope." 
„ John Gordon, 3, Railway-place, Feuchurch- 

street, " Ballast or Shovel Hoe." 



ARTI2AN, MARCH, I ? T 1858. 



ica&jZA 



Li\y^a[Eg 3K0[P^®^[EE) tLi\¥0 Kl© KJflASlKIO 



F 1 C. I , SIDE ELEVATION. 



FIG. 3, FRONT PLATE. 





FIG. 4, MIDDLE PLATE. 




F I C. 5, BACK PLAT E 



SECTION THROUGH 
BARREL WHEEL. 







Jfu&Jir. 



ROLLING MILL. 

fig.12.IWf JSIat 



Pigil3. Transverse, ^wUoiv. 




THE ARTIZAN. 

No. CLXXXIL— Vol. XVI.— MARCH 1st, 1858. 



LAURIE'S IMPROVED LAYING MACHINE. 

(Illustrated by Plate No. cxviii.) 

"We have upon former occasions presented to our subscribers illus- 
trations of hemp and flax-spinning machinery, such as have been more 
particularly employed for producing threads and yarns for the manu- 
facture of ropes, lines, &c. ; and, with a view of making the series 
connected with the manufacture of ropes, &c, as complete as possible, 
we have selected, from a large number of plans of rope-making ma- 
chinery which have come under our notice during a long practical 
acquaintance with this branch of industry, Laurie's Laying Machine, 
as the most perfect example of the machinery employed for this pur- 
pose in the old-fashioned long-rope-walk system of rope making, which 
system of ropemaking is still extensively practised throughout the 
world, notwithstanding the rapid strides which the systems of Huddart 
and other more recently invented vertical and horizontal machines have 
made within the last few years. 

As our space in the present Number will not permit of our giving a 
description of the machine illustrated by Plate No. cxviii., we must defer 
doing so until next month. 



THE NEW GRAVING DOCK, DUBLIN. 

At no harbour or port, perhaps, in the three kingdoms, has the necessity 
for proper accommodation for the repairs of shipping been more severely 
felt than at Dublin; and the consequence has been, that vast sums of 
money are being yearly spent out of the port in the repairs of vessels. 
This fact is the more singular when we reflect on the many advantages 
the harbour possesses, in derjth of water, good foundation, &c. 

Before the year 1796 there were no graving-docks in Dublin, but in 
that year three were erected, in connection with a large basin, by the 
Grand Canal Company; and they are, even to the present time, the only 
graving-dock accommodation. 

The Corporation for Preserving and Improving the Port, some thirty 
years ago, bestirred themselves in this matter, and had two patent slips 
erected, on Morton's principle — one for vessels of 400 tons and under, 
and a second for vessels of 800 tons, builders' measurement ; the smaller 
slip being almost always occupied with their own barges and mud floats, 
the larger they lend for the repairs of vessels at a trifling charge per ton 
per day, with something extra for launching and hauling up. 

The want of further accommodation being for many years glaringly 
apparent, several designs were submitted to the Chamber of Commerce 
and Ballast Board ; and from those the plans of their own Engineer, or In- 
spector of Works, was selected, as being the most suited to the neces- 
sities and state of the harbour; and, in 1850, the requisite boreings and 
•examination of the site was proceeded with. 

The design contemplated a floating-basin of about 38 acres in extent, 
two graving-docks, of the respective lengths of 400 and 300 ft., a graving- 
slip, and large and commodious building-yards, quays, &c, &c. In 1851 
operations were commenced, by forming a vast embankment with the 
deposit dredged from the channel of the harbour, and this work pro- 
gressed so rapidly, that in less than a year the working plans were in 
the hands of the engineering draftsman, and the Corporation was in a 
position to advertise for contractors. 

After the different tenders had received the proper attention and 
consideration that such matters require, Mr. Dargan was declared the 
contractor, and, as is unhappily not unusual in such cases, a great deal 
of jealously was the result ; one firm going the length of publishing a 
protest, which was very industriously circulated amongst the building 
trades and corporate bodies of Ireland. 



The Ballast Board, however, were not to be moved from " the even 
tenor of their way" by such "weak inventions;" and before many more 
months elapsed, large quantities of " plant " were daily being brought 
to the ground, and sheds, engine-houses, and colossal chimneys began to 
spring up on the great bank of newly-recovered alluvium. 

Various descriptions of pile-driving engines were erected, amongst 
which Nasmyth's stood prominent ; and pumps, with their attendant 
steam-engines, strewed the ground on all sides. Then might be seen 
men laying down a railway, surrounding the vast hollow in which the 
dock was to be erected ; and on these rails a locomotive and its tender 
was shortly to be seen simmering away whilst waiting patiently till 
called on to move the ponderous beams of timber and blocks of granite 
that were daily coming to the works. Dublin has rarely seen a work of 
such activity, excepting the building of its Exhibition in 1863. LTp- 
wars of 2,000 Memel piles, averaging 30 ft. in length, and containing 
somewhere about 1,500 tons of timber, were all shaped and fitted with 
wrought, and in some cases cast, iron shoes, and hooped on the head 
with best wrought-iron rings. 

To secure the cross bearers and sleepers of the timber platform (on 
which the stone work was intended to rest) to the piles, large wood 
screws were required, 5 ft. in length; and these having, as a matter of 
course, to be cut with a taper core, Mr. Dargan had erected on the 
ground some very ingenious screwing lathes for this purpose. 

Many opinions as to the best method of driving the piles into such a 
stiff bottom were elicited, and different foremen of the contractors tried 
different plans, which only resulted in delaying the operations for a 
lengthened period. The works were at last, however, given by the con- 
tractor into the hands of a Mr. Browne, who at once caused the Nasmyth 
engines to be set to work, and the piling went on rapidly. The large 
engine which had hitherto been in use at the works of the great Cork 
Tunnel, was erected; two other powerful horizontal engines were placed 
at the head of the dock space, and a large beam, and a direct-acting 
engine, were brought to bear on the lower or south end. The pumps 
used were three pair of lift, and two centrifugal. 

There was no coffer-dam used (in the general acceptation of the term), 
but the south end of the dock was closed in by a great bank of earth, 
deposited there by the floats of the Ballast Board. 

The piles having been driven to the requisite depth, which, we have 
been informed, averaged 30 ft., were cut off to the proper height, and the 
ground all brought to a level 1 ft. below that height. On this was laid 
the concrete, formed of small stones or gravel and Portland cement, in 
proportions which we will describe when we enter into the details of the 
work. This concrete was brought up to a level with the top of the cross 
bearers and sleepers, and having been finished off, was left for a short 
time to set, when the planking commenced, and was proceeded with and 
completed in a very short time. The vast timber floor at this time pre- 
sented a novel and rather striking appearance, the dimensions being 
nearly 500 ft. by 100 ft. 

We must not, however, forget to mention how the long 5-ft. wood 
screws were driven home: the holes were bored with shell-augers to the 
depth required, and the screw then introduced — a circular countersink- 
ing being formed for the head, so that the top of the head might range 
flush with the upper skin of the sleepers, and not interfere with the 
planking. A small capstan of wrought and cast iron, its centre post 
being a polygonal tube, was put down over the screw, the bottom 
resting on the sleeper ; and when in this position, it was sufficiently high 
to catch the top of the screw : it was then turned by four men pushing 
the bars, when, as it carried the screw round, it was also free to travel 
down the tube. The entering and driving home of a screw in this manner 
only occupied a few minutes. 

At this stage of the proceeding the erection of the great gantries, or 



THE ARTIZAN, MARCH I s. t 1 858. 







52 



On Calculating the Resistance of Steam- Vessels. 



[ 



The Artizan, 
March 1, 1808. 



travelling cranes, commenced ; three of these in particular were looked 
upon as being remarkably well constructed, and had been engaged with 
great success in the erection of the Boyne Viaduct. They were fitted 
with ribbons of wrought iron, instead of chains ; and although not at all 
so safe as chains, where any twist was likely to occur, they were con- 
sidered much smoother in working, and large stones could be set by them 
with greater facility. 

The Dock had been so far completed that, in July, 1857, the erection 
of the gates was commenced, and finished in about ten weeks. Of these, 
and the Graving Dock, we propose, from time to time, giving detailed 
drawings on a comprehensive scale. For the present our space will 
not permit us to say more on the subject ; but we hope shortly to have 
an opportunity of again referring to the New Dublin Graving Dock — a 
work which reflects the greatest credit on the designer, George Halpin, 
Esq., and all concerned in the undertaking. 



ON CALCULATING THE RESISTANCE OF STEAM- 
VESSELS. 

By Dr. Eckhardt, Privy Councillor, Darmstadt. 

Having read with great interest the various discussions on the arith- 
metic of naval architecture, &c, which have appeared in your excellent 
Journal, The Artizan, I have been astonished at the great difference of 
opinion expressed by the different writers on this important subject. 
The difficulty consists in a general determination of the resistance of 
water against any surface, so as to make them correspond with actual 
observations ; but in this particular case the scientific solution of the 
problem seems to be quite possible. If we consider the fundamental 
form of all well-constructed vessels, we distinguish three essential parts : 
First, the midship, A; secondly, the fore-part, b; and, lastly, the stern, c, 
which we shall discuss separately. 




Fig. I. 

To simplify the calculation, we admit the midship to be a parallelo- 
piped, and the fore-part, as well as the stern, a prism. We commence 
with the resistance of the midship, and examine afterwards the modifi- 
cation of that resistance by affixing prismatic bodies before and behind 
the midship. The experiments executed in the year 1778 by the French 
Academicians, DAlembert, Bossut, and Condorcet, are alone applicable 
to this purpose, because the experiments of Colonel Beaufoy, made with 
thin plates, seem to follow other rules than the parallelopiped and the 
prism closed on the bach side. 

These original experiments were published in the " Memoires de 
l'Academie des Sciences de Paris," in the same year, 1778, and reprinted 
in Bossut, " Hydrodinamique," 1787 ; in these eighty years, since their 
first publication, the theory of this matter has not advanced one inch. 

Although these experiments have been published so many times, it 
will be necessary to repeat them here again. 

The apparatus was constructed according to the principles later 
employed by Colonel Beaufoy; the basin was 200 ft. long and 100 ft. 



broad; the running space had a length of 96 ft. (f,g); the observations 
were made with an excellent pendulum ; the 
radius, c b, was to the radius a c, as 10 : 72 ; and 
the coefficient of friction for copper and iron = 
0-160 of the weight; so that all weights observed 
must be reduced in this proportion. 

The parallelopiped, w, which represents the mid- 
ship, had a length of 4 ft., and was 2 ft. broad ; 
it serves also as a standard of resistance for 




A 



Q 



Fig. 2/ 

the other bodies which are employed. The following tables contain five 
trials for this resistance for various speeds. The resistance in the last 
column is calculated in proportion to the square of velocity, and with 
the weight of 1 cubic ft. water = 70 lbs., by the known formula 



±9 





Weight 


Weight 


Space of 


Velocity per 


Resistance 


No. 


employed. 


reduced. 


time. 


1 Sec. (v). 


calculated. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


/ „ 


Feet. 


lbs. 


1 


61-8 


7-23 


77 -50 


1-238 


7-11 


2 


112-5 


13-16 


56-95 


1 -685 


13-17 


3 


162 -5 


19-01 


47-22 


2-033 


19-16 


4 


212-5 


24-86 


41-26 


2-327 


25-10 


5 


262-5 


30-71 


37-12 


2-586 


31-01 



The accordance of the reduced weight and the calculated resistance, 

proves the accuracy of the supposed proportionality of resistance to the 

square of velocity, which proportionality returns likewise by bodies of 

another form, moved in water, with a moderate velocity, not exceeding 

the usual velocity of vessels. The applicability of this theorem in the 

arithmetic of naval architecture appears also evident ; for, if we take the 

mile = B ' 5 °, the speed from 1 mile in 1 hour is equal to 1-586 ft. in 1 

second. According to the above enounced theorem, the five trials above 

mentioned give the resistance for 4 sq. ft. by the following proportions : — 

1-238 2 : 1-586 = 7-23 : 11-87 

1-685 2 : 1-586 = 13-16 : 11-66 

2-033 2 : 1-586 = 19-01 : 11-57 

1-586 = 24-86 

1-586 = 30-71 



2-327 2 
2-586 2 



11-58 
11-55 



Middle _ 11-64 
Therefore, for one square foot = 2-91 lbs. French measure and weight, 
or for one square foot English = 3-58 lbs.* 
and sea water = 3-69 lbs. 

You will also find the resistance for 2, 3, 4, &c, miles in 1 hour by 
multiplying the resistance for one mile, = 3-69 lbs., with the square of 
velocity, 4, 9, 16, &c. In this way the following Table is constructed: — 



Table for direct Resistance of a Parallelopiped with a Base of One Square Foot Plane. 



Miles in 1 
hour . . . 


1 


2" 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


Squares. . . 


1 


4 


9 


16 


25 


36 


49 


64 


81 


100 


121 


144 


169 


196 


225 


256 


289 


324 


361 


400 


Besistance 
in lbs. . . 


3-69 


14-76 


33-21 


59-04 


92 -25 


132-84 


180 -81 


236 -16 


■298 -89 


369 -00 


446 -49 


531 -36 


623-61 


723-24 


830 -25 


944-64 


1066 -41 


1195 -36 


1332-09 


1476 -00 



■ II. 

By the Table given in the first chapter, we are enabled to find the 
resistance of a parallelopiped whose length is at least the double of the 



breadth. By shorter parallelopipeds the results can be in some degree 
uncertain, but the usual dimensions of the midship , should not differ 
much from this proportion. "We are now obliged to give in the same 






1 sq. ft. Par. = 1-14 sq. ft. English ; 1 lb. poids de marc = 1-08 lb. avoirdupois. 



The ArtizAn, "I 
March 1.185S. J 



On Calculating the Resistance of Steam- Vessels. 



53 



manner the rules for calculating the diminution of resistance by adopting 
prismatic bodies before and behind the midship. It is evident that by 
these disquisitions the breadth of the base must be regarded as constant, 
and only the angle on the top of the prism variable— a consideration 
-which was observed by the French experiments, but neglected by the 
analysts and the English experiments ; this is the only cause why the 
problem is hitherto unresolved. When we again adopt the theorem 
that the resistances (E, r) are in the ratio as the squares of velocities 
(V, »), and the velocities, by uniform varied movement, in the ratio of the 
elapsed times (T, <). we have the proportion — 



E : r = V 2 



= T2: ^ OT s = ^ 



The times T and t are given by observation, and E represents the 
resistance against the base of the parallelopiped, determined at the end 

t 2 \. 

of our first chapter ; <£ = — is consequently the coefiicient with which 

E must be multiplied to obtain the new resistance r = <J> E. 

The French academicians, d'Alembert, Bossut, and Condorcet, have 
adopted fifteen various prisms, before the parallelopiped, whose angles 
on the top varied from 12 to 12°, and have observed the time occupied 
by them in running through the space of 96 ft. The results of these 
observations, made by a weight of 162-5 lbs., contain the following 
Table :— 

Table of the Coefficient of Resistance of a Parallelopiped mounted with 
various Prisms on the Top. 



Number. 


Angle on the Top. 


Time employed. 


Coefficient of Resistance. 


1 


o 

Base plane 180 


47 -44 (T) 


1 -oooo 


'> 


168 


47-22 


0-9908 


3 


15C 


46-44 


-9583 


4 


144 


4.5 -as 


-9138 




132 


43-75 


0-8505 





120 


41-84 


0-7779 


7 


108 


39 -50 


0-6933 


•8 


96 


38-05 


0-6433 


9 


84 


35-78 


0-5689 


10 


72 


34-85 


-5397 


11 


GO 


33-05 


0-4853 


12 


48 


31 -61 


0-4440 


13 


36 


30 -53 


-4142 


14 


24 


30-23 


-4061 


15 


12 


30 -01 


-4003 


1C* 





30-00 


-4000 



s Xo. 1G is not observed. 

These results of the observations of the French academicians have, 
since their first publication in the " Memoires de Paris," been reprinted 
in various languages, each time without naming their source. It is 
difficult to detect the law followed by these coefficients ; to facilitate this 
inquiry we will construct the curvilinear trace of them by co-ordinates. 

































1 1 






























p 




















X 








-8 




















\jr 












y 


































-6 
















"*^\ 
















-5 


c 


- 


___!_-— -— T i 














n 


-3 




| 






1 














































9 


A 


t 1 






















B 


-/ 



2-/ 



.- /<53 I'iO /3Z J44-- ISO /CS /Si-Q e „ 
Fig. 3. 



On this figure we find by the simple view that each ordinate consists 
<of two parts; one, A C =B J), is constant and common to all; and 



the other seems to be a fraction of the sinus of the angle on the top. 
The figure gives immediately A C = B D = 4, and C D = 6, if we make 
B E = 10. The formula of the curve would also be : y = 6 sin. a n + 4, 
where a represents the half of the angle on the top. The exponent, n, 
must be determined in the following way :— The formula gives y — 4 = 
G sin. a a ; by logarithms, log. O — 4) = n log. sin. a + log. 6; therefore, 

n — Ip g- 0/ — 4) — log. 6 The observat ions give with the last formula 

log. sin. a 
in the middle n = 3, with a perfect accordance. By this means, the 
formula becomes : y = 0-6 sin. a 3 + 0-4 for B E = 1. "We shall now show 
how the calculated coefficients accord with the results of observations. 





Half 


Coefficient of Resistance 




Half 


Coefficient of Resistance 




Angle 
on the 
Top. 








Angle 

on the 

Top. 






















Calculated. 


Observed. 






Calculated. 


Observed. 


1 


90° 


1-0000 


1 -oooo 


9 


42° 


0-5797 


-5689 


2 


84 


-9904 


-9908 


10 


36 


0-5218 


-5397 


3 


78 


-9615 


0-9583 


11 


30 


-4750 


-4853 


4 


72 


-9162 


0-9138 


12 


24 


0-4404 


0-4440 


5 


66 


-8575 


-8505 


13 


18 


-4177 


-4142 


6 


60 


-7897 


-7779 


14 


12 


-4054 


-4061 


7 


54 


0-7177 


0-6933 


15 


6 


-4007 


-4003 


8 


48 


-6462 


0-6433 


P 





0-4000 


-4000 




III. 

This harmony of the calculation and of experience proves not only the 
correctness of the formulas, but also the exactness of the French experi- 
ments. It remains now to ascertain these results by theory. 

Leonhard Euler gives the following demonstration of the resistance of 
a prismatic forebody ("Memoires de Sciences de Paris," 1778, p. 597). 

A C is the axis of the prismatic forebody, which divides the 




base B B' into equal parts. We name this axis A C = w, the two 
sides AB = AB'=J, and the angle B A C = a, and the height 
B b = c. If this prism moves itself in the direction C A with a 
velocity equal to v, where v indicates the space run in 1 second of 
time; and if we name g the height through which a body falls in 
the same time, the height corresponding to the velocity, v, must 

be equal to ; therefore, when the water impinges perpendicularly in 

i 9 
the direction M N, with this velocity on the plane, ABaJ, whose area 
isAB x Bb = b c, the power of the shock would be equal to the 

weight of the column of water 1_. But the shock operating in the 

*9 

direction P N, by the angle a, the power shall be equal to 

and the direction, m n, perpendicularly to the face, A B a b. By this we 

conclude the power in the direction A C equal to b c, sin. a 



*9 



±9 



54 



On Calculating the Resistance of Steam- Vessels. 



V 



Tirp, A'BTIZAS 
March 1, lsss. 



The double of this 
is the portion of the resistance produced only by 



where b c, sin. a, signifies the half of the basis, BB' 

2 b c v 2 sin 
power ■ 



*9 
the shock of water. 

But this lucid demonstration of Leonhard Euler cannot be applied 
immediately to the observations of the French philosophers, for two 
reasons. 

1. Because the base B B' b V = b c, sin. a, in the given formula, is 
variable, and will be, by a = 0, likewise equal to zero; whilst, on the 
contrary, the basis of the employed parallelopiped, furnished with prisms 
on the fore-end, was constant; and 

2. Because the experiments include the effect of the friction of water 
on the whole body in motion, for which Leonhard Euler gives a formula, 
which is too complicated for use. 

To reduce this formula to the given case of a constant base, we put 
the difference under the resistance of the parallelopiped alone, and 
the observed resistance of the same body mounted with a prism 
equal to 1 — <j>. In regard of the friction, we introduce a simple ex- 
perimental coefficient, m, in the analytical expression of the resist- 
ance, = m (1 — sin. a- 1 ). By these two modifications the formula 
would be: 1 — (p = m (1 — sin. a 3 ), by which we find <j> — m sin. a? + 
(1 — to). In this last formula the exponent n = 3 is known, but the 

coefficient m = ^-i — • will be determined by the observations = 

1 — sin. a 3 

0'6 in the middle. The formula found by theory <j> = 0-6 sin. a 3 + 1 

0-6 = 0-6 sin. a 3 -f 0-4, is therefore in perfect accordance with the formula 

above derived merely by experience. If you require the absolute resistance 

in lbs., you must multiply the calculated resistance by this formula witli 

the corresponding number given in the Table in the first chapter. 

IV. 

If the prismatic body is adopted behind the midship, the water coming 

from the two flanks, i> b, d' b', strives 
to fill the vacuum caused by the move- 
ment of the vessel on the sides, b a, 
b'a, on the afterbody, and produces a 
shock forwards. In a similar way the 
forebody produces a similar effect ; 
therefore it will be permitted to make 
use of the same formula as in the former case, but with another coeffi- 
cient, m', derived from observations made especially for this purpose. 

The French academicians give in the cited Memoires also, for this 
case, four observations, made with the same apparatus as in the former 
experiments. By these observations we find immediately the coefficient 

*3 

of the resting resistance $ = j^; and by this the coefficient of pro- 




pulsion 1 — 0' = i — 



as follows : 



Half Angle on 
the Afterbody. 


Time employed. 


Coefficient 


of Resistance. 


of Propulsion. 




90 
48 
24 
12 


47-44 
44-80 
43-85 

43-49 


1 -oooo 

-8918 
0-8.544 
0-8404 


-oooo 

-1082 
-1456 
-1596 



These four observations give to' = 



1 — 0' 



= 1 = 0-167. Thefor- 



1 — sin. /i ! 

mula for the propulsion of the afterbody is therefore 1 — <j>' = 0-167 
(1 — sin. f3 3 ), which must be subtracted from the resistance of the 
forebody. We are now enabled'to calculate the whole diminution of the 
resistance of the midship, produced by application of a prismatic fore- 
body and afterbody at the same time. For facilitating this calculation 
we give the coefficients of resistance of the forebody, and the coefficients 
of propulsion of the afterbody, in the following Table : — 



Table of the Resistance of the Forebody, and of the Propulsion 
of the Afterbody. 








1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 
29 
30 



o S 

PS 



+ 
-400 
0-400 
0-400 
-400 
0-400 
0-401 
0-401 
-401 
0-401 
-402 
-403 
0-404 
-40") 
0-400 
0-408 
-410 
0-412 
-41. ■ 
0-418 
0-4 
-424 
-428 
0-431 
0-430 
0-440 
0-445 
-450 
-450 
-462 
-408 
-475 



0-1(37 
-107 
0-107 
-107 
-107 
0-107 
-100 
0-166 
-160 
0-160 
-166 
-166 
-16.- 
-165 
0-164 
-104 
0-163 
-162 
0-162 
0-161 
-160 
-159 
-158 
-157 
-156 
0-154 
-153 
0-151 
0-150 
0-148 
0-146 



Rate. 
-00 
0-02 
-03 
-05 
0-07 
0-09 
0-10 
0-12 
0-14 
0-16 
0-18 
0-19 
-21 
23 
0-25 
-27 
0-29 
-30 
0-32 
0-34 
-36 
-38 
0-40 
0-42 
0-44 
0-47 
0-49 
0-51 
0-53 
-55 
-58 



.3-2 



+ 
482 
-489 
-497 
-505 
-514 
-522 
-531 
-540 
0-549 
-560 
0-070 
-580 
-690 
-601 
-612 
-023 
-034 
-646 
-058 
-670 
0-082 
0-694 
-700 
0-718 
0-730 
-742 
-754 
0-706 
0-778 
0-791 
-802 



0-144 
0-142 
0-140 
0-138 
0-136 
-133 
0-130 
0-128 
-12( 
0-123 
0-120 
0-117 
0-114 
0-111 
0-108 
0-104 
-102 
0-098 
0-09-1 
-092 
-088 
-085 
-082 
0-078 
0-075 
0-072 
-069 
0-066 
0-062 
-059 
-057 



Rate. 
0-00 
-62 
-05 
0-07 
0-70 
-73 
-75 
0-78 
0-81 
0-84 
0-87 
-90 
-93 
0-II6 
1-00 
1-03 
1-07 
1-11 
1-15 
1-19 
1-23 
1-28 
1-33 
1-38 
1-43 
1-48 
1-54 
1-00 
1-66 
1-73 
1-80 



+ 
-813 
-824 
-835 

-846 
o -86 

o -hoc 1 

-878 
-888 
-898 
-906 
-915 
0-92S 
-932 
-940 
-946 
-952 
-958 
-964 
-970 
-970 
-983 
-985 
-987 
0-989 

-991 
0-993 
0-996 
0-998 

1 -000 



T3 O 

-ci~ 



0-055 
-05S 

-05(! 
-048 

-04."; 

-043 
-04(. 
o -088 
0-035 
-088 
-03( 
-02> 
-0-2." 
-02* 
-020 
0-017 

o-oi; 

'01S 

-OKI 
-00' 
-005 
-004 
-1103 
-003 
-002 
-001 
-001 
-000 
-000 






Rate. 

1 -88 

1 -96 

2 -05 
2-14 
2-2"> 
2-30 
2-47 
2 -lil) 
2 "75 

2 -DO 
3-118 
3-27 

3 -49 
3 -78 



4-01 

4 -33 
4-70 
5-14 

5 -67 
0-31 
7-11 
8-14 
9 -51 

11-43 
14-30 
19-08 
28 -63 
37 -29 



V. 

The application of this Table is simple and easy, and it can be em- 
ployed in two ways, i.e., either for the given angle in degrees on the 
top, or for the given rate of the height to the half-basis of the isosceles 
prism. For illustrating this calculation, we choose the following in- 
teresting example. According to published statements, the dimensions- 
of the Great Eastern, or Leviathan, are : — 

Breadth from side to side of hull = 83 ft. 
Draft of water, laden, = 30 ft. 
Kate of the forebody, 330 : 41-5 = 1 : 0-12. 
Rate of the afterbody, 230 : 41-5 = 1 : 0-18. 

The midship section is supposed to be nearly quadrangular, and the 
speed 16 miles per hour. Hereafter, the area of the midship section is 
found 83 X 30 = 2,490 sq. ft. 

For the speed intended of 16 miles per hour, the Table in Chapter I. 
gives 945 lbs. The resistance of the midship by this speed will be found 
2490 X 945 = 2,353,000 lbs. The coefficient of resistance of the fore- 
body for the rate 1 : 0-12 is given in the last Table = 0-401 ; and the 
coefficient of propulsion of the afterbody for the rate 1 : 0-18, we find 
in the same table == — 0-166 ; therefore the resistance of the forebody 

is 2,353.000 X 0-401= 943,553 lbs. 

The propulsion of the afterbody, 235,300 x 0-166 = .... — 390,598 „ 

Diminished resistance of the whole vessel = 552,955 „ 

Or, divided by 555 lbs., = 996 H.P. 

Mr. Brunei has adopted 1,000 H.P. for the nominal power of the paddle 
engines alone of the Leviathan, which accords nearly with our calcu- 
lation. 

VI. 

The last Table, of the shock against the forebody and the afterbody,, 
can be used to resolve a problem of the greatest importance for naval 
architecture. If we combine two prisms of the same basis, whose two 
lengths being variable, give, added together, a constant sum, we can find 
a certain proportion of the two lengths A C : B C, where the diminu- 






The Aktizan', 
March 1, 1858. 



Analyses of Gas Companies' Accounts 



55 



tion of resistance produced by the united forebody and afterbody is a 
maximum, or the resistance itself a minimum. 
For instance, the constant sum of the two lengths AC+BC = AB, 




shall be = 10, and the half-breadth = 1. If we now combine the fore- 
body ADE with the afterbody BDE, we find in the Table— 

a, the resistance of the forebody, 

ADE for the rate AC : CD = 3 : 1 = 1 : 0-33 = 0-419 

b, the propulsion of the afterbody, 

B D E for the rate BC:CD = 7:1 = 1: 0-14 = 0-166 

c, remaining resistance of the whole body = 0'253 

If we combine in this manner the several lengths 1 : 9, 2 : 8, 3 : 7, &c, 
whose sum is always = 10 ; and if we vary the half-breadth from 1 to 2 
and 3, we obtain the following series of resistances : — 



Proportion of the 




Resistance. 




lengths. 










Half-breadth 


Half-breadth 






Half-breadth 


AC : BC 


= 1. 


— 9. 


= 3. 


1 : 9 


0-446 


0-664 


0-751 


2 : 8 


0-287 


0-448 


0-586 


3 : 7 


0-253 


0-340 


0-456 


4 : 


0-243 


0-202 


0-378 


5 : 5 


0-239 


0-273 


0-338 


fi : 4 


0-233 


0-267 


-323 










7 : 3 


-240 


0-274 


0-329 


8 : 2 


0-241 


0-301 


0-355 


9 : 1 


0-293 


-359 


-395 



By these empirical results it is evident that the minimum, of resistance 
of combined prisms takes place when the proportion of the two lengths 
is A C : B C = 6 : 4, within the indicated limits of breadth. 

These limits Ave find as follows : — the analytical formula for the 
resistance of the combined prisms is — 

<p — <p' = m sin. a 3 — m 1 sin. j3 3 — (in — th 1 ). 

For the resolution of our problem, it is necessary to express the angles 
a and fi as functions of the rates AC : CD and BC : C D. We name 

A C = x, CD = b, and BC = l-i. Therefore, sin. a = 921 = 

AC 

h ^ a CD = b_ 

BC 



sin. /3 



\/b*+3& BC s/~b* + (1 

minimum of resistance will be — 
b 3 



2 ) 



and the equation of the 



0= d (—- 
\(b* 



or, 



(6* + r*) i 
3 m b 3 x d x 

m b 3 



»' b 3 \ 

1 — x) -) i) 



■ + 



(4» + (1 
3»t 1 fr i (l — x)dx 
(6* + (1 - x) *) \ 

m< !, 3 (\ - .r) 



In this formula m and m l are known by experiments, and b must be 
given. The more commodious form for the calculation will be — 
m = (1 - x) (b°- + x°-) -i 
m 1 



= 12-96. 



x{b*-k(l-,x)*)4 
The direct solution of this equation is very difficult, but the indirect 
solution gives results sufficiently precise for all practical purposes. In 
this way we have found for the half-breadth b, in parts of the whole 
length, the length of the forebody x, and of the afterbody 1 — x, as 
follows : — 

6=7=15 x = 0-58 :... 1 — x = 0-42 

6 = T ! x = 0-59 1 — x = 0-41 

b = -k :r = 0-62 1 _ x = 0-38 

£ = T 4 J * = 0-66 1 — x = 0'34 



By this the limits of the whole breadth are ^ and ^ of the length of 
the vessel. 

But the numbers of our Table being deduced from experiments made 
with a prism which was affixed to a parallelopiped, whose length is 
nearly the double of the breadth, it is necessary to put between the 
forebody and the afterbody a parallelopiped of these dimensions. 
According to theory, the best form of a vessel will therefore be for the 
breadth = 2. 




Length of the forebody A C = 6 

„ midship CE = 4 

„ afterbody F B = 4 

Whole length of the vessel 14 

The dimensions of the Leviathan above given are, at the load-line, 
nearly in this proportion. 

(To be continued.) 



ANALYSES OF GAS COMPANIES' ACCOUNTS. 

(Continued from p. 150, Vol. xv.) 



Chartered Gas Co. 
Half Year ending June, 1857. 



Receipts. 

Gas Rental 

Coko and other pro- 
ducts 



Expenditure. 

Coals 

Retorts 

Lamps &; Lighting. . 
Carrying on Works 
General Wear and 

Tear 

Meters, and, Fixing 

Paving 

Directors&Auditors 
Salaries and Com- 



£ 
92186 

16625 



108811 



§5 

55' o 



mission 

Wages and Contin- 
gencies 

Taxes(including In 
come Tax) 

Law expenses .... 

Bad Debts 

Profit 



Summary and 

Proof. 

Rental 

Manufacture.. 88638 
Less Res. Pro.16625 



Profit 



53591 
2355 
1737 

2854 

3708 

2837 

679 

1163 

4993 

11223 

2514 

37 

947 

20173 



108811 



£ 

1720 

310 

2030 



1000 
44 
32 
53 

09 
53 
13 



93 

209 

47 
61 
18 

376 

2030 



92186 

72013 
20173 



§3 

o o 



Pence. 
35-90 

6-47 

42-37 



1720 
1344 



376 



20-87 

•92 

•67 

1-11 

1-44 

1-11 

•27 

•46 

1-94 
4-36 



•02 

•38 

7-85 



42-37 



35-90 
28-05 



London Gas Co. 
Half Year ending June, 1857. 



7-85 



Receipts. 

Gas Rental 

Coke and other Pro 
ducts 

Expenditure. 

Coals 

Lime 

Stores 

Wages 

Wear and Tear . . . 

Royalty 

Meters 

Directors &Auditors 

Salaries 

Rates and Taxes . . 

Commission 

Stationery and In- 
cidentals 

Allowances, & Bad 
Debts 

Law expenses 

Depreciation 

Profit 



Summary and 

Proof. 
Rental 

Manufacture. 54947 
Less Res. Pro. 14665 



Profit 



£ 
53917 

14665 



08582 



27037 

296 

1043 

7795 

1.057 

562 

1508 

530 

1626 

780 

854 

743 

1986 

500 

7730 

13035 



=> £ 
So 

35 
P, ft 



£ 
1994 

542 

2536 



2° 



68582 



53917 
40282 



1000 
11 
30 
288 
72 
21 
56 
20 
60 
29 
32 

27 

73 

18 

286 

504 



2536 



1994 
1490 



13635 504 



Pence. 
41-61 



20-87 
•23 
•81 

6-01 

1-50 
•44 

117 
•42 

1-25 
•60 
•67 

•56: 

1-52. 

•38 

5-97 

10-52 



52-02 



41-01 
31-09 



10-52 



56 



Analyses of Gas Companies Accounts. — The Liffey. 



r The Artizan, 
L Marcli 1, 1858. 



Equitable Gas Co. 
Half Year~ K ending June, 1857. 



Receipts. 

Gas Rental 

Coke and other Pro- 
ducts 



Expenditure. 

Tradesmen's Bills . 

Coals 

Wages 

Rent, Rates, and 
Taxes 

Directors & Auditors 

Salaries 

Collectors' Commis- 
sion 

Stationery, &c 

Wear and Tear .... 

Profit 



Summary and 
Proof. 

Rental 

Manufacture . 23630 
Less Res. Pro. 4080 



Profit 



£ 
27155 

4086 



31241 



542 

13148 

3427 

377 
405 
950 

378 

246 

4157 

7611 



31241 



27155 
19544 



7611 



=H o 



£ 

2065 

311 
2376 



41 
1000 
261 

29 
31 
72 

29 

18 

316 

579 



2376 

2065 

1486 
579 



ft 



Pence. 
43-10 

6-49 



49-59 



•86 

20-87 

5-45 

•60 

•65 

1-50 

•61 

•38 

6-59 

12-08 



49-59 



43-10 
31-02 



12-08 



Phcenix Gas Co. 
Half Year ending June, 1857. 



Receipts. 

Gas Rental 

Coke and other Pro- 
ducts 

Expenditure. 

Coals 

Tradesmen's Bills. . 

Retorts used 

Meters 

Rent, Rates, and 

Taxes 

Directors &Auditors 

Salaries 

Wages 

Bad Debts & Over 

chai'ges 

Depreciation 

Profit 

Summary and 
Proof. 

Rental 

Manufacture . 53973 
Less Res. Pro. 13175 

Profit 



Gross. 



£ 
56659 

13175 



60&34 



26246 

6335 

590 

1883 

1812 

800 

2752 

8739 

631 

4185 
15861 



69834 



56659 
40798 



15861 



^ - 

o c 

go 

5'c 



£ 
2159 

502 

2661 



1000 

241 

23 

72 

69 

31 

105 

333 

24 

159 
604 



Pence. 
45-06 

10-48 



55'54 



2061 



2159 

1555 
604 



20-87 

5-03 

•48 

1-50 

1-44 

•65 

2-19 

0-95 

•50 

3-32 

12-61 



55-54 



45-06 
32-45 



12-61 



South Metropolitan Gas Co. 
Half Year ending June, 1857. 



Receipts. 

Gas Rental 

Coke and other pro- 
ducts 

Expenditure. 

Wages 

Salaries 

Directors, &c 

Lamps 

Rent and Taxes . . . 
Purifying Materials 

Sundries 

Coals 

Wear and Tear of 

Retorts 

Mains laid and re 

paired 

Service pipes ditto 

Meters 

General Stores . . . 

Bad Debts 

Profit 

Summary and 
Proof. 

Rental 

Manufacture. 23309 
Less Res. Pro. 5053 

Profit 



Gross. 



£ 
24569 

5053 



£ 
2172 

447 



29622 



3892 
917 
385 

1281 
719 
337 

1054 
11310 

516 

1335 
385 
774 
180 
224 

6313 



•29022 



24569 
18256 



6313 



2619 



344 
81 
34 

113 

64 

30 

93 

1000 

46 

118 
34 
68 
16 

20 
558 



2619 



2172 
1614 



558 



O (J; 



Pence. 
45-33 

9-33 



54-66 



7-18 
1-69 

•71 
2-36 
1-34 

•63 

1-94 

20-87 

•96 

2-46 

•71 

1-42 

•33 

■42 

11-64 



54-66 



45-33 
33-68 



11.65 



City of London Gas Co. 
Half Year ending June, 1857. 



Receipts. 

Gas Rental 

Coke and other Pro- 
ducts. „ 

Expenditure. 

Coals 

Rent, Rates, & Taxes 

Wages 

Directors &Auditors 

Salaries 

Tradesmen's Ac- 
counts 

Repairs, &c 

Petty Cash 

Bad Debts 

Profit 



Summary and 

Proof. 
Rental 

Manufacture. .35940 
Less Res. Pro. 8831 



Profit 



Gross. 



£ 
37545 

8831 



46376 



19554 

1637 

6837 

516 

1815 

4471 

364 

373 

373 

10436 



46376 



37545 
27109 



10436 



£ 
1920 

451 



2371 



1000 

84 

349 

26 

93 

228 
18 
19 
19 

535 



2371 



1920 
1385 



Pence. 
40-07 

9-41 



49-48 



20-87 
1-75 

7-28 

•54 

1-94 

4-76 

•38 

•40 

•40 

11-17 



49-48 



40-07 
28-90 



535111-17 



THE LIFFEY. 
(From our Dublin Correspondent.) 

The River Liffey has its source in the Kippure Mountains, and from 
that source, until it reaches the metropolis, is a singularly pure and 
limpid stream, and would so continue till it reached the sea but for 
the pollution it receives in the sewage of the city. This is a matter of 
the utmost consequence to the citizens, and a great number of plans 
have been from time to time brought forward to cure or prevent the 
eviL Some of these were untenable from the vast outlay required, and 
others from their interference with the waterway of the river. The 
system of sewers, as laid down by the borough engineer, would in part 
get over the evil ; but the carrying out of these will be a work of time 
and labour, if, indeed, they will ever be carried out; and even they have 
one or more out-falling main sewers emptying into the river. 

Conceiving that to remove the sewage entirely from the river is a 
project too Utopian in its character ever to be attained to, we will now 
discuss two plans — each good, and each decidedly original. The first, 
that of a non-professional gentleman (Mr. Stark, of Sackville Street), 
is to pitch pave, or flag the river at either side to a very sharp incline, 
forming in the centre a V shaped drain ; this flagging or paving to com- 
mence at the King's, and end a little below Carlisle Bridge. The good 
effect of this arrangement is obvious. All the lighter particles of matter 
would be swept down by the increased current caused by the confining 
of the channel within regular bounds ; and for the heavier particles, 
they could be swept into the central channel occasionally by the 
scavengers. The cost of this arrangement, though at first sight it 
might appear large, would not be so in reality, considering the great 
appliances that the Corporation, for Preserving and Improving the Port, 
have at their command. 

The greater portion of the bed of the river is left dry, or nearly so, 
at each low tide, and, by damming a portion of one side of the bed 
alternately, the work would proceed with a celerity that only those who 
know how very speedily the men of the Corporation can accomplish 
their Herculean feats would believe possible ; and the materials can be 
had in abundance for the dredging. 

Previous to the year 1850, the Strand below the patent slip at Hal- 
pin's Pool was in a state of nature ; since that time the men of the 
Ballast Board have dredged and deposited a bank of earth averaging 
20 ft. in height, about 1,500 ft. in length, by about 1,000 ft. in breadth ; 
or, in round numbers, something like 30,000,000 cubic ft. of stuff, con- 
sisting of stones, sand, and gravel, in the heart of which the new graving 
dock has been built. To a Corporation that can accomplish such a 
labour as this in seven years, the paving or flagging of a mile and 
quarter of the bed of the river would be a mere bagatelle ; and if, in 
connection with this plan of Mr. Stark's, Mr. Mven's suggestion of plant- 
ing the sides of the quays with large trees was adopted, a real blessing 
would be conferred on the citizens. 

The second design, although not so simple as that we have just 
noticed, is not without its merits, and contains some points of originality. 
Its author is Mr. J. S. Sloane, an engineer, who has given considerable 
time and attention to projects for the improvement of his native city. 
It consists in laying a cast-iron sewer in the bed of the river, com- 
mencing above the outfall of the highest of the present sewers. From 
each of these sewers he proposes to carry a cast-iron pipe of sufficient 
caliber to take their contents and convey them into the main cast iron 
tube or sewer ; thus (although using the bed of the river as a convenient 
place to lay his pipe) cutting off from the water all pollution, and per- 
mitting it to reach the sea pure as when it left the rugged rocks of 
" Poul a Phoca." 

There are many difficulties in this plan, hut they have been apparently 
so well considered by Mr. Sloane that they cease to appear as such ; and 
his plan has, without doubt, many claims on the people of Dublin. 

Supposing his tube laid down in the central bed of the river, the dif- 
ficulty of disposing of the contents appear great; but he at once gets rid 
of that, by showing that he intends the tube or sewer to turn round in 
front of the Dodder River, penetrating beneath the Pigeonhouse Road, 
and so out to the Strand between the Pigeonhouse and Sandy Mount, 
where it would empty its contents into a tank built for the purpose, 
sufficiently large to contain them. From thence a steam or Avater engine 
of moderate power would pump the sewage to a level considerably over 
high- water mark, where the solid portions being collected for manure,' 
the liquid, if not required, could be permitted to run off into the sea near 
Poolbeg Lighthouse, thus leaving the river free to its mouth of all the 
influences that have for so many years caused it to be regarded as one 
of the pests of the city. 

As the fall in this tube would be very small, some means of flushing 
would be requisite : and this is provided for by turning up the upper end 
of it to nearly the high-water level of the river, and closing it with a 
valve worked by a screw. Every day at high water this valve could 
be opened and a flow sufficient to flush the entire length of the pipe 



The Artizaic, 
March 1, 1858. 



] 



Homes Planing Machine. — Institution of Civil Engineers. 



57 



admitted, which would be carried off along with the other waste water 
when it arrived at the tank. 

The plan of collecting the sewage of the city and disposing of it to 
farmers is not at all new, but the carrying of it out so far from the city, 
and collecting it on the waste strand of Irishtown, has many points of 
novelty to recommend it to notice. That there are plenty of funds to 
carry out either of these designs, is proved from the fact that the 
Corporation have lately carried out the following works, more costly 
than useful, viz.:— A 10-ton crane. A strange looking landing-stage, 
on a few piles at the point of the wall, and in the course of vessels 
entering and leaving the harbour — constructed on the " cheap and 
nasty" principle. And last, though by no means least, a timber wharf, 
is proposed at a part of the river where nobody lives excepting two pub- 
licans, and a timber merchant, who alwiJys finds it more convenient to 
discharge his vessels into the water at once, than bring them into the 
river. Thus we see that it is not for want of money that the river is not 
improved ; and as we have shown the way in which it may be done, we 
trust that we may live to see either of the designs accomplished. 

The shipbuilders are making a great outcry about the delay to the 
completion of the new graving dock, but they must study patience, as 
neither engines to pump the dock dry, nor an engine well, have been 
as yet commenced ; and there is also the removal of the great bank of 
earth in front of the dock to be accomplished before a vessel can enter. 



IRISH POSTAL COMMUNICATION. 

The Directors of the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company have given 
notice, that in consequence of having completed arrangements with the several 
shipbuilders and engineers about to construct for them four new steam vessels, 
it will be necessary to create additional capital, and are about to offer, at 
par, the unissued £50 shares of the company, to the number of 2,083 — which in 
the first instance are to be offered to the proprietors of the City of Dublin and 
Dublin and Liverpool Steamship Companies, and in the event of any remaining 
over, they will be disposed of to non-proprietors. 

These steam vessels are to be constructed each of 2,000 tons measurement, 
and are to be engaged in the new postal and passenger service between Dublin 
and London. 

The interest proposed to be paid on the shares is at the rate of 6 per cent, 
per annum ; but the City of Dublin Company are to have the right to re-pur- 
chase them at par at the end of the fifth year, provided three months' notice in 
writing be given to the proprietors of such intention. 

It is at the same time agreed, that the proprietors shall have a corresponding 
right to receive back their advance of capital at the end of the fifth year, 
provided due notice be given. The object of this stipulation is, that the 
Government having reserved power to terminate the postal contract at the end 
of the five years, should they have sufficient reason to be dissatisfied with the 
manner in which it has been performed, the Company wish to guard them- 
selves from the possible contingency of having to pay interest on capital for 
which they may have no profitable employment. 

HORNE'S IMPROVED WOOD PLANING MACHINE. 

(Illustrated by Plate cxxi.) 

The subject of the employment of machinery for working wood has 
recently attracted considerable attention, more immediately, perhaps, in 
consequence of the very able paper by Mr. Molesworth, which was read 
by him at a recent meeting of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and 
briefly reported in The Artizan for December, 1857, page 281, and at 
page 11 of this Volume. 

On a recent visit to Woolwich Dockyard, our attention was attracted 
to a planing machine at work there for preparing wood stuff of various 
kinds for dockyard use, and its very satisfactory performance, both as to 
the superior quality and amount of work produced, was evident after a 
careful inspection ; and, moreover, as the executive officers connected 
with the department to which the machine belongs spoke so favourably 
of it as a really valuable improvement over other planing machines, 
we believe we should be neglecting our duty to our Subscribers if we did 
not describe and illustrate these improved wood planing machines. 

Upon the present occasion we purpose only referring to its capa- 
bilities, deferring until next month, when we shall be enabled to give 
the Plate, a literal description of the various parts of the machine, 
together with the mode of working it. 

The machine we have seen at work will plane, groove, tongue, square, 
or bevil, and thickness boards at the rate of 50 ft. per minute : it will 
take in stuff from 12 in. to 2i in. in width, and of a thickness from 6 in. 
to |ths of an in. Having strong framing and powerful gearing, of the 
most simple and accurate construction, it is well adapted for ship- 
builders' purposes, as for planing and preparing deck planks of any 
thickness ; and, as any required bevil can readily be given to the edges 
of such planks whilst passing through the machine, the advantages of 
such a machine offer for making accurate caulking joints will be readily 
understood. 

In addition to preparing flooring boards and deck planks, the same 
machine may be advantageously employed for squaring up scantling for 
carpenters' work, for bulk heads, panelling, linings, &c. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

After the Address of the President, Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., which we 
gave in The Artizan for February, the Paper read was On Self- 
acting Railway Brakes, by Mons. Guerin. As a lengthy description, 
with a copper-plate engraving appeared in the November (1857) Number of 
The Artizan, we need not refer to it again, but present our readers with 
an abstract of such parts of the discussion as may be likely to prove of interest. 

The discussion upon Mons. Guerin's Paper " On Railway Brakes " was 
continued throughout the evening of January 19. 

It was remarked that, in 1841, the late Mr. George Stephenson had stated, 
before a Select Committee of the House of Commons, that brakes had a very 
important influence upon the safety of railway travelling, and expressed the 
opinion, that if a self-acting brake power could be brought to bear simul- 
taneously upon all the carriages in a train, it would be infinitely superior to a 
separate brake and brakesman to each carriage. 

The non-success of many p*lans which had been tried was attributed to the 
desire to make them automatic, the apparatus for which prevented the free use 
of the brake in shunting, or when standing in sidings. 

A description was then given of 

Mr. Newall's System of Brakes, which had been in successful opera- 
tion for the last five years, on the East Lancashire Railway, and which was 
fitted to all the rolling stock on the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire, 
and on the St. Helen's Railways. It was also in partial use on six or seven other 
English lines, as well as on the Great Northern of France. This system was 
not intended to be automatic, except in such cases as the breaking loose of a 
portion of the train, or the liberation of the catches by some violent action. 
The guard, or engine-driver, could instantly and simultaneously apply all the 
brakes in a train, which were only kept out of action by a balance-catch, 
easily liberated. In ordinary brakes, power was required to apply the pressure; 
but in Mr. Newall's system, on the contrary, power was necessary to remove it. 
In this apparatus a spiral steel spring, 3J in. in diameter, contained in a cylin- 
der, operated upon the brakes, either through the intervention of a long lever, 
when placed vertically, or directly on an arm of the rocking-shaft, when placed 
horizontally. The whole of the brakes were connected together by a long shaft 
running under the carriages, throughout the entire length of the train. The 
spring was drawn up, ready for action, by means of a rack, having a piston- 
head working through the open end of the cylinder. The opposite end of the 
rack was connected either with the long lever, or with the arm of the rocking- 
shoft. As this rack was geared by a pinion with the shaft running the length 
of the train, it would be evident that all the brake springs would be operated 
upon at the same moment. The long bar was made to revolve through 
bevil gearing at each end of an upright shaft connnected with the guard's 
handle, on the spindle of which a ratchet-wheel was set ; this was prevented 
from revolving by a light catch, weighted at the opposite end, so as to fall off 
readily, and to keep out of action, except when put on by hand. Whenever 
tliis catch was released, the brakes instantaneously came into action. This 
could be effected either by a slight reverse motion of the guard's handle, or of 
that of the tender-brake, or by a signal cord, such as was used on the Great 
Northern Railway, or by a small incline plane attached to the fixed signals on 
the line, or a hand-block laid between the rails, which, catching the foot-roller 
of the upright bar, forced it up, and lifted the catch. 

The connecting- bar, running the whole length of the train, was made of iron 
tubing, 2 in. in diameter, with an extending slide, about 6 ft. in length, of 
square iron, working in a steel square in the tube. This allowed for the dif- 
ferent lengths of the buffers, and the extension of the train ; whilst the double 
ball and socket joints at each coupling allowed for the differences in the heights 
of the carriages, and for the curvature of the trains. 

Several applications of the same principle were described, including a tender 
fitted with the hanging, or flap brake, with the long lever and vertical spring, 
and the ordinary slide brake with the rocking shaft, but with the spring placed 
horizontally under the carriage, so as to have a direct motion upon the arm. 
The vertical spring arrangement was considered the best. 

During the year 1853, two trains were run daily between Manchester and 
Colne, with a view of testing the comparative amount of injury to the railway 
and rolling stock, where a single ordinary brake was used, and where Mr. 
Newall's brake was employed. The result was, that after running 47,000 
miles, the van wheels of the latter, on being swung, were found to be worn 
equally ; whilst the wheels of the ordinary brake-van had to be turned up thrice 
during the twelve months. 

The increased brake power enabled the train to be brought up within a 
much shorter distance. With a train composed of ten carriages, eight of 
which were fitted up with Mr. Newall's brakes, and two with ordinary brakes, 
giving a gross weight of train, inclusive of engine and tender, of 88 tons on a 
level line, with one ordinary brake applied, at a speed of 40 miles per hour, 
the train was stopped in 800 yards. With two ordinary brakes applied, at a 
speed of 42 miles per hour, the train was stopped in 620 yards. With Mr. 
Newall's brakes, at a speed of 50 miles, the train was stopped in 310 yards ; at 
a speed of 48 miles, in 192 yards; at a speed of 40 miles, in 138 yards; and at 
a speed of 33 miles, in 120 yards; at a speed of 48 miles, hi 371 yards, when 
descending 1 in 40 ; at a speed of 45 miles, in 430 yards, when descending 1 in 
38 ; and at a speed of 38 miles, in 218 yards, when descending 1 in 532. In 
every case the ordinary brake on the tender was used. 

Mr. Newall's brakes had not been found to get out of order, and the employes 
had great confidence in their action. The prominent advantages were, prompt- 
ness of action — bringing up the train steadily without any jerking and consequent 
risk of breakage — being self-acting, when any accident happened — and each 
single vehicle, being fitted with the apparatus, formed a complete brake. 

A review was given of the various " brakes" that had been attempted, and 
had been partially introduced, commencing with that applied by Mr. George 
Stephenson, in 1832, upon the Liverpool and Manchester line, which was 



58 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



["The Autizan, 
L March I, 1858. 



described before a Committee of the House of Commons, in 1833, by Mr. 
Robert Stephenson. This break was at that time proposed to be worked by the 
momentum of the train. 

Lord Dundonald's system, in 1835, of reversing the engine and carriage 
frames from above to below the axles, and the use of sledge brakes, was also 
explained. 

Then came Mr. W. B.Adams, in 1838, with a system of brakes, to act by nip- 
ping the upper tables of the rails between two horizontal bars, like a parallel ruler. 
In 1839, Mr. James Nasmyth, whose self-acting brakes were tried on the 
Leeds and Manchester line. These brakes acted through the medium of the 
buffer-rods, but they had such serious defects as prevented their general use. 

In 1840, Mr. W. B. Adams specified a system of brakes acting through the 
buffer-rods, and the same principle was again tried in 1852 by Major Robbins ; 
there were, however, inherent defects which precluded success. In 1842, Mr. 
Lee brought forward a brake, which was subsequently tried on the Eastern 
Counties Railway ; it was a sledge brake ; but like those of Mr. Bodmer, in 
1844, and of Mr. W. B. Adams in 184G and 1851, it was not successful. 

In 1852, Mr. Handley's brakes were applied to tank engines on the Eastern 
Counties Railway. They were somewhat similar to those of Mr. Lee, but at 
great speeds fracture appeared to be inevitable. At about the same time, Mr. 
D. Gooch applied sledge brakes between the driving wheels of a tank loco- 
motive, but that system was abandoned. 

Mr. Newall's system of brakes varied from all these in two important parti- 
culars. Every carriage of the train could have brakes applied by the guard, 
and all the brakes were previously prepared for instantaneous action in case of 
emergency. The disadvantages were in its being necessary to connect all the 
brakes together by a continuous length of shafting. It was admitted, that the 
advantage of applying the brakes by the agency of springs was fully attained, 
although the brakes could not be called "self-acting," inasmuch as the manual 
labour of winding up the racks and throwing off the catch was always necessary, 
except where provision was made for putting on the brakes by means of an 
inclined plane upon which the shaft touched in travelling over it. 

Mr. Chambers' brake, which had been tried on the North London Railway, 
was described : — A wheel was applied beneath the carriage frame so as to slide 
longitudinally, and a short leather band passed from this wheel to one of the 
axles. By a slight pressure on a lever, the guard moved the wheel forward, so 
as to tighten the band on the axle, when the wheel moved round and acted 
upon the brakes. Here the force of momentum was used to apply the power 
very gradually. 

Mons. Lefevre applied the momentum through the buffer rods by the agency 
of one of the buffer springs, which was made to slide forward in its bed. In 
this system there was not any mode of lifting the brakes out of gear, when it 
was necessary to back the train, unless it was done hy hand, and a connecting 
process was needed in making up the train. 

Mons. Guerin's brakes acted by the momentum of the train through the 
medium of the buffer spring, which was also made to slide forward, but with 
the important difference to all the others of the momentum of the train being- 
made to act upon a centrifugal governor on the axle of one pair of wheels. 
This contrivance enabled a lock-bar to be thrown in or out of gear, and so to 
regulate the action of the brakes, without any manual labour, as to permit the 
backing of the can'iages, and to do away with any continuous connection. 

It was evident that in all the self-acting brakes, acting through the momentum 
of the buffers, the engine and tender were the fulcrum of resistance on which the 
momentum must impinge. It was found in practice that the momentum of 
four carriages was requisite to give sufficient pressure on the brakes. Thus, 
several carriages not being acted upon, a hand brake became necessary. For 
this purpose, therefore, Mr. Chambers' brake seemed to be best adapted, as 
requiring little hand power. 

The skidding of the wheels was no doubt a great evil, to be avoided by any 
means. It was believed that a sledge brake acting on the rails, through the 
agency of springs, by the action of the buffers, was the true principle yet to be 
worked out. By such a process the wheels and the rails would both be saved 
from injury, and the automatic regulator of Mons. Guerin was a piece of 
mechanism that could not be dispensed with. 

It was shown that the expense of adapting Newall's brakes to an old carriage 
would be about £12, and to a new carriage would be about £25. The use of 
these brakes was found to be very satisfactory on all the Hues to which they 
liad been applied. On the East Lancashire Railway they had been used for 
about five years, and on the South Western Railway it had been found that, by 
the facility they afforded in stopping at numerous stations, about 15 minute's 
was saved in the journey between London and Windsor. Several engineers 
had recently made a journey to Prance expressly to examine Guerin's brake, 
and they were able to bear very satisfactory testimony to the merits of the 
system, which had been applied to 200 carriages on the Orleans Railway alone, 
and during upwards of three years had been generally approved. 

It was noticed, as a peculiarity, that soft east iron was used instead of wood 
for the brake blocks, and if it did not produce a bad effect upon the tyres, the 
substitution would be economical. 

It was observed that there were cases when the proper moment for applying 
the brakes could only be perceived by the driver, or by the guard, separately or 
simultaneously. It appeared that Newall's brake could be so used ; but it was 
doubted whether, under Guerin's system, which acted only by the pressure of 
the buffers, the same effect would be as quickly obtained. 

In case of a train of carriages getting off the rails, on longitudinal timbers, 
a distance of a quarter of a mile had been known to be passed over before the 
train was brought to rest. Now, with brakes that acted too rapidly, the 
danger was that the carriages would be thrown upon each other, and great 
injury would ensue. In such cases the application of automatic brakes was 
questionable. 

In ordinary trains the brakes were now only attached to the guard's van and 
the tender. If, therefore, by the new system, automatic brakes were to be 



applied to the carriages, they must be adapted to all, as, in the making up of 
mixed trains, it would be inconvenient to have only a partial adaptation. Both 
Newall's and Guerin's plans were simple, and well adapted to their purposes; 
the latter being rather the simpler of the two, and they certainly merited a full 
experiment. 

High eulogiums were passed upon the ingenuity of both systems, and whilst 
it was admitted that they were susceptible of being made very useful, their 
adoption must not be forced upon railway companies until, by continued 
use for some considerable period, their merits and capabilities were fully 
developed. 

ON THE SAVING OF DEAD WEIGHT IN PASSENGER 
TRAINS. 

By Mr. Chakles Kay, of Manchester.* 

The question lias often arisen, though not satisfactorily answered, — Why 
should it take more dead weight to carry a passenger by railway than formerly 
by a stage coach 1 The two modes of transit scarcely admit of a fair comparison, 
as a stage coach runs singly and at a slow speed, and only one-fourth of the 
passengers are carried inside, the other three-fourths being outside ; and when 
required to be brought to a stand, it is done without any violent or sudden 
shock or strain on the vehicle : whereas on a railway a large number of carriages 
are coupled together, the train travels at a high speed, and is often suddenly 
checked and shunted with great force into a siding, coming into contact with 
heavy waggons without buffer springs ; the carriages have therefore to be built 
sufficiently strong to withstand the strains and shocks to which they are 
subjected. Although it is not a practical comparison, as passengers cannot bfi 
carried outside on railway carriages, yet if the mode of carrying passengers by 
stage coach be applied to railways, ' the following will be' the results:— an 
ordinary four-horse stage coach, seating 4 inside and 12 outside, or a total of 
1G passengers, and weighing about 20 cwt., gives an average of 1401bs. of dead 
weight to each passenger. Now if this be compared with one of tiie large third- 
class carriages built by the writer for the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, 
and now running on the Oldham branch, which are 28 ft. long, 8 ft. 6 in. wide, 
seating 84 passengers, and weighing tons 11^ cwt., then, supposing passengers 
were carried on the roof in addition, as on a stage coach, it would seat about 84 
more, allowing 10 inches for each passenger, or a total of 168 passengers, which 
gives an average of only 88 lbs. of dead weight per passenger as compared with 
140 lbs., or a difference in favour of the railway over stage coaches of 52 lbs. of 
dead weight per passenger. But although it is unreasonable to expect 
passengers to be carried on railways all inside with only the same amount of 
dead weight as by stage coach, where three-fourths are carried outside, it 
certainly cannot be thought unreasonable to ask whether passengers cannot be 
carried by railway with less dead weight than at present; this the writer 
considers practicable, and further, that everypound of unnecessary dead weight 
added to any part of a vehicle does not add to its strength, but diminishes it, for 
being out of proportion to the other parts it is rigid and does not yield uniformly 
to the strain. 

In the writer's opinion, the correct means of saving dead weight is in building 
the carriages larger, and doing away with unnecessary wheels, axles, axle 
boxes, springs, ccc. For instance, taking an ordinary third class carriage, 
seating 40 passengers, allowing to each 10 in. of seat room, and weighing 5 tons 
when empty ; this gives 280 lbs. of dead weight per passenger : now the car- 
riage previously named, running on the Oldham branch weighing tons, 
Hi- cwt., seating 84 passengers, gives 175 lbs. of dead weight per passenger, or 
a difference of 105 lbs. per passenger in favour of the large carriage. Again, an 
ordinary modern first class carriage of three compartments, seating 18 passen- 
gers, and weighing 5J tons, gives a dead weight of 715 lbs. per passenger ; whilst 
one of the larger sized first class carriages used on the Lancashire and York- 
shire Railway, 24 ft. long', 7 ft. 6 in. wide, allowing the same room and 
accommodation as the three compartment carriage, weighing G^ tons, and 
seating 24 passengers, gives a dead weight of 583 lbs. per passenger, showing a 
saving of 132 lbs. per passenger in favour of the long carriage. But if the 
comparison is made with a first class carriage similar to what is running on 
the Oldham branch, which is 28 ft. long, 8 ft. G in. wide, and G ft. high in the 
clear of the doorway, with five compartments, weighing 7 tons 3 cwt., and 
seating 40 passengers, this gives a dead weight of only 400 lbs. per passenger. 
This carriage has the seats divided for four passengers, which, although not so 
comfortable for long journeys as three divisions is found sufficient for the 
greater portion of the traffic on most lines. 

The writer has lately constructed two carnages to work the Ashton branch 
of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, shown in Fig. 2, seating 24 first 
and 120 second and third class passengers, with ample accommodation 
for guard and luggage. These two carriages with brakes, weighing 16 tons, 
give better accommodation than the old train, shown in Fig. 1., consisting of 
six separate carriages, seating 149 passengers, and weighing 30 tons ; thereby 
effecting not only a saving of nearly 14 tons of dead weight per train, but a pro- 
portionate saving in first cost nearly equal in amount to the difference in the 
weight, and also a proportionate saving in wear and tear, both of engines, 
carriages, and permanent way, and a saving in consumption of coke of 5 lbs. 
per mile ; there is also found to be a saving in time on the journey, as the 
guard at every station, when going from one end of the train to the other and 
back, has to walk a distance of only 50 yards with the new train, instead of 
88 yards with the old train. 

The writer is of opinion that large can'iages are very suitable for main lines, 
but more particularly so for branch lines, and have many advantages over 
small ones, not only in dead weight and cost of construction and working, but 

* Paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



Tjit. 
Mare] 



Artizam, "I 
i] 1, 1858. J 



On the Saving of Dead Weight in Passenger Trains. 



59 



in having a smaller number of carriage ends; for most passengers, particularly 
first class, prefer middle compartments, and the old Ashton train, shown in 
Fig. 1., has twelve carriage ends, whereas the new one has only four. Another 
advantage is that should any axle break under a short carriage, the chances 
-are it is thrown on its side or turned over ; whereas with long carriages in 
such an accident the carriage is most likely to run as a sledge. A case of this 
kind occurred on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, near Rochdale, about 
three years ago, when, during the great snow storm, a train that met with 
an accident had one of these large carriages attached ; the front axlp had been 
broken by the collision at the, "back of the nave, and the hind wheels were 
swept entirely away, but the carriage was trailed in this way like a sledge for 
upwards of a mile, and when the train was brought to a stand it continued 
parallel to the line of rails. Another advantage of the long carriage is that 
they run not only freely round the curves, but on straight parts of the line with 
less lateral motion, and the writer has found the brasses in the axle boxes to 
wear much less endways than in short carriages. The two carriages before 
.named are 33 ft. long, with the wheels 18 ft. distance of centres : they have 
been run backwards and forwards with the greatest ease through a curve of less 



than 200 ft. radius, although six-wheeled engines all coupled cannot pass 
through; and they run many times daily through a curve at Manchester 
Station of 330 ft. radius, and the flanges of the tyres do not show any percep- 
tible wear different from that of any ordinary vehicle. 

In reference to increase of size of vehicles, it may be remarked by way of 
illustration that formerly a 500 ton merchant ship was considered a large size, 
but now nearly as many thousand tons is not uncommon ; for as the commerce 
of the country has increased, instead of buikling numerous small vessels, the 
shipwrights have so increased the size of the ships that one will now take as 
much merchandise as several formerly did, thereby effecting a very great 
saving. But in the case of railways, as their traffic has increased, have they 
taken the same view as shipbuilders and increased the size of their vehicles to 
suit their increased traffic ? Not generally, only in some few instances ; but 
they have increased the number of their vehicles and made their locomotives 
heavier and more powerful to draw the increased weight of carriages, and then 
as a consequence have had to build their carriages stronger to resist the strain 
of a longer and heavier train and a more powerful engine, thereby increasing 
the dead weight in a greater ratio than the increased weight of passengers 



RAILWAY CARRIAGES. 
Pig. 1.— Old Train. 



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Luggage Van. 



Fig. 2. — New Train. 



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11110 1 



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Luggage Compartment. 
Fig. 3. — New Carriage, with Luggage Compartments. 



Scale, 1 -240th. 
Fig. 7. — Third Class Carriage. Fig. 8.— Third Class Carriage. 




"IE 



te£=32f 




Luggage. 



Luggage. 



Scale, 1 -120th. 



Fig. 4. — Trussing of Frame. 



Fig. 5. — Axle Guard. 

r 




°1 



I 



Fig. C. 



Scale, 1-48U1. 



Scale, l-16th. 



carried, It may be considered an objection to long carriages that, when a train 
is made up, if there should he a few extra passengers, one of these large car- 
riages would have to be attached ; but as mixed trains are now generally run, 
■if the carriages were nearly all composite such a case would seldom if ever 
occur. 

Carrying luggage on the roof the writer considers a very objectionable plan, 

• and can only account for it being continued under the impression that it is the 
most economical : this however he considers not to be the case; for although a 
carriage roof cannot be built much lighter when luggage is not carried on it, as 
it must be made strong enough to bear the weight of a man walking along 
the top to get at the roof lamps, ypt in case of accident a great weight on the 
roof must act at a serious leverage to damage the carriage, or, if travelling at a 
high speed, to impart to it a rolling and pitching motion. Many sources of 
inconvenience to the passengers arise from this plan, such as the difficulty and 
delay of finding particular luggage at intermediate stations, the annoyance of 
moving heavy weights over head, and risk of damage from wet ; there is also 
the risk of accident to the men from breaking of the luggage straps in buckling 
them up, the men having sometimes to strap down the luggage while the train 
is in motion : these sources of annoyance, inconvenience, and trouble to 
passengers and to the railway servants are much greater than would be sup- 
posed at first. Then the first cost is considerable on lines where much luggage 

• is carried, as nearly every carriage has to be furnished with sheets and straps, 
.though perhaps one-third of them are not used ; and the roofs are much impaired 

• by screwing on the numerous laths to protect the roof covering from being cut 

9 



by the luggage ; the cost of keeping up the luggage sheets and straps amounts 
on a large line to a very great annual sum, caused not only by wear and tear, 
but by those not regularly used deteriorating much more by lying folded up, as 
they are liable to mildew and rot, and to being burnt by hot cinders falling 
6n them. 

On some lines the luggage is carried to some extent in vans ; but although 
where this can be done it is much preferable to carrying it on the roof, still it 
has many objections : the van is generally placed in front or at the end of a 
trdin, or sometimes at both, and every time the train stops, more especially 
at a junction, the passengers have either to get out and look after their luggage 
or run the risk of its not being forthcoming at the journey's end ; and at the 
end, owing to the luggage being all taken out of one place, much inconvenience 
is caused to the passengers. Where the train has to be broken up this plan 
cannot be carried out, as a separate van would have to be run with each portion 
of the train thus separated; so that even when a van is used, the luggage has 
to a certain extent to be carried on the roof. Some lines have luggage com- 
partments in the centre of the carriage; but this arrangement the writer 
thinks not the most judicious plan, as it is placing the luggage in the best part 
of the carriage ; and he suggests that luggage vans be entirely dispensed with, 
and that in place of them every carriage be built with a luggage compartment 
at each end. He is quite convinced that a first class carriage with three com- 
partments and a luggage compartment at each end, say having a total length of 
23 ft. and seating 18 passengers, and not exceeding G tons weight when empty 
could be built at very little additional cost to the present carriages ; it would 



60 



Description of a New Hydraulic Engine. 



The Artizaic, 
March 1, 185S. 



be stronger aud more able to withstand a strain than a similar carriage of the 
same weight with luggage on the roof; and if the carriage be longer, say 
•29 ft. and seating 24 passengers, and if wider seating 32 passengers, the 
difference will be still greater in favour of carriages with luggage compartments. 
The ends could also be fitted with folding seats to be available for passengers in 
busy times, seating 10 additional second or third class passengers. The double 
ends in case of collision would also serve as additional protection to the passen- 
gers, the luggage in them acting as extra buifers. 

The writer is now building a similar carriage to the last described for the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company, as shown in Fig. 3. It is 
29 ft. long, seating 24 passengers, and precisely similar in every other respect 
to the best modem three-compartment carnages ; it will weigh about 6J tons, 
giving 030 lbs. of dead weight per passenger, instead of 715 lbs., thereby 
effecting a saving of 85 lbs. of dead weight per passenger in comparison with 
the ordinary carriage constructed to carry luggage on the roof. If the carriage 
be made wider, seating four on each seat, the difference will be still greater. 
The additional cost of maintaining this extra length will be very trifling ; and 
a saving is effected in first cost equal in proportion to the saving in weight, in 
addition to the saving in wear and tear of sheets, straps, and roofs of carnages. 
Taking another view of the case, suppose a train constructed to carry 
luggage on the roof to consist of eight ordinary three-compartment first class 
carriages and a luggage van, each weighing 5j tons when empty; this train 
would cost about £2,600, seating 144 passengers, with a total dead weight of 
51 J tons. A train of similar carriages, omitting the van, but with luggage 
compartments at each end, each carriage weighing (i tons when empty, and 
allowing g ton more for the additional size of the carriage with the guard's 
compartment, would give a total of 48^ tons, or a saving of 3£ tons in favour of 
the carriages with luggage compartments. But if the comparison is made with 
a train of six carriages similar to the one shown in Fig. 3, this train would 
cost about £2,100, seating 144 passengers, each carriage weighing 65 tons 
when empty, and allowing as before -J- ton more for the additional size of car- 
riage with guard's compartment, making a total of 39 j tons ; this gives a saving 
of 12^ tons of dead weight, and of £500 in the first cost, besides the annual 
saving in wear and tear of sheets and straps, and in busy times the advantage 
of seating 55 additional second or third class passengers in the luggage 
compartments. 

To prevent the hogging effect of the spring tension bars upon the frame of 
the carriage, whicli is subjected to a more severe strain in the long carriages, 
the writer has adopted a plan which has been found to remove all objections, 
and at the same time to strengthen the carriage considerably, by trussing the 
carriage from the end bars of the underframing to the ends of the axle guards, 
as shown hi Fig. 4. The wrought-iron strut, A, lj in. diameter in the 
middle and tapering to 1J in. at the ends, is secured to the end bar, b, by a flat 
end and heel bolted to the bar, and the other end of the strut is secured to the 
axle guard at c, with a double shoulder to take the strain oil' the bolts. A 
similar strut D, made stronger in the middle, extends from one axle guard to 
the other; and in carriages with long centres these middle struts are made of 
hollow piping to save weight, and are not only tied across to each other, but 
also to the underframe, and in very long centres diagonal stays are added. The 
bar e is formed with double shoulders and bolted to the ends of the axle guards 
to connect the struts. 

The axle guards, instead of being made -J in. thick as usual with the edge 
working in a groove of the axle box, which is liable to be worn in from i to 8 in. 
after several years' work, have a piece of angle iron rivetted to the legs of the 
guards, as shown in Figs. 5 and 0, by means of which a face of 2f in. wide is 
obtained to work against the axle box. This construction has proved very 
durable, and some carnages have been at work on this plan six years, aud 
show hardly any wear. 

The usual mode of framing coach bodies is by mortice and tenon; but by 
this method the foot of the pillar, where most strength is required, is weak- 
ened, as is also the bottom side into whicli the mortice is made ; and from the 
wet getting in, the pillar becomes rotted at the foot, the part that requires 
most strength. In place of this construction the writer has adopted the plan 
with third class carriages, shown in Figs. 7 and 8, of securing the standing- 
pillars to the bottom sides with corner knees aud double clips, retaining 
the whole strength of the pillar at the foot where it is most required, and not 
weakening the bottom side with mortices. By thus letting the framing stand 
prominent one panelling becomes sufficient instead of two, the boarding £ in. 
thick being fixed crossways and screwed at the ends into the pillars ; this 
makes a very strong plain body, and without any mortice for the water to 
lodge in. , 

It has often been considered that agriculturists were in fault for being slow 
in adopting improvements ; but still they have their ploughing matches, their 
cattle shows, and trials of implements, and it is well known what extensive 
improvements have been the result : the writer has often thought that railways 
might with very great advantage take a lesson from them, and have their 
shows of rolling stock. It may be said that the gradients of varions lines 
differ so much, that an engine suitable for one line is not suitable for another ; 
but without touching that part of the subject, the writer thinks it will be 
admitted that, however lines may vary, the passengers do not, and that a good 
carriage on one line would be so on another. What the writer would suggest is 
to have a show of rolling stock, say every three or four years, and to let the rail- 
way companies contribute to a common fund for the prizes; this would 
stimulate exertion, and not only lead to improvements, but cause them to be 
more generally known. If there were a prize to be obtained, every contributor 
would be anxious for all to see and know his improvements, and would be 
ready to point out any disadvantages in other vehicles. The result would no 
doubt be a very great saving, avoiding sometimes very large expenditure in 
trying over again plans that other companies had already tried and rejected, 
the result being a mutual advantage to all concerned. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW HYDRAULIC ENGINE. 

By Mr. David Joy, of Leeds.* 

The form ofhydraulic engine, which is the subject of the present paper, was 
originated by the requirement of a motive power for the special purpose of 
blowing the bellows of a large organ, and was not at the time intended to be 
applied beyond the single case for which it was designed by the writer. Several 
conditions were requisite in the arrangements : first, that the power should be 
supplied from some constantly accessible source; this condition at once pointed 
to water pressure as the only available power, and resolved the question into a 
hydraulic engine, required not only to give out a reciprocating motion, but to 
be capable of regulation down to the slowest possible speed without having a 
deal point ; at the same time to be perfectly free from the shocks due to water 
in motion at high pressure. 

The accompanying drawings show the arrangement adopted to meet these 
conditions. Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the engine, showing the attachment to 
bellows; Fig. 2 a vertical section through the cylinder; Fig. 3 a vertical sec- 
tion through the valve chest ; Fig. 4, a sectional plan. 

A is the cylinder, with 
ports the same as in a steam 
engine cylinder, b b being 
the inlet ports, and c the 
exhaust, d is a common 
slide valve, working over 
the face of these parts, and 
moved by its attachment 
to a small double piston, 
e e, working in two small 
cylinders, f f, in the ends 
of the valve-box, G ; n i? 
the water main. The pis- 
tons, e e, are moved by 
the water pressure, which 
is let into and out of their 
cylinders alternately by a 
small four -way cock, l; 
this four - way cock is 
moved by a lever, j, and a 
rod, k, winch is attached 
to an arm on the piston- 
rod ; the rod is fitted with 
set nuts or tappets for ad- 
justing the action of the 
four -way cock. In the 
outlet port of the four-way 
cock is a setscrew, l, by 
which the area of passage 
of that port can be dimi- 
nished, and the water re- 
tarded to any desired ex- 
tent in its escape from the 
cylinders, F V, and thus 
the motion of the valve, D, 
regulated, o is the at- 
tachment to the feeder. On 
the water-main, ii, is a 
large ordinary stop-cock, 
si, to which is attached a 
lever, n, and rod, s, con- 
nected with the reservoir of 
wind, p, at such a position 
that when the reservoir is 
full, the cock, ji, is closed, 
and the engine at rest; but 
when the reservoir descends 
by the exhausting of the 
air, the cock, m, is opened 
by the weight, R, and the 
engine is set in motion. 
Fig. 1 shows the normal 
position of the engine when 
the water is turned on, 
and the reservoir full ; the 
engine then moves only at 
an extremely slow speed, 
sufficient to supply the leakage of wind through the material of the reservoir. 
The moment wind is abstracted from the reservoir, its depression opens the cock, 
m, and the engine is set in motion with a speed proportioned to the amount of 
the exhaustion. Thus the supply of wind is always in exact proportion to the 
demand, and overblowing and unsteadiness, as in hand blowing, are entirely 
prevented. 

The peculiarities of the engine are, having a motion of the valve, which can 
be regulated as to speed, so as perfectly to prevent any shocks from the water at 
the change of stroke, whatever may be the pressure of the water used ; and also 
a motion of the valve, which can leave no possibility of a dead point, however 
slowly the engine may be required to work. By reference to the drawings it 
will be seen that the four-way cock, I, receives a complete motion from the 

* Paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 




The Artizajt, "] 
March 1 , 1858. J 



Description of Blowing Engine and New Rolling Mill. 



61 



piston rod prior to the valve, d (upon which the action of the engine depends), 
having any motion j hence the motion of the valve, d, is ensured after the piston 
has completed its stroke. We have therefore even theoretically an engine 
moved by a non-elastic fluid, without the assistance of momentum, but without 
a dead point. 

The principles of the engine being settled, and a perfect action obtained, it 
was still found that the need for gTeasing the slide valve, though required only 
once per month, was a detriment ; and the next object was to remove even this 
necessity, and to produce a machine which would require absolutely no atten- 
tion. Various metals of different degrees of hardness were tried in conjunction ; 




Fig- 4 —Sectional Plan. 

also various methods of ensuring the lubrication or moistening of the rubbin°- 
surfaces ; but the metals were always found ultimately to rub "dry, and bite or 
cut into one another. All this pointed to the necessity for a variety of mate- 
rial in the rubbing surfaces— say metal upon some totally different substance. 
The paper read before the Institution last year on " Wood Bearings " as applied 
to the screw shafts of steamers at once suggested wood as the required mate- 
rial ; and after two attempts at proportioning the valve, a completely satisfac- 
tory result was obtained. Glass was also tried at the suggestion of one of the 
members of the Institution, but was found to wear much more rapidly than 
wood. Specimens of the various kinds of valves are exhibited, and an engine 
sufficiently open to allow of examination of its. parts. There is also one at work 
applied to the large organ at the Art Treasures Exhibition. 

The above are only the results of numerous and varied experiments • and it 
would be impossible here to detail the trains of idea and experiment winch led 
to these results, or individually to acknowledge the assistance rendered by those 
who have examined the engine or assisted in its construction. 

DESCRIPTION OE THE LARGE BLOWING ENGINE AND NEW 
ROLLING MILL AT DOWLAIS IRON WORKS. * 

By Mr. William Menelaus, of Dowlais. 
(Illustrated by Plate cxx.) 

The large blowing engine and rolling mill forming the subjects of the pre- 
sent Paper are remarkable particularly for their great size, the blowing eno-ine 
being the largest of its class hitherto erected, either in this country or abroad • 
and were designed with a view to turning out a large quantity of •work with' 
the greatest possible security from risk of failure, or deficiency of the blast, or 
of breakage of the machinery. 

The blowing engine was erected in 1851, and is shown in Figs. 1 2 and 3 
Plate cxx. Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the engine, and Fig. 2 an end elevation! 
.rig. 3 is an enlarged vertical section of the blowing cylinder. 

The blowing cylinder, a, is 144 in. diameter with a stroke of 12 ft., making 

* Paper read before tbe Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



twenty double strokes per minute; the pressure of the blast being 3jlbs. per 
square inch. The discharge pipe, b, is 5 ft. diameter and about 140 yards long, 
thus answering the purpose of a regulator. The area of the entrance air valves 
is 56 sq. ft., and of the delivery air valves, 16 sq. ft. The quantity of air 
discharged at the above pressure is about 44,000 cubic ft. per minute. 

The steam cylinder, c, is 55 in. diameter, and has a stroke of 13 ft., with a 
steam pressure of 60 lbs. per square inch, and working up to 650 H.P. The 
steam is cut off when the piston has made about one-third of its stroke, by 
means of a common gridiron valve, D, near the back of the slide valve, e, as 
shown enlarged in Figs. 4 and 5, Plate cxx. ; there is also on one side of the 
nozzle a small separate slide vale, f, for moving the engine by hand when 
starting. The cylinder ports are 24 in. wide by 5 in. long, and the slide valve, 
E, has a stroke of 11 in. with J-in. lap. The engine is non-condensing, and 
the steam is discharged into a cylindrical heating tank, 7 ft. diameter and 36 ft. 
long, containing the feed water from which the boilers are supplied. Under 
the steam cylinder, c, there are about 75 tons of cast iron framing, G, and 
10,000 cubic ft. of limestone walling in large blocks, some of them weighing 
several tons each. 

The beam, H, is cast in two parts of about 16j tons each, the total weight 
upon the beam gudgeons being 44 tons; it is 40 ft. 1 in. long from outside centre 
to outside centre, and is connected to the crank on the flywheel shaft, I, by an 
oaken connecting rod, K, strengthened from end to end by wrought iron straps. 
The beam is supported by a wall, l, across the house, 7 ft. thick, built of dressed 
limestone blocks, to which the pedestals, m, are fastened down by twelve screw 
bolts of 3 in. diameter. The flywheel, I, is 22 ft. diameter, and weighs about 
35 tons. 

Eight Cornish boilers are employed to supply the steam, each 42 ft. long and 
7 ft. diameter, made of T ! g-in. best Staffordshire plates, and having from end 
to end a single 4-ft. tube, in which is the firegrate, 9 ft, long. 

For some time this engine supplied blast to 8 furnaces of large size, varying 
from 16 ft. to 18 ft. across the boshes; it is now blowing, with three other 
engines of small dimensions, 12 furnaces, some of which make upwards of 
235 tons of good forge pig iron per week, the weekly make of the 12 furnaces 
being about 2,000 tons of forge pig iron. With the exception of the cylinders, 
made and fitted at the Perran Foundry, Truro, this engine and boilers were 
made at the Dowlais Iron Works, and erected according to the design, and 
under the superintendence of Mr. Samuel Truran, the Company's engineer. 

The engines for driving the new rolling mill now in course of erection at the 
same works, are a pair of high pressure engines, coupled at right angles, shown 
in Figs. 6 and 7, Plate cxx. Fig. 6 is a side elevation, and Fig. 7, an end 
elevation of the engines. Fig. 11, Plate cxx., is a general plan of the rolling 
mill to a smaller scale. 

The steam cylinder, c, is 45 in. diameter with a stroke of 10 ft., making 
24 double strokes per minute. Each cylinder has a common slide valve of brass 
worked by an eccentric on the main shaft. The expansion valves are of the 
gridiron sort, worked by a cam on the main shaft, the steam being cut off at 
about one-third of the stroke ; an arrangement is made for throwing these 
valves out of gear when the engines are doing heavy work. Each engine is 
furnished with a small slide valve to be worked by hand for the purpose of 
starting and reversing. The steam is supplied by six Cornish boilers, 44 ft. long 
and 7 ft. diameter, having a 4-ft. tube in each; the whole of the plates are best 
Staffordshire, -fg-in. thick, and the total weight is 120 tons. 

The framing, g, under the engines and machinery, is of cast iron, and consists 
of four lines, each 75 ft. long, 12 ft. high, and 21 in. wide ; the whole weighing 
about 850 tons. 

Each beam, h, is in two parts, the sides weighing about 17 tons, making the 
total weight of each beam, when complete, about 37 tons. The two beams are 
supported upon eight columns, L, 24 ft. long and 2| ft. diameter, securely 
fastened at the bottom in deep jaws cast upon the framing. Upon the top of 
each group of four columns is a large and heavy entablature plate, n, which 
carries the plummer blocks, m, under the main gudgeons. Each column passes 
through the entablature, the bosses at the junction being 24 in. deep ; these are 
bored and the tops of the columns turned so as to ensure a perfect fit. The 
plummer blocks, m, are secured by wrought-iron keys in jaws cast on the 
entablature, N, in the usual manner.^ The connecting rods, K, are of oak, with 
wrought-iron straps. 

The driving-wheel shaft, I, is of cast iron, with bearings 24 in. diameter; the 
flywheel shaft, o, is also of cast iron, with bearings, 21 in. diameter. The 
diameter of the driving wheel is 25 ft. to the pitch line ; width on the face, 
27 in., and pitch, 7 in. The diameter of the spur wheel or pinion on the fly- 
wheel shaft is 6 ft., and the teeth are strengthened by a flange running up to 
their points on each side. The flywheel, o, on the mill shaft, is 21 ft. diameter, 
and weighs about 30 tons, making upwards of 100 revolutions per minute. The 
whole of the fastenings, both of the wheels and framing, are of dry oak and iron 
wedges, as shown enlarged in Figs. 8, 9, and 10, Plate cxx. 

These engines will drive one rail mill capable of turning out 1,000 tons of rails 
per week, another mill capable of making 700 tons of rails or roughed-down per 
week, and one bar or roughing-down mill capable of making 200 tons per week ; 
they will thus readily turn out 2,000 tons of iron per week. Two blooming 
mills, with three high rolls and two hammers, will also be worked by the same 
engines. The saws and small machinery will be driven by separate engines, as 
will also the punching and straightening machines. 

The roofs cover a space of 240 ft. by 210 ft., and are to be covered with 
corrugated black plates of No. 14 wire gauge thickness. The span is 50 ft., the 
roofs being supported upon lattice girders of an average length of 45 ft. The 
position of the columns is shown on the ground plan, Fig. 11, Plate cxx. ; and 
it will be observed that the entire mill floor is free from obstruction. The 
flooring will be of cast-iron plates, 1 in. thick. 

It has long been felt that the power of rolling wrought iron of large section 
and great lengths has not kept pace with the requirements of engineers, who 
are hampered in their designs by the impossibility of obtaining iron of suf- 



62 



Description of Improved Machinery for Rounding, tyc, Wood. 



|" Tin; Aktizam, 
I March I, 1858. 



fieient dimensions. For engineering works of any magnitude, bars of great 
length, considerable width, and moderate thickness, are frequently required. 
In the ordinary mode of rolling, the length and width of the bar are measured 
by the power of the engine and the time occupied in rolling. It is obvious, that 
to finish a bar quickly, it is necessary that it should be rolled in two directions 
to prevent delay : and long and heavy bars can be thus rolled only by an engine 
of enormous power. This object is designed to be attained by the large com- 
bined engines now described. A simple arrangement of rolls for working in 
two directions, is shown in Pigs. 12, 13, and 14, Plate cxx. ; the lower pair of 
rolls, P, is driven from the flywheel shaft ; and, under ordinary circumstances, 
will be worked in the usual manner, rolling the bars in one direction and lifting 
them over the top roll in coming back. When it is necessary to make extra 
sized bars, the rolls, li R, will be put in the standards, and driven from the fly- 
wheel shaft by the pair of wheels, s .s, Fig. (i, Plate cxx., thus giving the 
means of working the iron in both directions, as shown by the arrows. By 
this arrangement the mill is expected to be able to roll iron of such sections and 
lengths as have been hitherto unattainable. 



DESCRIPTION OF IMPROVED MACHINERY FOR ROUNDING, 

SURFACING, AND SHAPING WOOD.* 

By Mr. Joseph W. Wilson, of Hanbury. 

The grettt variety of articles of a cylindrical form which are manufactured 
in wood, and the inefficiency of the common wood lathe in turning long lengths, 
the trouble and time required for keeping it in working order, and for fixing 
and adjusting tools for turning, surfacing or planing wood, led the writer to 
endeavour to improve the machinery at present employed ; and the improve- 
ments that he has made, with the results obtained from them, form the subject 
of the present Paper. 

The machine first to be described is the rounding machine, shown in Figs. 1, 
2, and 3, which is in use at the Timber Works, Banbury. The timber, A, 
to be rounded is prepared for the machine by being sawn into a rectan- 
gular form of any required length. It is fed through the grooved self-acting 
weighted rolls, i b, which advance it towards the revolving face-plate, c, 



WOOD SHAPING MACHINERY.— Hounding Machine. 
Fig. 1. — Side Elevation (part Section.) 



Pig. 2.— End Elevation. 



Fig. 3. — Transverse Section. 



if fiSti fen 

# A 




on which the rounding tools, u e, arc fixed. When rounded, it passes through 
the wrought-iron case-hardened die, f, which keeps it perfectly steady for 
the cut. In this manner it passes through the tubular head'stock, G, to 
which the face-plate, c, is attached, and is then taken between two endless 
chains, II H, which pass over wheels and rollers, and are impelled in the same 
direction as the feeding-rollers, b b, and at the' same speed. The links of the 
chains are hollowed out and lined with leather to preserve the finished wood 
from any impress. The chains are weighted, and are for the double purpose of 
pulling the tail end of the wood through the die, f, after it leaves the feeding- 
rolls, b, and keeping it from turning round, which the friction and slight com- 
pression during its transit through the die are likely to cause it to do at that 
time. 

In rounding hard woods, the friction in the die is much increased ; and the 
heat thus generated is dispersed in the following manner :— A tubular receptacle 
constantly supplied with compressed air, the temperature of which is lowered 
as much as possible, is connected with the rounding machine by a small pipe, 

* Paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



and a constant stream of air is allowed to play upon the die; this, by its 
expansion, absorbs a large amount of heat from the over-heated die. 

Figs 4 and 5 are a side elevation and front view enlarged of the face-plate, cy 
showing the form and position of the rounding tools, which consist of a cylin- 
drical gouge, b, and a paring tool, e, in the shape of a disc of steel with one 
bevelled edge. At the commencement of the writer's experiments the face-plate 
was supplied with a set of gouges and chisels of the usual form, lapping over 
the work as in the ordinary turning of soft woods ; by this arrangement only, 
one portion of the edges of the gouges and chisels acted upon the wood, and it 
was found that after paring 7,080 ft. of circumferential length, or producing, 
only 80 ft. run of rounded wood, they required to lie taken out, sharpened, and 
reset, involving a great waste of time and steel. By the use of the new cylin- 
drical gouge, D, and paring disc, E, these difficulties have been completely 
obviated by the writer. Figs. 4 and 5 show the position of the tools, and the 
manner in which they are fixed on the face-plate, c. The gouge, D, which is 
placed a little in advance of the paring disc, is 2 in. internal diameter, and is 
sharpened from the outside; it is held in a strong wrought-iron standard, I, 
wluch admits of its being turned round at will. The paring disc, e, is fixed on 
a spindle, supported on the centres, J J, which allow of adjustment. By turn- 



T»B Artizan, 
March 1, J858. 



Description of Improved Machinery for Rounding, SfC, Wood. 



63 



ing these tools round in the slightest degree when the working edge becomes circumference is made available ; they will work without being sharpened 
blunt, an entirely new edge is presented to the work, and the whole of their | for 12 or 15 hours. When they require a new edge, they are placed on a spindle 



Pig. 7.— Plan. 



T\«. 8.— Section of Spindle and Guide. 




rotating at a high speed, and ground up by stone and oil slip in the ordinary 
manner. 

The headstock of the rounding machine makes about 1,200 revolutions per 
minute, and the yield of rounded stuff is from 2,000 to 3,000 ft. run in a day 
of 10 hours. This machine has up to the present time been employed in the 
manufacture of broom and mop stails, umbrella sticks, &c. Each of the 
machines produces from 500 to GOO broom stails in 10 hours. 

After leaving the rounding machine, the sticks are taken to , the heading 
machine, which imparts a hemispherical form to one end. Figs. 6 and 7 
show a side elevation and plan of the heading machine. It consists of a 
hollow spindle, A, shown enlarged in Fig. 8, revolving in two bearings, b b, 
driven by a pulley, c, in the ordinary manner. Extending from the end facing, 
the operator is a semicircular guide, d, grooved with adjustable V grooves, like 
those of an ordinary slide rest, but following' the curve of the circle. In these 
grooves works a sliding quadrant, E, to which is attached a box for holding the 
foot of the tool, f ; at the back of the sliding quadrant, E, is a rack, gearing 
into a pinion kej r ed on to a small spindle, G, also hollow, which is fitted into 
the main spindle, A, of the machine. At the other end of the inner spindle, G, 
is placed the friction-wheel, H, by tightening which the sliding quadrant, e, is 
caused to follow the curve of the semicircular guide, d, towards the centre, or 
outwards, as desired. By the action of springs, the cutter, f, has a tendency 
to remain as far from the centre of the spindle as possible, or at the extremity 
of the guide, d. When an amount of friction is applied to the friction-wheel, n , 
sufficient to overcome the elasticity of the springs, the tool, f, gradually moves 
towards the centre, describing a quarter of a circle in the guide, d, whilst the 
whole is rapidly revolving'. 



64 



Royal Institution of Great Britain 



tTim Artizak, 
March 1,1808. 



The wood to be headed is held in a wooden slip, I, which keeps it perfectly 
steady. A small mandrel, J, with its front end pointed, passes through the 
inner spindle, G ; this is advanced at pleasure by the wheel, k, acting on a 
screw, and the front point is placed a little behind the line of motion to be 
described by the tool. The tool, F, is then fixed at the proper radius from the 
centre line of the spindle, and the wood to be headed is pushed through the die 
or clip, i, against the advanced point of the mandrel, j, which assists in its 
support. As soon as the friction lever is applied to the wheel, h, the tool, F, 
moves gradually along the guide, D, towards the centre, and completes the 
heading. 

The machine is made to take in any rounded section of wood up to 2^ in. 
diameter ; a boy can head with ease three or four sticks per minute. 

An octagoning machine, for giving an octagonal tapered form to pieces of 
wood of various sizes, is shown in Figs. 9 and 10. Four of the pieces of 
wood, A A, sawn as nearly the required size and shape as is convenient, are 
fixed on a sliding plate, b, between a set of steel centres, c c, at one end, and 
forks fixed in spindles, d d, at the other, the spindles being geared together, so 
that all can be turned simultaneously by a lever. Four long cutters, of the 
section shown enlarged in Fig. 11, are fixed on a horizontal transverse shaft, E, 
and caused to revolve with rapidity transversely across the four pieces of wood, 
thus taking off the corners of the square, as the plate, B, is advanced by the 
screw, f, placed underneath. The plate, b, is supported on two pins in a line 
with the centres of the pieces of wood, working in grooves, g, In the frame ; 
this keeps the smaller end of the tapered wood of a uniform size, while by 
raising or depressing the other end of the plate, B, by the interposition of 
different thicknesses of wrought iron to act as ways on which the tail end of 
the plate may work, the size of the larger end is altered as required, If the 
ways are irregular or varied in their form, the same variation in form will be 
imparted to the pieces of wood in the machine. As soon as one face is cut, by 
causing the spindles to make an eighth of a revolution, another surface is 
exposed to the cutters. This machine will octagon at the rate of three pieces 
of wood per minute. 

A conical rounding machine, for forming conical pieces of wood, such 
as handles of painters' brushes, oak trenails for railways, &c, 'is shown in 
Figs. 12 and 13. It consists of an upright revolving shaft, h, supplied with 
a driving-fork, fitted into a hollow spindle, I, with a feather to allow of its 
being raised or lowered at pleasure by the lever, K. Lower down, but in the 
same centre line with the shaft, H, is a mandrel, l, turned to the same shape 
as the required piece of wood. The head of the mandrel, h, is made to fit to 
a cast-iron cylinder, m, on the top of which is fixed the face-plate, N, carrying 
slides, o, fitted with cylindrical or other gouges, according to the nature of the 
work. The gouges are advanced by levers, r, the lower extremities of which 
press upon the mandrel, h ; and the face-plate is raised or lowered by means 
of the small rack and pinion, r. 

The action of the machine is a follows : — The face-plate, N, being lowered, 
the small end of the wooden cone, s, is placed in a cup at the head of the 
mandrel, h, and the other fixed on the revolving fork, h. The mandrel is 
then turned partly round, which allows the ends of the direction levers, P, to 
slip into grooves formed longitudinally in the mandrel, and causes the tools to 
open or fly apart. The face-plate is then raised as high as the top of the wooden 
cone, and the mandrel is turned so as to place the extremities of the lever on its 
conical surface; and as the face-plate is again lowered, the tools are drawn 
nearer together, and turn the piece of wood to the desired shape. The revolv- 
ing spindle, h, is then raised to release the work, and the process is repeated 
with another piece of wood. 

The machines above described have been designed with the object of turning 
out a large quantity of work with great economy and despatch, by the use of 
tools that will work through the entire day, without the delay and expense 
arising from having them constantly sharpened, and requiring the attendance 
of a mere boy to supply the material and shift the cutters from time to time, 
so as to bring a fresh portion of the cutting edge into action. The cylindrical 
gouges and disc paring tools used in the rounding machine are proved by 
experiment to be applicable to the surfacing or planing as well as the rounding 
of timber ; and it is not unlikely that their use might be advantageous in the 
working of other materials. 



ROYAL INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

January 29, 1858. 

Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, Bart, D.C.L., F.R.S., Vice-President , in the Chair. 

William Robert Grove, Esq., Q.C., V.P.R.S., 

ON MOLECULAR IMPRESSIONS BY LIGHT AND ELECTRICITY. 

The term molecule is used in different senses by different authors : by some 
it is employed with the same meaning as the word atom, i.e., to signify an ulti- 
mate indivisible particle of matter ; by others to signify a definite congeries of 
atoms forming an integral element of matter, somewhat as a brick may be said 
to be a congeries of particles of sand, but u structural element of a house. 

The term is used this evening to signify the particles of bodies smaller than 
those having a sensible magnitude, or only as a term of contradistinction from 
masses. If there be any distinctive characteristic of the science of the present 
century as contrasted with that of former times, it is the progress made in 
molecular physics, or the successive discoveries which have shown that when 
ordinary ponderable matter is subjected to the action of what were formerly 
called the imponderables, the matter is molecularly changed. The remarkable 
relations existing between the physical structure of matter, and its effect upon 
heat, light, electricity, magnetism, &c, seems, until the present century, to 
have attracted little attention : thus, to take the two agents selected for this 
evening's discourse, Light and Electricity, how manifestly their effects depend 
upon the molecular structure of the bodies subjected to their influence ? Carbon 



in the form of diamond transmits light but stops electricity. Carbon in the 
form of coke or gnaphite, into which the diamond may be transformed by heat, 
transmits' electricity but stops light. All solid bodies which transmit light 
freely, or are transparent, are non-conductors of electricity, or may be said to 
be opaque to it; all the best conductors of electricity, as black carbon and the 
metals, are opaque or non-conductors of light.* Bodies which have a peculiar 
but definite and symmetrical structure, such a9 crystals, affect, light definitely 
and in strict relation to their structure : witness the effects of polarized light 
on crystals : and there are not wanting instances of similar relations between 
the structure of bodies and their transmission of electricity. 

The converse of this class of effects, however, forms more properly the sub- 
ject of this evening's communication, viz., the changes in the molecular struc- 
ture of matter produced by Light and Electricity. The effect of light on plants, 
on their growth and color, the bleaching effects of light on coloured bodies, the 
phosphorescence of certain substances by insolation or exposure to the sun, 
have long been known, and yet do not seem to have awakened in the minds of 
the ancient natural philosophers any notion of the general molecular effects of 
light. Leonard Euler alone conceived that light may be regarded as a move- 
ment or undulation of ordinary matter ; and Dr. Young, in answer, stated as a 
most formidable objection, that if this view were correct, all bodies should pos- 
sess the properties of solar phosphorus, or should be thrown into a state of 
molecular vibration by the impact of light, just as a resonant body is thrown 
into vibration by the impact of sound, and thus give back to the sentient organ 
an effect similar to that of the original impulse. 

In the last edition of his Essay on the "Correlation of Physical Forces," 
(1855, p. 131), Mr. Grove has made the following remarks on this question: 
" To the main objection of Dr. Young that all bodies would have the properties 
of solar phosphorus if light consisted in the undulations of ordinary matter, it 
may be answered that so many bodies have this property, and with so great 
variety in its duration, that non constat all may not have it, though tor a time 
so short that the eye cannot detect its duration ; the fact of the phosphorescence 
by isolation of a large number of bodies is in itself evidence of the matter of 
which they are composed being thrown into a state of undulation, or at all 
events molecularly affected by the impact of light, and is therefore an argument 
in support of the view to which objection is taken." The above conjecture lias 
been substantially verified by the recent experiments of M. Niepce de St. Victor, 
of which the following is a short rtsumt : — 

An engraving, which has been for some time in the dark, is exposed to sunlight 
as to one half, the other half being covered by an opaque screen : it is then 
taken into a dark room, the screen removed, and the whole surface placed in 
close proximity to a sheet of highly sensitive photographic paper. The portion 
upon which the light has impinged is reproduced on the photographic paper, 
while no effect is produced by the portion which had been screened from light. 
White bodies produce the greatest effect, black little or none, and colours inter- 
mediate effects. 

An engraving exposed as before, then placed in the dark upon white paper, 
conveys the impression to the latter, which will in its turn impress photographic 
paper. 

Paper, in a tin case, exposed to sunlight, then covered up by a tin cover will, 
when opened in the dark, radiate from the aperture phosphorescent force, and 
produce a circular mark on the photographic paper, and even impress on the 
latter the lines of an engraving interposed between it and the photographic 
surface. 

Phosphorescent bodies produce similar effects in a greater degree, and bodies 
which intercept the phosphorescent effect intercept the invisible radiations. A 
design drawn by a fluorescent substance, such as a solution of sulphate of 
quinine on paper, is reproduced, the design being more strongly impressed than 
the residual parts of the paper. 

Mr. Grove had little doubt that had the discourse been given in the summer 
instead of mid-winter, he could have literally realised in this theatre the Lagado 
problem of extracting sunbeams from cucumbers ! 

While fishing in the autumn, in the gTounds of M. Seguin, at Fontenay, Mr. 
Grove observed some white patches on the skin of a trout, which he was satisfied 
had not been there when the fish was taken out of the water. The fish having 
been rolling about in some leaves at the foot of a tree, gave him the notion thai 
the effect might be photographic, arising from the sunlight having darkened 
the uncovered, but not the covered portions of the skin. With a fresh fish a 
serrated leaf was placed on each side, and the fish laid down so that the one side 
should be exposed, the other sheltered from light : after an hour or so the fish 
was examined, and a well defined image of the leaf was apparent on the upper 
or exposed side but none on the under or sheltered side. There was no oppor- 
tunity of further experiment ; but there seems little doubt of the effect being 
photographic, or an oxidation or deoxidation of the tissue determined by light. 

Many important considerations might be suggested as deducible from the above 
results, as to the influence of light, on health, both that of vegetables and 
animals. The effect of light on the healthy growth of plants is well known ; 
and it is generally believed that dark rooms, though well heated and ventilated, 
are more " close" or less healthy than those exposed to light. When we con- 
sider the invisible phosphorescence which must radiate from the walls and furni- 
ture, when we consider the effects of light on animal tissue, and the probable 
ozonizing or other minute chemical changes in the atmosphere effected by light, 
it becomes probable that it is far more immediately influential on the health of 
the animate world than is generally believed. 

The number of substances proved to be molecularly affected by light is so 
rapidly increasing, that it is by no means unreasonable to suppose that all 
bodies are in a greater or less degree changed by its impact. 

Passing now to the effects of Electricity, every day brings us fresh evidence 
of the molecular changes effected by this agent. The electric discharge alters 

* It should be borne in mind that these terms are not absolute, but only express a high 
degree of approximation. 



The Artizas, "I 
March 1, 1858. J 



Correspondence : On Calculating the Strength of Wrought Iron. 



65 



the constitution of many gases across which it is passed ; and it was shown, 
that by passing it through an attenuated atmosphere of the vapours of phos- 
phorus, this element is changed by the electric discharge into its allotropic 
variety, which is deposited in notable quantity on the sides of the receiver. In 
this experiment, the transverse bands or striae discovered by Mr. Grove, in 185*2, 
are very strikingly shown. Not only is the gaseous intermedium thus affected, 
but the terminals from which the discharge appears to issue are disintegrated, 
and their molecules projected. Some tubes, through the interior of which 
Mr. Gassiot had passed the discharge from Ruhmkorff's coil for a considerable 
time, were shown to be coated in the interior, for a notable space around the 
negative terminal, with a deposit of platinum, forming a reflecting surface like 
the back of a looking glass. The vacuum in these tubes was Torricellian, the 
tubes having been hermetically sealed after the descent of the mercury, so as 
to cut them off from the mercurial surface. In these'cases the electric discharge 
passes from metal to metal ; but the glow which is seen on excited electrics, 
such as glass, was also shown by Mr. Grove to be accompanied with molecular 
change. Letters cut in paper, and placed between two well-cleaned sheets of 
glass, formed into a Leyden apparatus by sheets of tin foil on their outer 
surfaces, and then electrified by connexion for a few seconds with a Ruhmkorff 
coil, had invisible images of the letters impressed upon the interior surfaces, 
which were rendered visible by breathing on them ; and rendered visible, and 
at the same time permanently etched, by exposure, after electrization, to the 
vapour of hydrofluoric acid. 

fc>o, again, if iodized collodion be poured over the surface of glass having the 
invisible image, and then treated as for a photograph, and exposed to uniform 
daylight, the invisible image is ultimately developed in the collodion film ; the 
invisible molecular change having been conveyed to the collodion, and rendering 
it, when nitrated, more sensitive to light in the parts where it has been in 
proximity to the electrical impression, than in the residual parts. Here we 
have a molecular change, produced first by electricity on the glass, then com- 
municated by the glass to the collodion, then changed in character by light, 
and all this time invisible ; and then rendered visible by pyrogallic acid, the 
developing chemical agent. Test papers between the plates of glass so elec- 
trized, show an acid, and also a bleaching re-action, probably due to the 
formation of nitrous acid and of ozone ; and thus evidencing a chemical 
change in the elastic intermedium, as well as in the bounding surfaces : but 
the interior molecules of the glass appear also to partake of the effect, as the 
impressions are reproduced in many cases on the opposite surface of the glass. 

Mr. Babbage had observed that some plates of glass which had formed the 
ornamented margin of an old looking-glass, and were backed by a design in 
gold leaf covered with plaster of Paris, showed, when this backing was removed 
by soft soap, an impression of the gold leaf device, which was rendered visible 
by the. breath on the glass. Some of the plates had been kindly lent by him for 
this evening ; and, in one, Mr. Grove had removed a portion of the backing, 
and the continuation of the gilded design came beautifully out by breathing on 
the glass while in the frame of the electric lamp, and was projected (as were 
the previous electrical images) on a white screen. The effect on Mr. Babbage's 
plates may be also electrical, arising from the gold — a good conductor — acting 
as platinum does in the voltaic battery, and setting up a chemical action 
between the substance used for making the gold adhere and the glass, or 
between the constituents of the glass itself; but it would be hazardous, without 
further experiment, to express any confident opinion on this point. 

Of the practical results to science of the molecular changes forming the 
subject of this evening's discourse, a beautiful illustration was afforded by the 
photographs of the moon by Mr. Warren De la Rue, which gave, by the aid of 
the electric lamp, images of the moon of six feet diameter, in which the details of 
the moon's surface were well defined, — the cone in Tycho, the double cone in 
Copernicus, and even the ridge of Aristarchus, could be detected. The bright 
lines, radiating from the mountains, were clear and distinct. A photograph of 
the planet Jupiter was also shown, in which the belts were very well marked, 
and the satellites visible. The following question was suggested by Mr. Grove. 
As telescopic power is known to be limited by the area of the speculum or 
object glass, even assuming perfect definition, as the light decreases inversely 
as the square of the magnifying power, a limit must be reached at which the 
minute details of an object become lost for want of light. Now, assuming 
a high degree of perfection in astronomical photographs, these may be il- 
luminated to an indefinite degree of brilliancy by adventitious light. With 
a given telescope, could a better effect be obtained by illuminating the photo- 
graphic image, and applying microscopic power to that, than by magnifying 
the luminous image in the usual way by the eye-glass of the telescope ? Can 
the addition of extraneous light to the photograph permit a higher magnifying 
power to be used with effect than that which can be used to look at the ima^e 
which makes the photographic impression ? In other words, is the photo- 
grapic eye more sensitive than the living eye ; or can a photographic recipient 
be found which will register impressions which the living eye does not detect 
but which, by increased light or by developing agents, may be rendered visible 
to the living eye ? Much may be said, pro and con, on this question, and it 
probably can only be satisfactorily answered by experiment, when photographic 
science is sufficiently advanced. 

The phenomena treated of this evening, which are a mere selection from a 
crowd of analogous effects, show that light, and electricity, in numerous cases 
produce a molecular change in ponderable matter affected by them. The 
modifications of the supposed imponderables themselves have long been the 
subjects of investigation; the recent progress of science teaches us to look for 
reciprocal effects on the matter affected by them. 

Gases which have transmitted light are altered ; as, for example, chlorine is 
rendered capable of combining directly with hydrogen; liquids are altered 
peroxalate of iron is chemically changed, aad gives off carbonic acid ; and the 
light which has produced these effects is less able to produce them a second 
time. Solids are altered, as shown in the extensive range of photographic 
effects. So with electricity,— compound gases are changed chemically as 



ammonia or atmospheric air ; elementary gases are changed allotropically, as 
phosphorus vapour, or oxygen ; liquids are changed, as in the decomposition of 
water and other electrolytes ; and solids are changed, as in the projection of 
the particles of the terminals, and the impressions on the surfaces of electrics, 
shown this evening. Few, indeed, if any, electrical effects, have not been 
proved to be accompanied with molecular changes ; and we are daily receiving 
additions to those produced by light. So, again, iron and other bodies have 
their molecular structure changed by magnetism. Chemical affinity is uni- 
versally, and heat generally, admitted to be a* affection of ordinary matter. 
Mr. Grove feels deeply convinced that a dynamic theory, one which regards 
the imponderables as forces acting upon ordinary matter in different states of 
density, or as modes of motion, and not as fluids or entities, is the truest con- 
ception which the mind can form of these agents ; but to those who are not 
willing to go so far, the ever-increasing number of instances of such molecular 
changes affords a boundless field of promise for future investigation, for new 
physical discoveries and new practical applications. 

The permanency of such changes also gives valuable means of reading, in 
the present state of matter, its past history; final or absolute knowledge on 
such subjects we cannot hope to obtain, but relative or approximate knowledge 
is as unlimited as is the degree of improvement in the powers attainable for its 
acquisition. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



WAVE-LINE SYSTEM OF SHIPBUILDING. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — Having read several articles in The Artizan on the "Wave-line 
system of Shipbuilding," I beg to add a few suggestions on the wave-line and 
hollow-bowed vessels in general. 

Now, I believe it to be generally acknowledged by naval architects, with the 
exception of Mr. Armstrong, and some few, that to acquire speed in steam- 
vessels, it is necessary to have a good length of bow, with a proportionate length 
of run aft, and a small area of midship section, and power in proportion to the 
Speed required. 

By having hollow load-lines in the bow and stern, as is the case with the 
Leviathan, and more particularly so with Mr. Scott Russell's Victoria and 
Adelaide (vessels belonging to the Australian Steam Navigation Company), it 
is necessary to increase the area and length of the midship section (and by so 
doing greatly increase the friction), and shorten the bow and stern, to get the 
required amount of displacement. Now, from this simple fact, it appears 
evident to me that a straight bow, or, at all events, one only slightly hollow at 
the extreme entrance (which I believe to be preferable), is the best adapted 
for speed. 

In the annexed diagram the straight bow is indicated by the solid, and the 
wave by the dotted, line. 




Haying met with those who are of a different opinion, I am desirous of laving- 
my view of the matter before the readers of The Artizan, with a view of 
entering into a discussion on the subject, as being one of interest and of 
immense utility to the shipbuilding profession ; for at present, shipbuilders have 
such various opinions, and many of them far beyond the limits of all reason. 

I am, Sir, your's truly, 

T. Smith, Naval Architect. 



FAIBBAIN'S EXPERIMENTS ON BOX AND PLATE BEAMS. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — I have read with some interest the letter of your correspondent " U." 
in The Artizan for February, and recognise in it a valuable resume of Mr 
Fairbairn's experiments on Box and Plate beams. Nothing can exhibit more 
clearly- than this letter the utter inadequacy of these experiments to furnish 
proper data for calculating the strength of wrought iron in either form. 

According to your correspondent's own showing, the sole experiment on box 
beams which gave a coefficient exceeding 2, was one numbered 5 and 25 in 
which the tube was only 1 in. wide and 8 in. deep, the proportions of top and 
bottom flange being as 100 : 1C2. An experiment on the model tube 75 ft. long 
in which the proportions of top and bottom were totally different ; namely as 
100 : 107, gave, according to him, a coefficient of 2-18, and from these two expe- 
riments it seems to me that your correspondent boldly ventures to deduce a 
coefficient of 2 for all tubular girders. I can only repeat, Sir, that in my 
opinion these experiments are not sufficient to satisfy any careful candicl 
inquirer, nor to produce confidence in the use of tubular wrought-iron girders 

Your correspondent appears to be most delicately sensitive on the subject of 
Mr. Fairbaim's reputation for accuracy, but he seems to overlook entirely the 
wide difference between Mr. Fairbairn and himself. According to vour cor- 
respondent, the coefficient for small wrought-iron plate beams, unsupported 
laterally, is 1-5, which I have already abundantly shown is the very same 
coefficient as Mr. Fairbairn himself has established for cast-iron flanged girders 
of the Hodgkmson form. Hence a wrought-iron plate girder and a cast- 
iron Hodgkmson girder, to support the same weight, ought to have equal 
areas, and ought to weigh very nearly the same; but if your correspondent 



66 



Correspondence: Steam Ship Capability, 



r Tub Ahtizax, 
I. March 1, lS.M. 



will refer to Mr. Fail-bairn's book on the applicatiou of cast and wrought-iron 
(edition 1854, page 78), he will find him calculating that a wrought-iron plate 
bsam, to support 27j tons in the middle, would weigh only 1G cwt., whereas a 
cast-iron Hodgkinson beam to support the same weight must weigh 40 cwt., 
or 2§ times as much ! How can this be, if 1"5 is to be the coefficient for both 
kinds of beam? 

I could point out many more inconsistencies between your correspondent 
and Mr. Fairbairn, but I refrain from doing so, as I am satisfied with having 
directed attention to the fact that our knowledge is by no means perfect on 
the subject of wrought-iron beams ; nothing like so perfect, for example, as 
that which we possess with reference to cast-iron — thanks to the valuable 
labours of Mr. Fairbairn and Mr. Eaton Hodgkinson. 

Your correspondent draws a comparison with Mr. Fairbairn's experiments 
on flanged east-iron beams, in order to show that the experiments on wrought- 
iron were as satisfactory as the former; but I cannot at all agree with his con- 
clusions in this matter. 

For example, he states the following coefficients for the wrought-iron box 
beams, as derived from the only two experiments which need be considered ; 
namely 

From experiment 5 28-0 

6 ,178 

Mean 23-2 

Now, as these experiments differ according to your correspondent's own 
figures more than 50 per cent., he surely cannot himself allege that they are 
satisfactory. 

But the coefficients for the cast-iron beams, using of course only those in 
which the beam had the proper proportions, were far more uniform and 
consistent. 

Thus the coefficient for flanges as 1 : 6, was 1"597 

„ „ 1 : 6-73 1-402 

„ „ 1 :6-72 1'522 

Mean 1-507 

or, in round numbers, the mean is 1-5. I think it will now be seen that these 
experiments are a little more satisfactory than those on wrought iron. 

The last coefficients quoted by your correspondent are useful and suggestive. 
He makes the coefficient for small plate beams, unsupported laterally, actually 
no greater than for the best form of Hodgkinson beam in cast iron, whilst in 
the very strongest form into which human ingenuity has yet been able to 
fashion wrought iron, its strength is only one-third more than that of the best 
form in cast iron. Are these to be considered satisfactory results, and am I 
not justified in saying that our knowledge is still very imperfect as to the com- 
parative strength of wrought and cast iron ? 

And now, Sir, let me assure the readers of The Artizak, and your corres- 
pondent in particular, that I yield to none in admiration of Mr. Fairbairn ; and 
that no one can appreciate more highly than I do the valuable services which 
he has rendered to engineering science and to the commercial enterprise of the 
present day, by his excellent and practical researches into the strength of iron ; 
at the same time the experiments of Mr. Fairbairn are public property — to be 



used and applied for public and highly important purposes — and I have only 
been performing a proper and legitimate duty in calling attention to particulars 
in which 1 consider them defective. In fact, the importance of the subject, and 
the serious consequences which would follow any error, must form a sufficient 
apology for doing so. 

As to the more immediately personal observations relating to myself in 
jour correspondent's letter, I am not aware that they require any reply or com- 
ment from me. A small error which he refers to in one of my calculations is 
so obscurely alluded to, that I have not been able to find it out, but shall be. 
happy to correct it if I come across it in a future revision. In conclusion, I am 
glad to see that " U " appears to recognise the propriety of my proposal to use 
a coefficient which applies to tjie whole areaofthe girder, instead of the bottom 
flange only. I am, Sir, 

14, Prirlt Street, Westminster, S.W., Your very obedient servant, 

February, 1858. Samuel Hughes. 



STEAM SHIP CAPABILITY. 

To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — The practical application and utility of various papers on "Steam 
Ship Capability," which have appeared in The Artizan, have been very fairly 
challenged, by being put to the test of approximately determining beforehand 
what will be the speed and capability for sea service of that unprecedented 
vessel the Leviathan, now afloat, and expected in a few months to commence 
her career. Speculative opinion has been rife on this subject. The type of build 
of the Leviathan is said to be that of the Wave Line system, which is asserted 
by some to be so peculiarly adapted for easy propulsion, that even 25 knots 
per hour has been quoted as the probable speed of the Leviathan when pro- 
pelled by the maximum power which her engines of 2,000 nominal H.P. may 
be expected to develop ; and as to the capability of the Leviathan for sea 
service, it has been affirmed that this ship, propelled at the speed of 15 knots 
per hour, will be capable of making the passage from England to Calcutta and 
back without re-coaling abroad, thus obviating the extra cost of coaling at a 
foreign station. I have had some experience of what is termed the Wave Line type, 
but I am not aware of any realised statistical data of steam-ship performance 
on which the above-mentioned assumptions as to the probable capability of the 
Leviathan can be based. Truly, in this age of remarkable events in practical 
science, no man can presume to limit the yet unknown eventualities of the 
future ; but still it is admissible for any man to question published statements, 
especially if mysterious, and advance counter statements, the results of calcula- 
tions based on the data of already-realised practice : and it is on these grounds 
that I now venture to present to your readers the following tabular statement 
as to what, in my opinion, may be expected to be the steaming capabilities of a 
vessel of the reputed size of the Leviathan, if put to work by the agency of 
appliances already known and already in operation with ascertained effect. My 
object in this procedure is not to advance a mere speculation as to the probable 
speed of the vessel in question, but to verify or refute the system of calculation 
which I have been instrumental in putting forward as a system of mercantile 
arithmetic, whereby the dimensions and engine power of steam-ships may be 
systematically adapted to the requirements of any special service : — 



Table, showing the Speed in Nautical Miles per Hour that may be expected to be realised by a Steam-ship, having Displacement corresponding to Draft 
as shown herein, the Vessel being propelled by Steam alone of the gradation of power shown in the respective Columns, and the Type of form of the 

Vessel being assumed such that the coefficient (C) of Dynamic merit resulting from the formula 1 __ J " u \ t = C,will he 215-5; which coefficient is 



said to be now commonly realised by Mercantile' Steamers. 



lnd. H.P. 



Indicated H.P. . . . 




1000 
37-5 


1500 
56 


2000 
75 


3000 
112-5 


4000 
150 


5000 
187-5 


6000 
225 


7000 
262-5 


8000 
300 


9000 
337-5 


10000 
375 


11000 
412-5 


12000 
450 


Draft. 
Feet. 
20 


Displacement. 
Tons. 
17,000 


N. M. 

6-88 
0-79 
C-71 • 

6-63 
6*55 

6-48 

6-41 
6-34 
6-28 

0-22 
6-16 


N. M. 

7-88 
7-77 
7-68 

7-59 
7-50 

7-42 

7-34 
7-26 
7-19 

7-12 
7-05 


X. M. 

8-67 
8-56 
8-46 

8-35 
8-26 
8-23 

8-08 
8-00 
7-91 

7-84 
7-76 


N. M. 

9-93 
9-80 
9-68 

9-56 
9-45 
9-35 

9-2-5 
9-15 
9-06 

8-97 
8-88 


N. M. 

10-92 
10-79 
10-05 

10-53 
10-41 
10-29 

10-18 
10-07 
9-97 

9-87 
9-78 


N. M. 

11-77 
11-62 
11-47 

11-34 
11-21 
11-08 

10-96 
10-85 
10-74 

10-63 
10-53 


N. M. 

12-51 
12-35 
12-19 

12-05 
11-91 
11-78 

11-65 
11-53 
11-41 

11-30 
11-19 


X. M. 

13-16 
13-00 
1284 

12-09 
12-54 
12-40 

12-27 
1214 
12-02 

11-90 
11-78 


>\ M. 

13-70 
13-59 
13-42 

13-26 
13-11 

12-96 

12-83 
12-69 
12-56 

12-44 
12-32 


N. M. 

14-32 
14-13 
13-96 

13-79 
13-63 
13-48 

13-34 
13-20 
13-07 

12-94 
12-81 


>'. M. 

14-83 
14-64 
14-40 

14-29 
14-12 
13-97 

13-82 
13-67 
13-53 

13-40 
13-27 


N. M. 

15-31 
1511 
14-92 

14-75 
14-58 
14-42 

14-26 
14-11 
13-97 

13-83 
13-70 


X. M. 

15-76 


21 

23 

24 

25 


18,010 

20,090 

21,160 

22,250 


15-55 
15-30 

1518 
15-01 
14-84 


26 


23,360 


14-68 


27 


24,490 


14-53 


28 




14-38 


29 . '. 


26,810 


14-24 


30 


28,000 


14-10 



By the foregoing Table, it is assumed that the engines, singly or collectively, 
will be capable of developing any amount, of power that may be required from 
1,000 up to 12,000 indicated H.P. ; that the consumption of coals will be at the 
rate of 3j lbs. per indicated H.P. per hour, or 37^ tons per day per 1,000 indi- 
cated H.P.; and that the displacement of the vessel will be 17,000 tons at 20 ft. 
draft, progressively increasing up to 28,000 tons at 30 ft. draft. Also, in the 
foregoing calculation, no notice has been taken of the effect of the wind; but 
assuming that at 22,250 tons displacement the vessel would sail, without the aid 
of steam, at the average rate of 6| knots per hour, the wind would thus give a 
power represented by 1,000 indicated H.P., which amount of sailing power 
v/ould scarcely give any appreciable increase of speed when the vessel is 



steaming at the high rate of 13, 14, and 15 knots per hour. In fact, it 
appears probable that a high speed steam service, say above 12 knots per hour, 
is, on the general average of sea service, retarded rather than accelerated by 
the action of the wind. 

Now, in the first place, it may be observed, that the increase of displacement 
(11,000 tons) from the 20 ft. draft to the 30 ft. draft, causes a reduction of speed 
of only about 10J per cent. Hence, with a given amount of working power, or with 
any given consumption of fuel per hour, the speed at sea during one voyage may 
be expected to be very nearly uniform, the extremes being within 5 per cent, 
of the mean, or but very little affected by the difference of displacement caused 
by the consumption of fuel; and the difference of average speed that may be 



The Artizas, "1 

Maj'irh 1, 1B58. J 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 



67 



observed, between any two voyages, when working with a given amount of 
power, will afford some indication of the amount of loss that may be occasioned 
by foulness of bottom. For example, if on one voyage the speed attained by 
10,000 indicated H.P. be 14 knots per hour, with a draft of say 25 ft., and on 
the succeeding voyage it be ouly 13 knots, with the same draft, the detriment 
from such cause will be about, equivalent to 2,000 indicated H.P., or an addi- 
tional 2,000 indicated H.P. would be required to attain the 14 knot speed. 
Further, as respects distance without re-coaling, assuming the quantity of 
coals taken on board to be 11,000 tons, being the entire displacement between 
the 20 and 30 ft. immersion, and the mean draft to be 25 ft., it appears that 
by workibg up to 10,000 indicated H.P., consuming probably 375 tons of coal 
.per day, the speed attained would be 13-97, say 14 knots per hour, the coals 
would last 30 days, and the distance steamed would be 10,000 nautical miles ; 
but if the working power be reduced to 7,000 indicated H.P., the speed may be 
expected to be 12-40 knots per hour, the consumption of coals would then 
"be probably 262£ tons per day, lasting 42 days, and the distance steamed 
would be 12,500 nautical miles, being about the distance from England to 
Calcutta. At the mean draught of 24 ft, with a mean displacement of 21,160 
tons, and the engines working up to 12,000 indicated H.P., the average 
speed of 15 knots would probably be attained, and the vessel may be expected 
to make a passage of 2,880 nautical miles in eight days. As regards the 
speed of 25 knots per hour being attained by a vessel of the mean dis- 
placement of 22,250 tons, propelled by engines working up to 12,000 indi- 
cated H.P., this performance would demand, by the formula above referred 
to, that the coefficient of dynamic merit should be no less than 1,050; whilst 
the best of modern ships produces by the rule referred to, a coefficient of only 
about 250. To believe that such an improvement will be all at once produced 
by any peculiarity in the type of form of the Leviathan, demands a power of 
credulity which I must confess that I do not possess. 

The future comparison of this table, with the speeds that may be actually 
realised by the Leviathan under the various conditions of displacement and indi- 
cated H.P. embraced by the table, will practically demonstrate the soundness or 
fallacy of the principles on which this system of steam-ship arithmetic is based, 
viz., that under all variations of power (the displacement and effective con- 
dition of the vessel and engines being constant), the cube of the speed multi- 
plied by the cube root of the square of the displacement, and the product 
•divided by the indicated H.P. (or by the consumption of fuel in a given time, i 
if it be in any constant ratio to the indicated H.P.) will produce a constant 
number or coefficient indicative of the dynamic merit of the ship ; and should 
this theory be approximately confirmed, we shall then have the means of defi- 
nitely comparing, by the coefficients thus deduced, the intrinsic dynamic merits 
of different types of ships, and estimating their capabilities as respects then- 
adaptation to all the various requirements of Mercantile Steam Transport 
Service. I am, Sir, 



Royal Dockyard, Woolwich, 
18th February, 1858. 



Yours, very obediently, 

Charles Atherton. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF BOOKS, March, 1858. 



[We regret that several of the following Reviews and Notices of Books were obliged to 
stand over until now, for want of space.] 

"The Engineer's and Contractor's Pocket Book for the year 1858. John 

Wcale, London. 

This valuable pocket book of reference for engineers and contractors has 
received a fair amount of revision and additions ; for, besides having a list of 
the officers and members of the Institution of Civil Engineers corrected 
to December 31, 1857, we observe a number of short papers upon various sub- 
jects of interest have been added; these are interspersed throughout the work. 
Previous to 1857, Mr. Weale had published his pocket book with the almanack 
and memoranda portions, together with the calendars for two years ; in the 
present volume we are glad to see that he has confined this portion of the work 
to one year only, which is, in our opinion, a considerable improvement, the 
book being less bulky, and may be more correctly designated a pocket book. 
The high reputation which Weale's Pocket Book has obtained amongst 
engineers, renders it a work of supererogation to do more than remind our 
readers of its publication for 1858. 

Projectile Weapons of War and Explosive Compounds. By J. Scoft'ern, 

M.B. Third Edition, pp. 30G. Longmans, London. 

This, the third edition of a valuable and well-known work of reference, 
which is to be found in the hands of every intelligent military officer and in all 
military libraries, has been dedicated by the author to the officers of the United 
States frigate Merrimack, as a compliment to them in acknowledgment of 
their hospitality and courteous reception extended by them to Dr. Scoffern, 
whilst making a scientific visit of inspection, to which reference is made in the 
volume. 

The first edition of this book was published about twelve years ago ; and it is 
a curious circumstance, which the author in his preface to the second edition 
relates respecting it, "that immediately on its being- announced for publication, 
the whole stock, with the exception of about a dozen copies, was purchased by 
the agent of a foreign state, and exported ;" how jealous must authors be of 
such a success, and who amongst them, does not wish such a fate may await 
the results of his literary labours; and what an amount of satisfaction it would 
afford to many a publisher of scientific books if he could but ensure a similar 
result for whatever might pass through his press ; and if a foreknowledge of 
such an event being- certain could only be acquired, how vastly would the 
number of copies worked off be increased ; seriously, however, this is not the 
common fate reserved for ordinary works. 

10 



The author has divided his work into twenty- two chapters, or divisions, the first 
being a history of the early implements of war ; next, a description of ancient 
artillery; then, a scientific dissertation on projectile forces, describing tranquil 
and explosive combustion; a history of the invention of gunpowder, and a de- 
scription of various explosive compounds; a short treatise on the application 
of gunpowder for military purposes; a descriptive chapter devoted to artillery 
projectiles ; a long and interesting chapter on war rockets ; a very short, but 
useful, chapter on gunpowder applied to military mining; a brief historical 
sketch of the employment of small fire arms ; another short chapter is devoted 
to the consideration of the variety of small arms employed at various time3 for 
war purposes, which, however, brings down the history of such military 
weapons only to 1853, and then refers to the practice' with Minnie rifle 
muskets. Polar projectiles and " Polar weapons " are next treated of in an 
able and scientific manner, in a short chapter devoted to their consideration; 
and the author, after defining the term polarity, as applied in the consideration 
of the subject under treatment, describes the shells used a few days ago in the 
attempt on the life of the Emperor of the French, as polar percussion shells. 
He says—" The shells exploded near the carriage of the French Emperor, 
January 14th, 1858, were ' polar percussion shells,' polarity being determined 
by making one end of the shell heavier than the other. They appear to have 
been made of cast steel, lathe turned; to have been cylindrical in the middle, 
each having two truncated conoidal extremities. The extremity of impact of 
each is screwed into the body ; the other extremity being slid in. Explosion 
was determined by twenty-five nipples, each primed with a percussion cap. 
The charge is said to have been fulminate of mercury. Such a missile would 
be inapplicable in a military sense." 

Thus it will be seen that the most novel of this class of missile has been 
described by the author. 

The chapter devoted to rifle guns describe the want of accuracy common to 
the flight of projectiles from smooth bore musket barrels, when the ordinary 
spherical bullet is employed ; the advantages of rifling are described ; the almost 
unvarying certainty or accuracy of the flight of elongated bullets from pro- 
perly rifled barrels is insisted upon ; and the necessary conditions to be observed 
in rifling the bore, and in proportioning the elongated bullet or projectile, are 
carefully considered. This chapter also treats of the use of the ordinary rifle 
with conoidal projectiles, which, the author informs us, the Americans have 
styled " pickets." He then proceeds, under the heading of the developments 
of the rifle gun, to notice Mr. Whitworth's labours, of which we regret to find 
the author does not appear to entertain any very high opinion ; and after 
noticing the Lancaster oval bore rifle, to which he devotes brief consideration, 
he treats of the inconvenience of muzzle loading rifles, and of the application of 
the expansive principle to such arms ; and after describing the various descrip- 
tions of bullets and small arms used in the British service in 1854, and the 
practical merits of each, he proceeds to describe the breech-loading principle 
and its application to various arms, and he sub-divides them into — first, the 
slide; second, the hinge; third, the screw and trap-door; and fourth, the re- 
volver system. In speaking of Colonel Green's cavalry carbine, under the first 
head, he says it is " as near a perfect weapon as can be imagined;" but with 
this opinion we entirely disagree. Under the second head is classed Sharp's 
American carbine, and describes the disadvantages of this weapon ; in these 
objections we entirely concur ; and as we know there is no absolute necessity 
for biting oft' or cutting off the ends of cartridges, nor for the introduction of 
any mechanical contrivance for puncturing, or for producing ignition by per- 
cussion within the cartridge, we have always been at a loss to understand why 
all those cumbrous, trouble-giving, and expensive contrivances have been con- 
sidered necessary, when, by a proper form of nipple, and a proper disposition of 
it on the breech, nothing else is required but a sufficiently strong priming in 
the percussion cap. Of the third description of breech-loading- weapons the 
author says nothing; whilst, under the fourth head, he treats of the revolver 
principle as applied to pistols, and gives a . decided preference to Adam's over 
Colt's ; and with a reference to the kinds of gunpowder best suited to rifle prac- 
tice, he ends this chapter of his w : ork. 

In writing- upon the subject of substitutes for gunpowder for the charge of 
arms, he refers to gun cotton, and the great danger to be apprehended from the 
use of its explosive- power in small arms. 

The next subject treated of is the formation of rifled cannons ; he then passes 
on to monster guns, and describes very accurately the construction of Mallet's 
monster mortar ; then he also gives the particulars of the monster wrought- 
iron gun constructed at the Mersey forge ; to these arc added the particulars of 
the monster mortar at Antwerp, the chamber of which was constructed to hold 
30 lbs. weight of powder, but this was ultimately burst with the charge of onlv 
19-845 lbs. of powder. 

To the bayonet the author devotes a short chapter; then follows an excellent 
chapter on novel appliances of war, which contains suggestions well worthy of 
serious consideration. 

With a chapter on the relative power of ships and fortresses; another on 
methods of sub-marine attack ; some suggestions on the best armament for a 
volunteer, and a few concluding remarks, the author finishes a work which 
does him credit ; and as a contribution to this branch of scientific literature, 
will doubtless be found of considerable practical value, embracing, as it does, 
every branch of the subjects of which he professes to treat. 

Abridgments of the Specif cations Relating to Marine Propulsion (exclud- 
ing Sails). Part 2. Published under the direction of the Commissioners 
of Patents. 

On reference to page 209 of The Artizan for 1857 (Vol. XV.), our readers 
will find a notice of part of this useful series of abridgments, and we can only 
add to the remarks then made by us, that the present part reflects credit on the 
compiler, Mr. John Macgregor, the eminent Patent Law Barrister. The 
present part gives the abridgments of the specifications relating to this subject 
from 1831 to the end of 1847; and it is proposed that Part 3 shall contain the 



68 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 



I" THB A.BTIZAK, 

L Mareli I, 1808. 



abridgments to the end of December, 1857, together with an index of names, 
and a subject matter index, referring to all three parts of the work. 

A Descriptive Catalogue of the Roch Specimens in the Museum of Prac- 
tical Geology, with Explanatory Notices of their Nature and Mode of 
Occurrence, and of the Places where they are Found. By Andrew C. 
Ramsay, F.R.S.; Henry W. Bristow, F.G.S. ; and Hilary Bauerman. 
Pp. 293. Eyre and Spottiswoode, London. 

This is an excellent handbook of the rock specimens to be found carefully 
selected and systematically arranged in the Jermyn Street Museum, and it 
will be found admirably to illustrate the branch of science to which it relates. 

The engineer and student in geology will find this catalogue a most valuable 
companion, not alone whilst inspecting the very beautiful and highly interest- 
ing collection referred to of specimens of the rocks of the British Isles, but 
the engineer will also find, when engaged in his study in projecting engineering 
works in any part of the British Isles, or whilst employed in any locality in 
the construction of works connected with railways, canals, harbours, mining, 
or even for bridge building, and, indeed, upon any kind of constructive 
works, a valuable aide ; and we have often heard it remarked, that it was 
much to be deplored that engineers, as a body, knew but little about local 
geology. Messrs. Ramsay, Bristow, and Bauerman, have acquitted themselves 
admirably in the performance of a task by no means either light or simple, 
to be of real practical utility. 

On Iron Ship Building, with Practical Illustrations. By John Grantham, 
C.E. London : John Weale. 

Second Notice. 
Mr. Grantham, in treating the subject of Iron Ship Building, does not 
attempt to discuss naval architecture, and the numerous debatable matters 
belonging thereto, and which might involve scientific investigations of a length 
and character which could only be fairly dealt with in a volume many times 
larger than the present work. We need only refer to the discussions which, for 
several years past, have occupied a considerable portion of space in The 
Artizan, involving a considerable amount of controversy, to understand 
why the author has confined himself strictly to the subject on which he under- 
took to write. He says, at pp. 2, 3 : — 

It was not the intention in this paper to advance anything on tiie subject of naval archi- 
tectures, per se, or to discuss the comparative merits of the forms of ships, further than as it 
is thought that iron is more or less suitable to carry out certain known principles, or as it 
may be the means of raising the character of our merchant shipping, long enthralled by an 
absurd system of registry laws. 

In a work like this, intended for the perusal of all classes interested in the advancement 
of this peculiarly national subject, it would be unwise to encumber it with mathematical 
investigations or dry arguments, in attempts to prove the various positions herein assumed. 
I aim at nothing more than its practical and popular features, and will appeal only to expe- 
rience and common sense. The leading object is to communicate to others that knowledge 
which has been gained by upwards of thirty years of observation, and to promote a branch 
of practical science destined to occupy a very important place in the future trade of this 
country; and to give Great Britain a pre-eminence in the construction of our merchant 
shipping, which a few jears ago, it seemed not improbable, would be transferred to other 
countries. 

The author then proceeds to refer to the various changes which have taken 
place in connection with the science of navigation and the sciences in co-re- 
lation with it ; and after claiming for Great Britain that pre-eminence to which 
we are so justly entitled in connection with this branch of science and industry, 
he says : — 

The steam-engine of later years has made a new era in this important subject, and now 
still later, the employment of iron as a material for shipbuilding is slowly but surely 
adding another link in the chain of modern improvements. 

This innovation, as many have esteemed it, includes some of the points just referred to. 
Timber, for shipbuilding, has become scarce, and if required in large quantities must bo 
nearly all imported. Our population has increased, and so have our wants, giving to trade 
a stimulus unknown to the world before; requiring a great increase in the'sizc and 
number of our vessels ; and tlie extraordinary development in our moral and social condi- 
tion urges us to communicate to mankind through the means of improved navigation, and 
increasing trade, the stores of knowledge which we have acquired. 

The author then gives the early history of iron vessels, which, as is known to 
most of our readers, is full of interest ; and after bringing this history' down to 
1834, in speaking of the Garry Owen, built by Mr. John Laird, who at this 
time (says the author) was regularly engaged in building iron vessels, and 
who has, as Mr. Grantham informs us in a foot note, up to this time, 1858 
built the large number of 225 vessels, having an aggregate of 88.000 tons, and 
16,200 horse-power, he says :-— 

The Garry Owen was the first iron steamer which had a regular arrangement of water- 
tight bulkheads, the invention of Mr. O. W. Williams. Such a: pliances are now deemed 
essential to all iron vessels, and their adoption is enforced by Act of Parliament. At tlrs 
time, also, Mr. Laird. built two iron steamers for the Eiver Euphrates, for the expedition 
headed by Major (now General) Chesnev, one of which vessels, the Euphrates, is still at 
work on the Indus. 

The author then states : — 

In 1839, the Nemesis and PhUgethon were also built by Mr. Laird for the Honourable 
Last India Company; the former of 660 tons, and the latter of 570 tons. These \essels 
are entitled to particular notice as being the first iron steamers that were engaged in fight- 
ing the battles of their country, and touk a conspicuous part in the Chinese war of 1842 
They gave early proof, of what has been since often confirmed, of the power of iron vessels 
to bear the concussion of heavy guns fired from their decks. 

In referring to the progress which is made in iron ship building since this 
period, the author carefully traces the history, and remarks :— 

The science which had been thus established, was pursued most actively in the Clyde, 
the Thames, the Mersey, and latterly in the Tvrie; and no port of any magnitude but can 
claim now a share in the work. Builders can number the vessels built by them by tens 



and hundreds, and to attempt a list of the aggregate number built up to this time, in the 
United Kingdom, would be a work of no little difficulty. 

In referring to the progress made in iron ship building abroad, he 
writes : — 

The encouragement given to iron ship building in France by the admission of iron for 
that purpose duty free, has been the means of producing a large number of very fine 
vessels. In the extensive yards at Toulon, under the management of the Messrs. Taylor, I 
have seen as large and well-built vessels as any builder in England can produce. 

For some years past iron vessels have been built in ports in the Baltic ; and throughout 
the continent of Europe they are probably everywhere to be found. 

With reference to the facility with which iron vessels can be repaired, and 
also in illustration of the variety of purpose for which iron ships are being 
adopted, he writes : — 

During the late war witli Kussia, some of our iron vessels that had been seriously injured 
by collisions, were as neatly repaired at. Constantinople as they would have been in our 
own yards; and the newspapers now tell us of an iron screw steamer that is leaving tin* 
country for the whale fisheries. 

In illustration of the inch-by-inch battle against prejudice, which had to be 
fought in obtaining the substitution of iron instead of timber for building 
sailing ships for long voyages, the following quotation will serve to shew : — 

But strange as it may appear, our shipowners long resisted the conviction that iron could 
be advantageously applied for building sailing ships required for long voyages. Some, how- 
ever, are now yielding to the opinions we have so long urged, and many large and splendid 
specimens of naval architecture, in the form of iron sailing ships, are owned in every large 
port, but especially at Liverpool. 

In concluding the historical sketch of the progress of iron ship building, Mr. 
Grantham, as might be expected, refers to the Great Eastern, or Leviathan , 
in the following paragraph : — 

But the climax in th» Irstory of iron ship building is reached in the Leviathan, now 
building in the yard of Messrs. J. S. liussell and Co., Millwull. We cannot expect for 
many years, if ever again, to have occasion to notice a more stupendous illustration of all 
that can be said or argued in favour of iron as a material for ship building, than the 
Leviathan is likely to afford. We may already point to her as a proof of the facility of 
producing the largest, structures with that simplicity and unity of design, and with that 
precision, that should ensure for iron ship building a confidence which need not be dis- 
turbed, and a character that cannot be questioned. Of her strength we have as yet no 
proof, though ot this there can be little doubt. 

Except, perhaps, as a matter of historical interest, it would not here be necessary to refer 
to this vessel in any other of its features; my object, in this work, being simply to point 
out the peculiar suitability of iron for the construction of ships of any size; but I feel un- 
willing in this case to omit an enumeration of some of the wonders which are necessarily 
involved in it. Neither does it come within the scope of this work to give any opinion as to 
the probable speed she is likely to attain, nor, as to the commercial prospects of this pecu- 
liar vessel. It may be asserted in general terms, that the speed of vessels increases with 
the increase of their dimensions; and that commercially iron ships, and particularly iron 
steam vessels, are much superior to timber-built ships, for reasons which will be more 
fully dwelt upon as we proceed. 

After stating that he proposes, in another part of the work, to shew the con- 
nection between the subject of iron ships and the progress of steam navigation, 
he concludes this part of the work by stating— 

The employment of iron, as a material for ship building, having excited much attention, 
and its evident advantages in severul particulars for this object, led men who could not 
shake off their feelings of preference for the old system to tubs'itute it partially, and apply 
it only to such parts as they supposed it to be best adapted for. Some attempted to use 
plates for the outside shell, to be stiffened by timber frames ; others more successfully made 
the frame-work of iron, and still retained timb r for the planking. A patent*' was taken 
out about fifteen years since, to construct canal boats with the ribs made of angle iron, and 
the planks of timber, and some small vessels were built on this plan. Another patent was 
taken out a few years ago for the same object, and two ships of considerable size were built 
by the patentee.! These vessels exhibited the principle to great advantage, and have proved 
very successful. It would, perhaps, not be difficult to show that the iron Irames of these 
vessels were expensive, and that the number of binding plates and other fastenings necessary 
to strengthen them would go far towards building a ship entirely of iron. But upon this 
point it would be better to leave experience and time to do their work in testing the merits 
of the system, as it is possible that for some purposes it may have advantages. 

In the introduction to the division of the work relating to the construction of 
iron vessels, the author states — 

With a view to the better elucidation of the subject I now proceed with a description of 
the ordinary method of constructing iron vessels. In doing this, it may be considered, by 
those engaged in the same pursuit, that I am laying open to the public eye the secrets of 
the business, and encouraging others to enter into competition with them. But although 
the principle of iron vessels can no longer be considered new, there is still much room for 
the exercise of ingenuity and practical skill; and it, is desirable that the public should be 
made acquainted with the general principles on which we proceed, a- the best means of 
giving confidence to the shipowner, and extending the demand for vessels of that material. 
It would conduce to our mutual interest to communicate to each other more freely the re- 
sults of our experience, in order to insure as much as possible the introduction of every 
improvement, and thereby promote the employment of iron-built ships. 

We fully concur with Mr. Grantham in his remarks on the importance for 
more free and frequent intercommunication and interchange of opinions, and 
the results of experiments by those practically engaged in shipbuildinp ■• and 
what the authorpoints out as desirable in these branches of science and in mstry, 
is equally required in many other branches of the applied sciences ; and it is 
much to be regretted that so much low-minded vulgar prejudice and desire for 
exclusiveness, should exist in other trades and manufactures besides those con- 
nected with the building of iron ships : for it should not be forgotten that the 
little-mintied exclusive member of society, who happens by some fortunate cir- 
cumstance to be engaged in a scientific and progressive branch of art or manu- 
facture, is like a drone in the hive of industry, and a clog to the machinery of 

* By William Watson, Esq., of Dublin. 
t Mr. W. Jordan, of Liverpool. 






The Artizak. 
March 1, 1858. 



] 



Reviews and Notices of Books. 



69 



progress ; -whilst by all enlightened, liberal, and right-minded men, he should 
be held in contempt, and no opportunity should be lost in bringing him to a 
sense of his degradation ;— for in the middle of the nineteenth century, in this 
age of progress, no man has a right to retard the advancement of science and 
material progress, by interrupting the free dissemination of knowledge, and 
should be shamed out of taking advantage of the intelligence and works of 
others for his pecuniary benefit or commercial advantage, whilst he at the same 
time refuses to contribute his mite to the common stock of knowledge, or 
prevents others from acquiring a knowledge of what he may have done that 
may be serviceable in guiding the unskilled, or in warning them off the shoals 
and rocks a-head, which more or less exist in the practice of every science, art, 
and manufacture. 

The author, in explanation of the mode in which he proposes to treat the 
subject of construction, states — 

It is the intention to describe only the ordinary mode of construction, as now generally 
adopted, and not attempt to suggest new and untried plans, although it is easy to conceive 
that the subject admits of much improvement. 

He then proceeds to describe the keels of iron ships, their construction and 
use ; advancing to the stem and stern-posts, he proceeds to describe the frames 
and floorings, and also the keelsons, sister keelsons, and bilge pieces ; next 
the beams are described, as also the gunwales and stringers. Having advanced 
thus far with the construction of a ship, the lower decks, hold beams, and 
stringers are treated of, and the advantages of diagonal ties, applied in various 
positions, are discussed ; the mode of introducing iron stanchions, for supporting 
the deck beams and preserving the correct form of the ship, is detailed. 

The internal structure of the ship having thus far advanced, and it being- 
supposed to be in frame, the plating is next considered by the author, and that 
necessitates the consideration of the mode of rivetting, and the discussion of 
the form, proportion, and disposition of the rivets employed. The application 
of bulkheads is discussed, and The author expresses an opinion that, in addition 
to the ordinary transverse bulkheads, all large vessels should also have longi- 
tudinal divisions by water-tight bulkheads. 

After treating briefly of iron masts, and comparing the weight of wood 
masts with hoops and "iron work with those constructed entirely of iron, by 
which he shews, in a particular case, that in the weight of the three lower 
masts and bowsprit of a ship, there was a saving in weight of 9 tons, or that 
the wooden masts and bowsprit weighed nearly 50 percent, more than the iron 
masts, the latter weighing only 18 tons 10 cwt., whilst the wood masts weighed 
-27 tons 10 cwt., he proceeds to describe minutely the process_ of building an 
iron ship, and then treats practically of the several main parts of a ship (referred 
to in the plates which accompany the text), and, after describing the manu- 
factured iron used for frames, beams, &c, he strongly impresses upon builders 
the serious importance of employing iron of the best quality for the plates, 
frame irons, and rivets; and we cannot too emphatically second Mr. Grantham 
m calling upon iron ship builders to act upon the true conservative principles 
which should govern trade, and honestly to resist the temptation to use inferior 
iron, and thereby for the future avoid the reproach which has been cast upon 
them repeatedly of late, of dishonestly substituting cheap iron, of uncertain 
character, for what is commonly understood to be the best iron, as so specified. 
To this subject reference has more than once before been made in The Artizan ; 
and as we know, from cases which have come under our personal knowledge, 
with very good cause ; and we hope that this matter will not be permitted to 
rest where it does, but that it will be followed up by those who are competent 
to discuss the question, that no such disgraceful exhibitions may again occur 
as those which we have heard have occurred in London with an eminent ship- 
building firm, by which it would appear that one or more of the most eminent 
engineers has decided " that the common Staffordshire iron, supplied for the 
frame-work and plating of a ship of large dimensions, and where it would be 
probably subjected to heavy and unequal strains, was equal to the best London 
made 'jscrap iron,' and that it might fairly be substituted for it." 

Mr. Grantham, whilst treating of the quality of iron, remarks as follows : — 
We should not, however, rest satisfied that we have attained in the present mode of 
manufacturing iron the highest degree of excellence. Iron is susceptible of changes in its 
chemical condition that produces effecis of the most astonishing character; for instance, 
when iron is converted into cast or Mistered steel, which is done by a simple process of the 
combination of I he carbon of common charcoal under heat, its power to resist tension is 
increased from 25 tons to 60 tons, as the breaking point of a bar having an area of one 
iquare inch. 

Of Shortridge, Howell, and Jessop's homogeneous metal, and the advantage 
which may be expected from its employment for plating iron ships, he says, in 
continuation — ■ 

A process lias been discovered by which they produce nearly the same results by means 
closely allied to the manufacture of steel. It is called Howell's Homogeneous Metal, and 
an inch bar on being tested at the Liverpool cable-testing machine, broke with a strain of 
53 tons, rather more than double the best English bar iron, and nearly equal to that of 
cast steel. The iron thus converted is ductile, malleable, and welds with facility; besides 
having other properties adapting it to iron ship building. I am informed by the makers 
that its price, for large quantities, may in time be reduced to £30 per ton ; while iron 
plates arc, at their present price, of about ,£10 per ton, and as less than half the weight is 
necessary, the cost is not widely different, while the advantages resulting from the difference 
of weight are very important. The power of this metal to resist oxidation and the 
action of fire, are also said to be very superior to common iron. From all these causes, a 
confident expectation is held out that its employment in shipbuilding may not tie far 
^distant. 

I do not here give any opinion as to the result, but draw attention to it as a subject of 
great interest, in the promoiion of iron ship building, and trust that improvements in this 
direction may not be overlooked. 

It is worthy of remark here, that Mr. John Laird, the great pioneer of iron 
ship building, has taken the initiative in the application of this homogenous 
metal for shipbuilding purposes ; and with that commendable spirit of scientific 
and commercial enterprise which has marked his career, has employed it in 



building the vessel intended to carry Dr. Livingstone in his mission of civiliza- 
tion, commerce, and industry, into the very heart of the almost unknown 
regions of Africa ; and those who desire to know something more of the prac- 
tical merits of this material, may refer to a report of some experiments by 
Mr. William Clay, of the Mersey Forge, which were detailed by him in a paper 
read at a recent meeting of the Society of Arts, and reported in The Artizan 
the 1st February. 

The author next proceeds to describe the machines and tools used in iron 
ship building, in which, although there is nothing very new, possesses the 
merit of clearness and useful advice. 

The advantage of employment of water for ballasting ships is pointed out, 
and the modes of best making this means available are described. 

To the consideration of the commercial advantages of iron ships, as compared 
with wood ships, the author devotes some twenty-four pages ; and to what 
he is pleased to call the national question involved in the preference given 
to iron over wood as a material for ship building, devotes a fair share of 
space, and, to our opinion, clearly demonstrates the soundness of the views he 
advanced long ago. 

Upon the subject of the application of the compass, its derangement, and the 
means employed for ensuring its correctness, Mr. Grantham gives the latest 
views, and describes the most recent improvements adopted ; so, in like manner, 
he treats of the various other details of a ship and her fittings. 

A notice of the Leviathan is next given, and a pretty accurate description, 
with numerous illustrations, concludes this portion of Mr. Grantham's book ; 
this is followed by Lloyd's rules for the building of sea-going iron ships, and 
various other matters in connection with iron ships. He then gives numerous 
specifications of paddle and screw steamers and sailing ships ; and we select 
the following as a useful example, being a specification of an iron screw 
collier, &c. 

Iron Screw Collier, " William Cory," built by Messrs. C. Mitchell and 
Co., Low Walker, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1857. 

Dimensions. — Length all over, 252 ft. ; length on 11 ft. water line, 240 ft. ; beam, 
moulded, 35 ft ; depth, 18 ft. 9 in. ; tonnage, B.M., 1,500. 

Keel and Stem, of hammered iron, 11 x 2£ in., in long lengths, with strong scarphs. 

Stern Post and Screw, frame of hammered iron, 11 x 5 in., with boss for screw shaft, 
as required. 

Rudder Stock to be 5 in., with 5-16ths in. plates on blade. 

Frames, of angle-iron, 5 x 3|x 9-16ths in., spaced 18 in. from centre to centre 
throughout. In holds, each frame in three lengths, one to extend across the bottom from 
bilge to bilge, terminating at iron ceiling, and the others to extend down each side of ship, 
from gunwale to iron ceiling, where a knee is to be formed, and the frame returned on tops 
of ceiling as far as is requisite to maintain equal strength ; these knees are to be strength- 
ened by a knee plate, not less than 30 in. sided, and 9-16ths in. thick. Fore-and-aft of 
holds the frames to be in two lengths, as usual ; each frame to be well rivetted to plating 
and iron ceiling. 

Floorings on every frame throughout, those in holds to be formed of plates 20 X J in. ; 
fore-and-aft to be of increased depth to suit the form of ship. 

Reverse Angle-Irons throughout to be angle-iron 3J x 3 X J in. well rivetted to frames 
and floorings. In holds, to be on every frame, extending down alternately from gunwale 
and from IS in. above hold beams to iron ceiling, also on top edge of each floor, from bilge 
to bilge fore-and-aft, as required. 

Keelsons in holds to be seven in number, formed of plates 24 x 9-lGths in. in as long 
lengths as possible, with two angle-irons, 3 x Sj X J in. rivetted on each edge, to be 
strongly rivetted to reverse angle-irons. Bulkheads and iron ceiling beams, keelsons 
fore-and-aft as required. 

Bilge Keels to be placed each side of keel, and formed of bulb beam-iron 8 x 9-16ths in. 
with two angle-irons 6 x 4 x tj in. well rivetted to bottom plating; each bilge keel to 
extend not less than 100 ft. amidships. 

Water Ballast Chambers to be perfectly water-tight, and formed by the bottom plating, 
and a plate-iron ceiling extending from bilge to bilge in the holds, and placed 4 ft. above 
the tops of keel ; this ceiling to be of plate-iron, not less than 7-lGths in. thick, attached 
to athwart ship beams resting on keelsons; these beams to be formed of two angle-irons, 
4 x 3 x 7-16ths in., and 3 x 3 x § in. rivetted together, and to iron ceiling, keelsons, 
and frames ; one of these beams to be over each flooring. A knee plate, J in. thick, and 
extending at least 3 ft. along ceiling beams, to be placed on each frame at bilge under 
ceiling plate, and well rivetted to frames and ceiling beams. The water-tight joints, when 
the iron ceiling meets the outside plating and bulkheads, to be formed as follows:— The 
edge plate of iron ceiling all round inside holds to be J in. thick, anil of such a quality that 
a 6 in. flange can be tumtd upon its edge without any loss of strength or soundness; this 
flange to be on the upper side, and double rivetted to outside plating and bulkheads, and 
being carefully worked and eailked, will form the water-tight joint between iron ceiling 
and hold of ship. Air and other pipes, cock, &c, as required, for rapidly filling and dis- 
charging the water ballast, as may be found requisite. 

Bulkhcadsto be five in number, of 7-16ths in. plate, stiffened with vertical bars of angle- 
iron, 3 X 3 x J in. spaced about 24 in. apart. To be caulked and made water-tight, 
excepting the forepeak bulkhead. All bulkheads are to be fitted with large brass cocks, 
placed as low as possible, with handles leading to the deck, to be used in case of leakage. 
Each bulkhead to have double angle-irons on top edges, same as deck beams. 

Engine and Boiler Seating to be formed of stout plate and angle iron, as required, for 
the secure fixing of engines and boilers. 

Coal Bunftcrs to be capable of containing 150 tons of coals ; plating to be not less than 
3-lGths in. thick, stiffened by angle iron 3 x 3 x Jin., spaced about 30 in. apart; iron 
stays across bunkers, as requisite, to be fitted with tour feeding and two trimming doors, 
and scuttles on deck, as required. Along side boilers the upper edge of bunkers to have 
angle iron to form the boiler hatch, with short beams to ship's sides. 

Hold Beams of plate iron, 10 x £ in., with two angle-irons, 5 x 3 x 7-16th in., rivetted 
on top edge, and two ditto on bottom edge, and to have a plate, 12 x § in., rivetted on top 
of each beam, to be spaced not more than 9 ft. from centre to centre; to be well secured to 
frames and hold stringers. 

Hold Stringers to extend the length of vessel, to be formed of plates, 27 x J in., in long 
lengths, well rivetted to hold beams, and secured to reverse angle irons and bulkheads by 
angle iron, 6 X 4 x J in. 

Clamp Plate.— To have a clamp plate, 18 X $, extending all round the vessel, attached 
to frames immediately above hold stringer, and firmly rivetted to reverse angle-irons, and 
to gunwale stringer angle- iron. 

Hold Stanchions, of 3 in. round iron, strongly secured to deck and hold beams, and iron 
ceiling, to be placed under and over every hold beam : at hatchways to be on each side. 

Deck Beam < to be one on every alternate frame, formed of patent beam iron, 8 x f in., 
with two angle-irons, 3 x 3 x § in., rivetted to the upper edge. Hatchway beams and 
framing of additional strength, as required. 



70 



Law Cases. — Notes and Novelties. 



[" Tin: 
L Marc 



Aritzax, 
Ii 1, 1858. 



Knee Plates of plate iron, not less than J in. thick, and not less than 18 in. sided, to be 
rivetted to each deck and hold beam, and frame at side of ship. 

Gunwale Stringer of plate iron, 27 x 4 in - for 150 ft. amidship, tapering to 20 x J in. 
fore and aft, to he in long lengths, and attached to sheer strake by an angle-iron, G x 4 x 
i in. on upper side, double rivetted on each flange. 

Deck Ties of plate iron, 14 x | in., in long lengths, on each side of hatchways, and 
extending the entire length of vessel, also placed diagonally, and well rivetted to deck- 
beams and gunwale stringer. 

Forecastle Sole Seams of angle iron, 5 x 3 x J in., spaced one on each alternate frame, 
with fore-and-aft stringer on the under side, of angle iron, 8 x 4 x £ in., rivetted to each 
frame-beam. 

Top Gallant Forecastle Beams nf angle iron, 5 x 3 x J in., spacpd as deck-beams. 

Sundry Fittings. — Mast and bitt partners, and other strengthening plates and angle iron 
as required. 

Plating.— Keel strake 13-16ths of an inch ; bottom, bilge, and sheer strake, ll-16ths of 
an inch ; bilge plate in line of iron ceiling, 3-4ths of an inch ; sides, 9-lCths of an inch. 
The gunwale to be further strengthened by a plate, 15 X % in., worked on and secured to 
the outside of sheer strake in as long lengths as possible, to break joint with sheer strake. 
The sheer strake to be carried 10 in. above gunwale stringer all round the ship. All the 
plating and angle iron to be worked in as long lengths as possible, with strong joints to 
maintain equal strength throughout. All laminated or defective material to be rejected, 
and both workmanship and material throughout to be sound, and of the best quality. 

Mivetting.— The keel and stern to be double rivetted, and the stern-post and propeller 
frame to be treble rivetted, with 1-J in. rivets. All butt joints in stringer plates and deck 
ties to be treble rivelted; all butt joints in outside plating, plate-iron ceiling, floor-plates, 
and keelsons, to be double rivetted. The rivets to be countersunk on outside plating, plate- 
iron ceiling, and gunwale stringer: bottom, bilge, keel, stem, and stern-post rivets to be 
left full, and not ma'te quite flush. 

Painting, iyc.— All the iron work to receive at least three coats of mod oil paint ; the 
bulwarks, deck fittings, and houses to be well painted. All iron work to be well painted 
. with red lead before receiving the wood work. 

We now give an extract from the "conclusion" of Mr. Grantham's very 
useful book. He says : — 

It has been my aim in the foregoing remarks to bring the reader, by plain and easy steps, 
to a review of the whole question— the orisin, progress, and present position of iron ships 
and shipbuilding, from the time when it was difficult to convince many that iron would 
" float," to the present time, when an advertisement, headed, "A First Class Iron Steamer " 
conveys a recommendation to the public superior to all other claims for preference; and 
when even an underwriter no longer hesitates to consider an iron ship bound for India a 
first-class risk. 

Should it be mine and the reader's fate to meet again after another lapse of fifteen years, 
I cannot doubt what I should have to record— improvements as great, perhaps, as the last 
fifteen years have seen, for there is still ample room for them. Not one, perhaps, of the 
present race of wooden steamers left ; and few, if any, wooden ships of any description 
building. In the meantime, let shipbuilders be faithful to themselves, and not be tempted 
to do inferior work ; let underwriters and shipowners work together, laying aside pre- 
judice, and not thwarting the energies of the men who have brought this science to its 
present stage. 

To the last paragraph of the above extract we say sincerely, Amen ! and 
heartily wishing- that Mr. Grantham's object, in devoting the time which he 
has expended upon so useful a work, may be fully realized, and that this truly 
national and important branch of industry may go on increasing with the 
advancement of science, and with the development of the other material 
resources of the empire— in which development it has played no unimportant 
part. We take leave for the present of the author and his excellent treatise on 
iron ship building, commending it, as we conscientiously can do, to the perusal 
of all who are or may be interested in the subject. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS OR NEW EDITIONS OF BOOKS. 

ROSE (J.)— A New Guide to the Iron Trade; or, Mill Managers' and Stock Takers' 
Assistant: comprising a Series of New and Comprehensive Tables, practically arranged, 
to show at one View the Weight of Iron required to produce Boiler Plates, Sheet Tron, 
and Flat. Square, and Round Bars ; as well as Hoop or Strip Iron of any Dimensions ; 
with Tables for Convenience of Merchants. By James Rose. 8vo, pp. 100, bound, 
Ss. Od. (Mining Journal Office.) 

TIMES (J.)— The Year-Book of Facts in Science and Art; exhibiting the most Important 
Discoveries and Improvements of the Past Year in Mechanics and the Useful Arts, 
Natural Philosophy, Electricity, Chemistry, Zoology and Botany, Geology and Mineralogy, 
Meteorology and Astronomy. By John Timbs. "i2mo, pp. 290, cloth, 5s. (Kent.) 

BOWMAN (J. E.) — An Introduction to Practical Chemistry, including Analysis. By 
John E. Bowman ; edited by C. L. Bloxam. 3rd edition, 12mo, pp. 290, cloth, (is. Gd. 
(Churchill.) 1 " ' ' 

GRANTHAM (J.)— Iron Ship Building; with Practical Illustrations. By John Grantham. 

12mo, pp. 230, cloth, 2s. Gd. (W'eale.) 
HADFIELD (H. H.)— A Treatise on Perspective, explanatory of a System for Simplifying 

a Knowledge thereof. Illustrated by a large sheet of coloured diagrams. By H. H. 

Hadfleld. 12mo, cloth, 5s. (Winsor'and N.) 
MURRAY (R.)— Rudimentary Treatise on Marine Engines and Steam Vessels ; together 

with Practical Remarks on the Screw and Propelling Power, as used in the Royal and 

Merchant Navy. By Robert Murray. 3rd edition, 12mo, pp. 190, cloth, 2s. Gd. (Weale.) 
SCOFFERN (J.)— Projectile Weapons of War and Explosive Compounds. Bv J. Scoffern. 

3rd edition, post 8vo, pp. 310, cloth, 8s. Gd. (Longman.) 



LAW CASES. 



VANCE v. BOND. 
This was a hill for the administration of the estate of the late Captain Carpenter, the 
inventor of the screw propeller, for the purpose of obtaining certain inquiries as to the 
proceedings to be taken against those who infringed the patent, and for the recovery of the 
sum of £ 20,000, which had been granted by the Legislature as a reward for the invention, 
and which sum was now in the hands of trustees. Mr. Beavan and Mr. Hethcrington 
appeared for the different parties.— The Viee-Chancellor made a decree according to the 
prayer of the bill. 



PHILLIPS v. MELEN. 

This was an action brought to try the validity of the plaintiff 's patent. The defendant 
pleaded the usual pleas placed upon the record in such causes, the principal one being » 
denial of the novelty of plaintiff's invention. Mr. Grove and .Mr. Kingdon appeared for 
the plaintiff, and Mr. Sergeant Parry and Mr. Henry James represented the defendant. 
It appeared that the plaintiff was the principal chemical officer of the Excise, ami that he. 
also carried on the business of a tobacconist and pipe manufactory, at 89, Holborn. He 
claimed to be the inventor of a pipe called the Patent Charcoal Filter Pipe, the object of 
which was, by means of a charcoal filter, inserted in a glass tube about 1 ft. long and 1 in. 
in diameter, which formed the stem of the pipe, to separate the deleterious matters, nicotine 
and nicotianine, from the tobacco smoke, and so to destroy its narcotic and injurious pro- 
perties. The. defendant, who was a tobacconist carrying on business at Shorediteh, had 
made and sold a pipe similar in principle to, although smaller than the plaintiff 's. 

A great deal of contradictory evidence haying been given, the jury ultimately returned 
a verdict for the. plaintiff, being of opinion that the invention was a new and effectual 
invention. The parties then agreed to take a verdict for the plaintiff for 40s. 



THE STEAM-ENGINE.— IMPORTANT PATENT CASE. 

At the Rochdale County Court a special sitting was held before Mr. J. S. Greene, judge, 
to try a case in which Mr. Samuel Fielding claimed £50 as his share in a patent, entered in 
April, 1855, for lubricating the piston and inner surface of the cylinder of the steam-engine; 
and which patent he alleged the defendant, Mr. William M'Naught, machinist, hod 
infringed by a patent entered in April, 1856. For the plaintiff, Mr. Roberts, of the late firm 
of Sharp and Roberts, of .Manchester, gave evidence to the effect that he believed Mr. 
M'Naught's apparatus was an infringement of Fielding's. The specification of Mr. Fielding 
sets up a claim for the use and employment of mechanism for the purpose of oiling and 
lubricating the pistons of steam-engines, by the aiil of certain descriptions of machinery, 
set forth in the specifications, which included a ratchet-wheel, a lever, a plunger, and some 
piping, by means of which the oil was introduced into the cylinder, in the case of low-pres- 
sure engines, by its own gravity, the plunger being used in high-pressure engines to forco 
in tiie oil against the steam. M'Naught claimed, in his specification, for an invention for 
conveying oil or other lubricating material to the cylinders and pistons of steam-engines, 
by causing it to enter, or to be drawn through, apertures previously formed round the 
periphery of the cylinder, and set with the ring of the piston's stroke. In defence, it was 
urged by Mr. Marsh, first, that the ratchet-wheel, the lever, the plunger, and the piping, 
were old inventions ; ami, second, that the means of causing the oil to enter were by diffe- 
rent agencies ; that while, in Fielding's patent, the plunger was used to force in the oil. in 
M'Naught's the arrangement was such as to shut off all external pressure, and at that 
particular period, the pressure of the steam being equal on all sides, oil being a heavier 
body, fell into its proper place by its own gravity. Messrs. David Cheetuvn, and Benjamin 
Fothergill (of Manchester), were called to prove this position. The judge said he would 
look over the cases cited, and give judgment in three weeks. The public hall, where the 
case was heard, was crowded during the trial, which lasted five hours. 

At the Rochdale County Court, Feb. 18, Mr. J. S. Turner Green gave judgment in the 
case Fielding /■. M'Naught. His Honour said, that the great object -of Fielding's patent 
was to make the piston self-supplying with lubricating matter. The ratchet wheel, the 
motion from the engine, the lever, were not rendered new by combination. In both cases 
there was what had been called a plunger ; but it was a question whether these two imple- 
ments acted in the same way, were from the same idea, and were the same invention, 
for conveying the lubricating matter to the portions requiring it. He was of opinion that 
they were substantially different. Although each was called a plunger, they were different 
and distinct — different in their mode of operation, and distinct in the idea of each inven- 
tion ; for one acted by outward force, the other took advantage of a law of nature — gravi- 
tation. The verdict would therefore be for the defendant. 



NOTES AND NOVELTIES. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

The Okdnance Survey. — A Royal Commission has been appointed to inquire info 
the scale or scales upon which the lines and plans of the United Kingdom can be drawn 
and printed. The Earl of Rosse, Dr. Griffith, of the Irish Board of Works, and nine others, 
are members of the Commission. 

Beccles. — The steam mill, erected by Messrs. Eastern and Amos, for the drainage of the 
Corporation marshes is completed. The apparatus for raising the water consists of an 
Appold pump. The fan, 2 ft. 9 in. in diameter, works horizontally, in a strong cast-iron 
cistern ; a pair of high-pressure expansive and condensing vertical grasshopper engines, of 
10 horse power each, are placed and attached to each side of the iron-cistern, the fly-wheel, 
shaft, &c, being at the top and over it. The whole machinery is placed in such a compact 
manner as to occupy but a very small space. The boiler is multi-tubular, with a large 
steam-chest; and a stout iron- funnel, 23 ft. high, acts as a chimney shaft. The whole 
building is of red brick, with corrugated iron roof, no wood being used except for the doors. 
A convenient coal-house is formed in that portion of the structure next the boiler. 

The Shells thrown at Napoleon were made by Mr. Taylor, an engineer, in 
Broad-street, who was, of course, unacquainted with the purposes for which they were 
intended. They are most ingeniously contrived, and the one brought to our office was a 
very fine specimen of workmanship. It is cylindrical in shape, with the ends rounded, re- 
sembling a melon more than anything else we can compare it to, — the size about 5 in. by 
4 in. It is hollow, and made in two parts. The thickness of the metal at one end is 1 in., at 
the other, J of an inch. The great peculiarity in the construction isthe means for exploding. 
In an ordinary hand grenade this is provided for by a fusee, which, being lit, when it reaches 
the powder causes the explosion. In the present instance, one end of the shell is provided?' 
with 25 nipples, similar to those of a gun, and upon each of these a percussion cap is placed.. 
When either of these caps strikes against any substance it produces the explosion ; thus 
all uncertainty as to the time of the explosion is avoided. The extra thickness of the 
metal at this end secures its falling the right way. At the opposite end is a hole for load- 
ing, which is closed by a screw-plug. The whole appearance of the machine is of a most 
dangerous kind, and on its construction and design great labour must have been bestowed. 
— Birmingham Journal. 

The Boydell's Traction Engine, lately purchased by the War Department, for 
service in the Arsenal, was tried February 4th at Woolwich, before officers appointed by the 
East India Board of Directors. The engine left the Arsenal gates at 2'30, travelling first at 
the rate of G miles per hour, with a train of four heavy artillery carriages, each bearing a 
heavy 9-in. siege gun, the entire load being about 43 tons. 

Captain O'Connor and 3In. Duesbury, of the Central American Railway, in- 
spected the Patent Endless Railway, at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, with a view of pur- 
chasing several of them, to be used in the construction of the Central American line, from 
Sacramento to San Jose. Lieut. Oussoff, a Russian officer of engineers, is superintending 
the construction of several engines to be used for the conveyance of merchandise between 
Heva (on the Black Sea) and Buckara. 



The Artizan, "] 
Starch 1, 1858. J 



Notes and Novelties. 



71 



Mr. William "Williams, the contractor for the battery built by the War Depart- 
ment at Dale, has been awarded a Silver Medal by the Royal Society of Arts, for a stone- 
cutting machine, which he lias patented. 

That knowledge is power is stongly evidenced by the immunity from disaster enjoyed 
by a village on the north coast, where, prior to the recent tempests, warned by the indica- 
tions of the barometer, the fishermen deferred their departure, and have saved the sad 
fate that awaited the blind temerity of their ignorant neighbours. 

Monsieur Thome de Gamond's Tunnel between England and France. — The French 
Commission, after examining the scheme in all its details, has come to the conclusion that 
it is feasible, and ought to be seriously entertained, and it has recommended the Govern- 
ment to disburse £20,000 for the purpose of making new investigations respecting it. The 
same Commission recommend that the English Government should be requested to say if it 
be disposed to take any part in these investigations. 

Public Works in India. — A return to a motion of Colonel Sykes, M.P., in the 
House of Commons, gives the budgets of the Public Works in India for the years 1853-54 
to 1856-57, or likely to be expended in that year, was 2,20,15,420 rupees, against 2,47,4S,219 
rupees in 1855-56. 

It is said that Ferukh Khan, the Persian ambassador, before leaving France for Italy, 
acting on a special authority from his Government, signed a treaty with a Paris merchant 
for the exclusive spinning, by machinery, during twenty-five years, of all the silk produced 
in Persia. 

A Chimney, 00 feet high, at Mr . Thornham's Saw Mills, Hull, which had deflected 
2 ft. 9 in. from its perpendicular, lias been successfully straightened. The old foundations 
having decayed, 3 or 4 feet of fresh concrete was laid down. A basement of brickwork was 
built around to. within 2 feet of an iron collar 7 feet from the ground. Two 6-inch timbers 
were then placed— one on the basement, and the other under the collar. The chimney was 
then cut between these timbers, and restored to its perpendicular by wedges. The chimney 
had been built twenty years. 

Mr. Robert Mallet has left for Naples, to make researches into the phenomena of 
the recent earthquakes, a sum of money having been placed at his disposal for that purpose . 

The Decimal System, so far as weights, has just been adopted by Mecklenburgh, 
most of the German States, and Denmark. 

M. Scheutz, an ingenious Swedish inventor, lias received an order to make s calculating 
machine for the use of the Department of the Registrar-General. 

Mr. Whitworth is engaged in making a. Monster Printing Machine for the 
"Times." Between twenty and twenty-five thousand copies per hour will be turned off. 
A similar machine is being made for trie " Manchester Examiner and Times." 

"Vancouver's Island. — Government lias determined that a scientific exploration 
shall be made ; and with this view the Royal and Geographical Societies have been requested 
to furnish suggestions. 

The Tenth Annual Exhibition of Inventions, in connection with the Society of 
Arts, will be opened on the 5th of April. 

The Netherlands Land Enclosure Company have received information that 
the recent storm on the coast of Holland has occasioned great injury to the Polder Bank of 
the Company's second enclosure. The Company is now engaged in devising the best 
course to be adopted. 

Stoneham and Lees' Improved Unions for Lead and Composition Pipes. 
— The process appears to be a simple one, effected by a couple of small tools, together with 
the patent union, and a screw cut on the end of one of the pipes to be united. The other 
pipe end is beaten out into a sloping or conical mouth, which fits into one end of the union, 
while the other end of the same union receives the screw end of the pipe to be united with 
the conical-mouthed one. Between the two a washer of wood is placed, which is designed 
to make the joint complete when screwed up by the tongs or vice supplied for the 
purpose. 

Nature Printing.— Mr. Henry Bradbury has received the Belgian Gold Medal of 
Merit. 

At Elsecar, near Eotherham, an intelligent miner has fitted up a Turkish bath, 
a luxury which seems to have been well appreciated, many persons, chiefly colliers, 
using it. 

' Lord Clarendon has given a free passage to Naples to Mr. William Watt, brother of the 
engineer, Henry Watt, now under trial at Salerno. His lordship says he has had much 
satisfaction in giving this order. 

Mr. Hawksley has been appointed consulting engineerfor the Eivington Waterworks, 
at a salary of 200 guineas per annum , and travelling expenses. 

Drying Oil. — Old linseed oil, if mixed with protoborate of manganese, in the proportion of 
an ounce to the gallon of oil, and kept in a close vessel for two days, exposed to a heat of 
212 deg. Fall., in a steam-bath, and frequently stirred during that time, makes a beautiful 
drying oil for paints. Dr. J. Hoffman, the eminent German chemist, says, " it becomes by 
this treatment of a clear greenish yellow colour, remains thin even when cold, and zinc 
white paint mixed with it dries in twenty-four hours. — Scientific American. 

An Iron Girder Railway Bridge has fallen in at Langley, near Watford,' on the 
North-Western line. 

RAILWAYS, &c. 

London and Blackwall.— Two new sources of revenue will be opened in the 
course of a few weeks, viz.— The Bow and Barking branch of the Tilbury line, and the new 
Goods Station at the Minories. 

The Railway Terminus in Westminster.— An arrangement has been made by 
the directors of the Brighton and South Coast Railway Company, with the new company 
formed, for the construction of a short line, with terminus at the "Grosvenor Basin, Victoria 
Street, Westminster, and crossing the Thames to Battersea, and the Crystal Palace 
West-end Line. 

Stockton and Darlington.— The estimate for the proposed new branches and a 
bridge at Stockton, amounts to nearly £150,000. 

Colne Valley and Halstead.— The works on this line are immediatelv to be 
proceeded with by Mr. Munro,the contractor. 

Sunderland and Hartlepool.— A new branch line, securing direct communica- 
tion between these ports, has been opened. 

Worcester and Hereford.— Mr. Brassey has contracted for the execution of the 
works on this line. 

Newall and Fay's Railway Brake.— The experiments of Colonel Tolland are 
stated to have been successful. The brake locks up the wheels of every carriage. 

Cornwall. — The works on the Albert Bridge are progressing. The permanent way 
on the entire line will be ready for traffic as soon as the bridge is completed. 

East Kent Line.— The first section lias been opened from Faversham to Chatham. 

The branch railway from Rainford to Ormskirk, completing the communication 
between St. Helen's and Southport, will be opened on the 1st March. 

Dartmouth and Torbay.— The first sod lias been cut. 



South Durham and Lancashire Union. — The Tees Bridge is far advanced in two of 
the piers ; the whole of the foundation for the Deepdale Bridge piers are in a forward state. 
Preparation and trial pits are going on at Bealah Ravine. The contracts over Stainmoor 
are shortly to be let. 

Mr. Bruff has been appointed by the Norfolk and Eastern Union Companies, inspecting 
engineer of their way and works. Mr. Bruff has commenced proceedings to recover from 
the Eastern Counties Company upwards of £6,000 for professional services. 

Yeovil and Exeter Railway.— The works on this line have made great progress 
lately. The difficulty with respect to the Honiton Tunnel has been nearly surmounted. 
Three or tour of the shafts are in a bed of green sand, which causes the water to rise 
rapidly. This difficulty will be got over when the " headings " are carried through the 
tunnel. All the works are now proceeding rapidly from Yeovil to Crewkerne. Of the 
tunnel at Maiden Beech Tree, a length of 220 yards, there only remains 15 yards to com- 
plete. Near Exeter several cuttings have been commenced. 

Llanelly. — A bill is before Parliament to enable the directors of this line to lease the 
Towy Vale Railway. 

Taff Vale. — Mr. Clements, locomotive superintendent, has resigned. He was for- 
merly engineer of the Great Britain. 

Streamstown to Clara.— The cost of this branch line will be about £15,000. 
Belfast and County Down.— Sir John McNeill's estimate for the works, and 
necessary property forthe same, is £250,000. 

Dublin and Wicklow.— Workmen are busily employed at the Dublin Terminus, 
and the piers and arches across Hareourt Road are being constructed. 

United States and Canada.— The Welland Railway, which was only 25 miles in 
length, extended from Port Colborne, on Lake Erie, to Port Dalhousie, on Lake Ontario, 
thus connecting many thousand miles of navigable waters at the cheapest possible rate of 
transit. The gradients of the railway descended in the direction of the trade. The traffic 
would consist of grain and other produce from the Western States, which already contained 
about 10,000,000 people. The traffic would be conveyed from Chicago, round by the Lakes Mi- 
chigan and Erie, to their line at Port Colborne, and over the railway to New York, Portland, 
Quebec, or Boston, at less than by any other railway. The freight would be conveyed from 
their terminus at Port Dalhousie down Lake Ontario to the Grand Trunk of Canada Rail- 
way at Prescott, thence to Montreal, and, on the completion of the Victoria Bridge, to 
Quebec and Portland, thereby securing the cheapest route for the conveyance of freight 
between the Western States and the Atlantic. 

The Cape. — A prospectus has been issued of a Cape Town Railway And 
Dock Company. — Mr. Brounger, the engineer, has made a flying survey of the country 
between Cape Town and Wellington, and has been engaged with his assistants in making 
sections preparatory to fixing the route, and tendering for the execution of the line. 

Australia. — The ext ension of the works of the Northern railway of New South Wales 
has been resumed at East and West Maitland. 

Victoria. — The railway question which has so long agitated public opinion in Victoria, 
is definitely settled, and the principle has at length been affirmed by both branches of the 
legislature, that two trunk lines are to be constructed, one from Melbourne to the Murray, 
the other from Geelong to Ballarat- 

Adelaide. — Railway works are contemplated in this colony to the amount of 
£7,000,000. 

Recife and San Francisco Railw^.— The opening of the 18 miles of this line., 
appointed for the 2nd of December, has been postponed, to fence in the railway for the pro- 
tection of stray cattle, and the avoidance of accidents. 

France. — Brittany Railway. — The section from Alencon to Argentan, 30 miles, has 
been opened, establishing a communication between Vingt-Kanaps, Sees, Almeneches, and 
Argentan. 

Locomotives. — It is said that M. Duterte, engineer, has invented an apparatus whieli 
will effect a complete revolution in the construction of locomotives, and save 50 per cent, in 
he consumption of fuel. 

The Prospectus has been issued of the Medoc Railway from Bordeaux toVerdon, 
with a capital of £600,000. The length of the line is 60 miles, and it appears to possess 
several advantageous features. The board of direction is exclusively French. 

On the French North Line a New Signal has been introduced, which, inde- 
pendent of the alarum signal, will permit the guard and other employes in the train to 
communicate with the engine-driver without leaving their assigned place. 

Caen to Cherbourg. — It is expected that this line will be opened for passengers in- 
July next. 

Great Luxembourg. — The whole line will be finished to Arlon in the course of the 
ensuing summer. 

The inauguration of the railway from Mons to Hautmont, in Belgium, took place a 
few days ago. The new line shortens the distance between Paris and Brussels by 45 kilo- • 
metres (28 miles). 

Algeria. — The line from Algeria to Blidah is first to be made. It will be constructed 
by the military. The_ line, from i'hilippe-ville to Constantine will be constructed by a com- 
pany. The preliminary surveys are now being made. 

Geneva Railway. — The branch which is to connect it with the Victor Emmanuel line, 
is being actively proceeded with. The four tunnels have been commenced. St. Innocent, 
160 metres long ; Colombiere, 1,300; Brison, 600; Grand Rocher, 240. 

Spain. — The Madrid and Alicante Railway is opened : length, 300 miles. It is proposed 
to make a tramroad, to be worked by horses, in order to unite Calzas de Mombuy to the 
railway from Barcelona to Granollers. 

Several thousand additional men are about to be employed on the works of the Northern 
Railway of Spain. The Government has decided that the terminus of the Northern Railway 
shall be established at Madrid, near the San Vincente Gate. 

Italy. — The Pio Central Railway is already far advanced. The sections between F"ano 
and Pesaro, and between the latter place and La Cattolica, are completed. The tunnel, 
which is to be pierced through the mountains at that place, is already commenced. 

The Turin journals announce that the cutting through of Mount Cenis has commenced , 
and that about twenty yards have already been excavated. The system employed thus far 
has been the ordinary one of blasting, but the great machine specially constructed for 
boring through the mountain will soon be brought into use, and the cuttings for facilitating 
access at each end are completed. 

Germany.— The works on the railway from the Maine to the Rhine (Mentz, Darmstadt 
and Aschaffenbourg) are progressing very rapidly. 

The railroad on the left bank of the Rhine, from Rolandseck to Remagen, will be opened 
in' a few weeks ; it will have attained Buhl in the spring, and by autumn it will have been 
carried to Coblentz — when the railway communication between that town and Cologne will 
be continuous. 

Russia. — Riga and Dunaburg line.— The statutes of this company have been settled , 
and await the signature of the Russian Government. The ironmasters of Belgium are to 
supply during the next four years 176,000 tons of rails for the Russian railways. 



72 



Notes and Novelties. 



f The Artizah, 
L March i; 18S8. 



India. — A return from the Kast India Company, prepared at the request of Parliament, 
Knows that the engineering plans have been adopted for 3,700 miles of permanent way. 
The gauge throughout is to he 5 ft. 6 in., and there will be a double line of rails, a single 
line being down until the traffic is developed. Average rate of construction, £9,000 per 
mile. The Government gives the land. 

Ceylon. — Mr. W. T. Doyne, a gentlemen of high professional attainments, has been 
appointed principal engineer of the Company in Ceylon ; accompanied by a carefully 
selected staff, he has arrived in the colony, and has commenced an examination of the 
country through which the contemplated line would pass. 

The Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway Company.— The East 
India Company have granted to the railway company the concession of the 183 miles from 
Surat to Bombay, by which the railway will extend from Ahmedabad, passing through a 
district known as the Garden of Western India ; and as Bombay is ,the mart from which the 
Chinese empire chiefly derives its supply of cotton, the importance of the junction of Surat 
and the cotton-growing districts will be duly estimated. A considerable portion of the 
earthworks are in a very forward state ; but, in the construction of railways in our Indian 
possessions, it is necessary that two years should elapse before the permanent way can be 
laid down, to prove that they can stand the test of the monsoons. The present roads in 
India are quite in a primitive state, and, from the rough manner the cotton is now con- 
veyed to Bombay, considerable damage is done by mud and dust. The East India Company, 
for some reason, never in the first instance guarantee a sufficient sum, and, therefore, the 
proposed increase is not unexpected, as from the formation of the company it has always 
been announced that the line could not be completed for the original capital — £500,000 ; so 
that there is little doubt but the whole of the new shares will be taken up by the existing 
holders. 

Madras.— Steady progress has been made in the work of construction throughout the 
line. The line as far as Vanienbady, 120 miles from Madras, will be completed by the end 
of this year, and to Salem by the 1 middle of next year. Considerable progress has at the 
same time been made in the earthworks on the western divisions of the railway. The 
violence of the rains in the montli of October last, and the very unusual height to which 
the floods rose in the country traversed by the section of the railway, which is already 
open from Madras to Vellare, were such as to test severely the stability of its bridges and 
earthworks; they withstood the trial most successfully, the damage sustained was of 
trifling extent, and the passenger trains continued to run the whole line. After an extended 
and careful examination of the intervening country, the company's engineers have suc- 
ceeded in finding a line much more favourable than had been expected for the railway to 
Cuddapah from Madras. This line, it is understood, has been approved by the Govern- 
ment. 

Great Southern of India Railway. — It is proposed to run from the southern 
part of Tnticorin, in the Madras Presidency, via Madura and Trichinopoly, through Tanjore 
to the part of Nagore, with an ultimate extension from Trichinopoly to the Madras line at 
Salem. The total length is 300 miles, but the first section, for which a guarantee is asked 
on a capital of £1,000,000, is from Trichinopoly to Nagore, a distance of about 70 miles. 

SciNDE. — The harbour of Kurrachee has been greatly improved during the past two 
years, the depth of water was not less than from 22 to 26 ft. The capabilities of the harbour 
and the great traffic of the district were in most encouraging circumstances. The discovery 
of coal near the railway was another important matter ; and it was a first-class steam coal. 
The works on the railway would be vigorously proceeded with, and they would be finished 
within two years. The Punjab Railway would commence from Mooltan, and run on to 
Lahore. The length being 248 miles running through a level country without any devia- 
tion, and only two bridges. 

TELEGRAPH ENGINEERING, &c. 

The Turkish Government have authorised Mr. John Staniforth, Jun., to proceed 
to England for the purchase of the necessary material for the construction of a telegraphic 
line between Constantinople and Bussoraii, at the head of the Turkish Gulf. The 
line will extend a distance of 1,700 miles, and will consist of two wires. The Turkish 
Government have been induced to adopt this course in the hope that the East India, or 
other company, might obtain the sanction of the English Government to lay down a sub- 
marine cable in the Persian Gulf, between Kurrachee and Bussorah, and so complete tele- 
graphic communication between England and India. 

Dutch Indies. — The Government has conceded to Mr. Gisbome the privilege of con- 
structing telegraphic lines, and of working them for 99 years. 

Persia. — Ferukh Khan has ordered from a Paris manufacturer the apparatus necessary 
for the establishment of an electric telegraph in Persia. 

Calcutta and Madras. — A new line of telegraph has just been put up between 
these cities. 

Atlantic Telecraph Company. — Experiments are now being carried on with a 
view to perfect the paying out machinery, and to make it as nearly as possible self-acting. 
Mr. Cyrus Field stays in England to take charge of the next expedition, which will be in 
the Niagara and Agamemnon as before. It is proposed to increase the length of the cable 
from 2,600 to 2,900. 

Liverpool. — Mr. Gisborne has laid before the Committee Town Council a plan for 
establishing telegraphic communication between the different fire stations of the town. 
Estimated cost, with the wires under ground, £3,300 ; over the house tops, .£700. Annual 
cost in either case, £200. The committee declined to entertain the plan. 

Atlantic Telegraph Company. — 400 miles of new cable are in course of manu- 
facture, to supply the loss from the failure of the experiment last year, and 300 additional 
miles, which it has been resolved should be provided, so as to allow greater length of slack 
than was originally contemplated. The cost for these 300 miles is estimated at £30,000. The 
English and American Governments have respectively offered the use of the Agamemnon and 
Niagara for the operation of the present year ; and it has been agreed that it will be desi- 
rable to join the cables in mid-ocean, instead of starting from either shore. Considerable 
modifications are to be made in the machinery. 

South Australia.— During the summer of this year it was reported officially that 
the inter -colonial telegraph would be completed throughout the several colonies of New 
South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, &c, connecting all the principal towns 
and ports in those several colonies, and embracing an area of 2,000 miles of telegraph. 

MILITARY ENGINEERING, &c. 
The Royal Standard Iron Gun Foundry", recently erected in Woolwich 
Arsenal, commenced operations on Feb. 12th, in an experimental form, under the investi- 
gation of Lieutenant-Colonel Wilmot, R.A., superintendent of that department. A couple 
of the furnaces, each of which is capable of melting upwards of 12 tons of metal, sufficient 
to cast one of the heaviest guns employed in the service, were on that day set in motion, 
and towards evening the operations of casting took place. The huge piece of ordnance 
has since been lifted from the moulding-pit, and represents the rough cast of a 68-pounder, 
weighing 95 cwt. A couple of smaller guns were likewise cast, exhibiting, as far as could 
be judged, a most satisfactory result. After being planed and bored, these guns, it is 
understood, will be subjected to some extraordinary proofs, in order to determine the con- 
templated advantages of the establishment, as a check on the contract manufacturers. 



MARINE ENGINEERING, SHIPBUILDING, &c. 

Combined Steam.— We learn that the result of the experimental trip of the Avontotiic 
Brazils, with Wethered's combined steam-engine, has been most satisfactory. Mr. Gribble, 
who was selected by the company to which the vessel belongs to test the merits of the 
invention, reports that the saving of fuel has averaged 25 per cent., whilst 1 knot per hour 
has been added to the speed of the vessel. 

In the spring the Bavarian Steam Navigation Company will send their boats down to 
Vienna and Pesth. 

Three Steamers are being built in Dutch dockyards for the Emperor of Japan. 

Letters from St. 1'etf.rsburg state that great activity prevails, not only in the 
Imperial Dockyards, but also in those belonging to private individuals, and in a short time 
Russian maritime commerce, not content with having the loss which it experienced of its 
vessels during the war repaired, will possess a much greater number of ships than before. It 
is well known that the Grand Duke Constantine devotes much attention to the development 
of this branch of the marine. Very recently he has granted permission for a vessel built 
on the stocks of the Grand Navigation Company, established at I'li, in Finland, to assume 
his name. 

An Extkaokdinaey Ship. — "The New York Journal of Commerce" states that Mr. 
J. J. Rink, architect and engineer, has drawn up plans of a stupendous " fortress war-ship," 
480 ft. in length, with 300 guns, 640 battle galleries, 3,600 berths, and all the munitions of 
war in proportion. Its appearance would, no doubt, scare off the most audacious enemy 
without the necessity of firing a gun. The ship is further provided with stable accommoda- 
tion for 300 horses, two lighthouses, three powder towers, two wrench rudders, made to 
operate in all directions, and so arranged as to be used in checking the speed of the ship, 
besides a variety of other appliances. This last is a desirable quality, as the inventor is 
sanguine that she will be propelled at the rate of 45 miles an hour. In addition to steam 
power, the ship will spread not less than 6,000 yards of canvas. Even a partial description 
of all the novelties introduced would occupy columns of space. 

New York. — There are at present no vessels building here for the, merchant service. 
The only ships in construction are the Russian frigate at Mr. Webb's yard, and a United 
States sloop of war, building under contract with Jacob Westervelt. 

The British steamer Progress, Docke, arrived at Gibraltar on the 1st of February, from 
the eastward, under canvas, the fan of her screw having broken previous to her coming 
into the bay. 

The Collins' Steamer "Adriatic," it is asserted, has been sold to the Russian 
Government for £200,000. 

Dr. Livingston's Launch.— This launch has been built by Mr. John Laird, at his 
new shipbuilding works at Birkenhead, the material employed being the new homogeneous 
metal commonly called " steel plates," manufactured by Messrs. Shortridgc, Howell, and 
Jessop, of Sheffield. The great advantage of using this description of plates is, that the 
same amount of strength is obtatned as that found in the best iron plates of double the 
thickness, so that a vessel of a much lighter draft of water can be built to the removal of the 
obstacles which have hitherto been in the way of navigating shallow rivers. After having 
made a variety of experiments in working this homogeneous metal, Mr. Laird thought i; 
might be most applicable for this purpose in the construction of vessels of adequate strength, 
with light draft of water. The launch has been built with great despatch, the order for its 
construction having been given only five or six weeks ago. For convenience of transship- 
ment, it has been built in three sections, on a patent taken out by Mr. McGregor Laird, five 
or six years ago. The centre section contains the boiler and a single horizontal high-pres- 
sure engine, of 12 H.P., and the two end sections are fitted up for the accommodation of the 
persons engaged in the expedition. Each compartment is made secure with water-tight 
bulkheads. In the aft section is a neat deck-house, which will be comfortably furnished, 
and will have every necessary for securing ventilation. The vessel is a paddle steamer, her 
dimensions being — length, 75 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; and depth, 3 ft. She will not draw more 
than 12 or 14 in. of water, so that she is expected to be able to navigate the shallowest part 
of the river. The boiler, as well as the hull of the launch, is made of these steel plates, 
which are only 3-16ths of an inch thick. The boiler has been proved to 160 lbs. pressure, 
though it will only be necessary to work up to 40 lbs. This, we believe, is the first applica- 
tion of this cheap steel to boat-building purposes. If it should answer, there can be little 
doubt that not only numerous vessels of a similar class will be built for the navigation of 
shallow rivers, but that it will also be applied to the construction of vessels of large 
burden. 

The "Leviathan" Afloat.— On Sunday afternoon, Jan. 30th, the launch of the 
Leviathan was successfully accomplished. The tide ran with nnusual swiftness, and as 
the flood relieved the weight upon the launching ways, some of the hydraulic machines 
were set to work for the last time, to push the monster as far as possible into the centre of 
the river. She moved easily, and with such a low rate of pressure, that a short time gave 
an advance of 80 in. , which showed that more than half the cradles were quite pushed off 
the ways, and rested on the river bottom. At a quarter to two o'clock the men in the row- 
boats stationed alongside observed that she no longer rested on the cradles, that she was, 
in fact, afloat; but, of course, the transition was so gradual that few were aware of it 
until the tugs began steaming a-head, and showed that at last she was fairly under way. 
She had moved, and was moving ! The vessel moved at a quarter to two o'clock, was feirly 
afloat at half-past two, and at three o'clock swam tranquilly and majestically at her ap- 
pointed mooring on the Surrey side of the river, off Deptfofd Dockyard. Her draught of 
water when moored was 16J ft. aft, and 14 ft. forwards ; and at the present moorings she 
will, at the lowest tide, have 19 ft. of water under her keel. 

Annexed is the report of Mr. Brunei, the Engineer : — 

" The consequences resulting from the launch of the ship, and the consideration of the 
steps to be taken now that that operation has been effected, are all so much more important 
to those interested in this undertaking than any description of the mechanical difficulties 
wliich had to be contended with, or of the means by which they were overcome, that I 
shall defer to some period when I shall myself have more leisure, any description of the 
' launch.' 

" It is sufficient now that you should know, in addition to the notorious fact of the vessel 
being afloat, that in the operation not the slightest alteration of form has taken place, or 
the slighest injury of any sort been sustained; that the ship is perfectly tight, and floats 
as nearly as possible with the draught and trim previously calculated. The next im- 
portant question to all interested in the undertaking, and the last before the trial of the 
performance of the ship and engines, is now the time and cost required for completion 
ready for sea, and, with the concurrence of the directors, I propose to avoid as far as pos- 
sible all risk of error in estimates formed upon these points (and, owing to the peculiarity 
of the circumstances, the novelty of much that has to be done in the fitting up of snch a 
vessel, and the difficulty that always attends the making of calculations upon remnants of 
half-finished work, the risks of error in this case would be considerable). I propose to 
avoid these risks as much as possible by obtaining conditional contracts for the completion 
of all, or nearly all that remains to be done, and upon which the further proceedings of 
the company with reference to capital can be securely based. 

" The steps necessary to obtain these tenders will necessarily occupy some time, but 
such will be wed spent if certainty in our calculations can be obtained. 

" I trust that an adjournment for one month will be sufficient to enable me to lay before 
yeu, for the information of the proprietors, such results as will practically attain the 
object in view. " I. K. BRUNEL." 



The Aktizak, 1 
March I, 1858. J 



Notes and Novelties. 



73 



It is believed that the first trip or the -Leviathan" will be to Portland, in 
connection with the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada. 

The Edith Moore, an East Indiaman, of 1,430 tons register, and one of the largest 
vessels ever built in Liverpool, has just been launched from the yard of Mr. W. C. Miller, 
Toxteth Dock. 

Top Melbourne Chamber of Commerce has presented a protest to the Post- 
master-General, in reference to the irregularities of the mail service, and a detail is given 
of the past irregularities, from which it appears that, instead of six full-power steam-vessels 
between Suez and Sydney, there have never been more than four at one time, and for the 
greater part of the period only three. 

Coating Iron Ships.— Mr. E. B. Olofson, of Cologne, proposes, in painting iron ships, 
to employ rich crvstal plumbago, reduced to powder, and heated in metal pots, with one- 
third its weight of boiled linseed oil, until the colour changes from black to grey. A little 
sulphur is sometimes added, mixed with from 4 to 8 per cent, of a compound of powdered 
white marble, ground in linseed oil. For coarser pigments, anthracite is employed instead 
of plumbago, "iron is coated with it to prevent oxidation. 

The "Imperador"' and "Imperatriz,'" screw steamers, built by Mi-. John 
Laird, for the South American and General Steam Navigation Company, and particulars of 
which have already appeared in The Aktizan for 1855, p. 17, have been employed by the 
Government in taking troops to the East, and have made very successful runs. The 
Imperador made the entire run, from England to Hong Kong, in 77 days. The Imperatriz 
left England the same day, but having to call at the Cape, was a few days longer on the 



■Woolwich Dockyard, Feb. 13. — The dimensions of the Cliallenger are similar to 
those of the Scout, Pearl. Scijlla, and Charybdis, recently lrailt at Woolwich and Chatham 
Dockyards, on a newprinciple, to carry an armament of 21 guns. The Challenger is, more- 
over, pro vided with an additional deck. Her principal dimensions are the following:— 
Length between the perpendiculars, 200 ft. ; length of the keel for tonnage, 171 ft. 9J in. ; 
breadth extreme, 40 ft. 4 in. ; breadth for tonnage, 40 ft. ; breadth moulded, 39 ft. 4 in. ; 
depth in.hold, 22 ft. 8 in. ; burden in tons, 1,462 2i-94ths. Immediately after the launch 
the Cliallenger will be brought into the outer basin, to be fitted with a couple of engines of 
400 H.P. Her batter)' will consist of twenty 8-in. guns, of 65 cwt., and one pivot 
68-pounder, of 95 cwt., carried forward or aft, as may be convenient. The propeller is 
designed so as to be lifted by the spanker boom. 

An Air Fog-Signal, the invention of Admiral Taylor, has been placed upon the 
Rhadamanthus transport store ship. There are on the top of the instrument five whistles, 
which can be heard for miles. 

Admiral Sir George Sartorius has been deputed by the Portuguese Government 
to order a number of 300 H.P. engines from Messrs. Humphrys, 'Pennant, and Dykes. 

London, Harwich, and Continental Steam Packet Company.— A call 
of £10 per share has been made in this unfortunate concern. 

An Engineer of a Screw Steamer has lost his life through suffocation, having 
taken a bucket of burning coals unto his berth and gone to sleep. 

A New Life Boat has been built by Messrs. Forrest, of Limehouse. The peculiar 
characteristics of this boat are its buoyancy and capacity of righting itself when capsized, 
and when filled with water from heavy seas, of self-discharging the entire body in twenty or 
twenty-five seconds. This advantage is obtained by means of six valves fixed at the bottom 
of the boat, which let out water but do not let it in. 

The Coast Guard Squadron, hitherto consisting of mere hulks, is being replaced 
by effective auxiliary screw line of battle ships. 

The firm of C. Mitchell and Co., Low Walker, Newcastle-on-Tyne, iron ship builders, 
has dissolved partnership. 

Greenock, February 6. — This day the Bremen, a handsome screw-steamer, was 
launched from the building yard of Messrs. Caird and Co., of the following dimensions : — 
Length over all, 350 feet ; breadth, 40 ft. 6. in. ; depth of hold, 33 ft. 6 in. : tonnage, 2,600. 
Messrs. Caird and Co.. are also to fit her up with a pair of direct-acting engines of 
700 H.P. 

Building Ships. — This improvement consists in preventing the vibration of the 
sides of the ship, and the consequent leakage at the keel by arranging, diagonally, two 
rods and braces in opposite directions, from the keel to the top side of the ship ; the said 
braces and rods bearing against strong knees or shoes, which securely tie the timbers of 
the keel together. We regard this as a good arrangement, which ought to be adopted in 
every large steamer. It is the invention of John Peeves, of Brooklyn. — New York 
Scientific American. 

The Pacific Steam Navigation Company's Steamer Vaddivia has been lost. 

Kapid Transformation of the French Sailing Navy into Steamers. 
— France (which during the War in the Crimea possessed only nine steam-ships of the 
line) will, in the course of the present year, have afloat twenty-four steam-ships of the 
same class, of which nine are of the greatest speed, and fifteen screw-steamers. 

At the meeting of the Oriental Island Steam Navigation Company, Feb. 19th, 
it was announced thatthe directors have twelve vessels (two steamers and trains of barges), 
far advanced towards completion, and which it is expected will be ready for departure to 
India in April. The contract price of these vessels is £25,700. The directors have been in 
negotiation with the East India Company, and it is believed that the subvention may be 
increased from £5,000 to £10,000 a year ; but a decision has not yet been arrived at. The 
post of resident engineer has been filled up by the appointment of Mr. Leys, late resident 
engineer of the Pacific Steam Company at Panama. 

Sheerness, February 17.— The new screw steamship Meeanee, of 80 guns, pro- 
ceeded on a trial trip of her machinery. She left the garrison point at 10-20 a.m., proceeded 
down to the Middle Light vessel in the Swin, and on her return steamed up Sea Reach, 
and returned into harbour at 4-35 p.m. on the same day. The mean speed given by patent 
logs was 10J knots per hour, her engines making 63 revolutions per minute, with 20 lb. of 
steam; vacuum, 26^ ; screw, 19 ft. pitch, and 17" ft. diameter. The trial was satisfactory in 
every respect. 

HARBOURS, DOCKS, CANALS, &c. 

. Harbours of Refuge. — The Government are not indisposed to make Great Yarmouth, 
on the Norfolk coast, a subsidiary harbour of refuge, at an outlay of £40,000 or £50,000, 
if the practicability of the proceeding can be demonstrated on scientific evidence. 

Cardiff Dock Extensions.— The New East Bute dock has now been opened its 
entire length. The bank of earth which separated the portion first used from the second 
has been nearly removed, and the water allowed to run into the extension ; the whole 
forming a lake of water 3,000 ft. in length, and from 300 ft. to 500 ft. in width. Vessels 
have entered, and the steam dredging machine is actively at work. 

Holyhead New Harbour.— The destruction of the staging lately erected for the 
constrnction of a round head on the north breakwater has, dnring the late gale, been 
fearful. The formidable mass of piles gave way to the terrific fierceness of the gale, and 
about 70,000 ft. of timber were carried away, and are now strewn along the coast below 
Penrh03. Six out of seven turntables, and thirty-three of the strong iron waggons, laden 
with stone, placed on the top for steadying the timber, were plunged into the sea. 



New Graving Dock at Meadowside, Partick, Glasgow. — The malleable iron gates 
are 70 tons weight, the sockets for which are formed in immense blocks of granite. The 
basin contains nearly an acre of surface space, and along with the wharves at the sides of 
the Clyde and Kelvin, affords about 1,200 lineal feet of quay surface for the accommodation 
of vessels. Two large jib cranes have been set upon the wharves of the basin, each 
capable of lifting 17 tons, and a steam crane capable of lifting 60 tons of dead weight. The 
dock is 500 ft. in length inside of the gates. The width on the sole of the dock, or floor, is 
50 ft. ; at the summit of the walls it is 80 ft. : and the entrance will permit the passage of 
a vessel of 56 ft. beam and drawing 17 ft. water. The pumping machinery for removing 
the water from the dock is of the most massive description ; the engine and the pumps are 
in one piece, seated on the top of the masonry of the well, the bottom of which is 6 ft. under 
the lowest part of the dock ; the engine is 150 horse power, working two pumps, each 
50 in. diameter and 5 ft. stroke. These pumps are capable of emptying the dock in two 
hours' time. ' Besides this large engine, there is a smaller engine for driving the machinery 
connected with the dock, and pumping the leakage and surface water. 

Liverpool Dock and Harbour Board. — No new dockwork is to be commenced 
at the north end until the Birkenhead docks are completed. The power may be obtained 
to raise money to complete the new large dock and basin north of the Huskisson dock, and 
to extend the river-wall, as required by the Admiralty, for the protection of the navigation 
of the Mersey. Power is also to be obtained for raising money to be applied for the con- 
struction of cranes, and the laying down of railways to facilitate the working of the present 
docks. 

Jarrow Docks. — The works are making satisfactory progress. It is expected that 
the masonwork will be finished in about two months, and that the water will be let into 
the Great Dock in the autumn. The shipping jetties are in a forward state, and some of 
the spouts are finished. The railways are, in a forward state. The standage will include 
21 miles of single fine. The 60 ft. entrance is finished, and the other gates are in a forward 
state. The contracts for the whole of the hydraulic machinery to open and shut the great 
gates have been let to Messrs. Armstrong and Co., of the Elswick works, for £4,800. There 
will be ample accommodation for large steam ships. 

Greenock, February 6. — Six offers had been given in for erecting the new shed at the 
Victoria harbour, and the work had fallen into the hands of Mr. Stewart Allison, who was 
the lowest offerer, and that Mr. Bernard had been the successful offerer for executing the 
pileage at the steamboat quays. 

Pembroke. — The Board of Admiralty have entrusted to Mr. William. Williams, the 
contractor for the battery built by the War Department, at Dale, the contract for dredging 
the mud opposite the Royal Dockyard, Pembroke Dock; and he is having barges built 
on a plan designed by himself for the purpose, and will commence operations immediately. 
The works are to be carried on under the supervision of Mr. Edward Miller, clerk of works 
to the Board of Admiralty. 

Projects for the Improvement of the Mouths of the Danube. — There 
are three, or, more properly, four, first— that of Mr. Hartley, the engineer of the Commis- 
sion ; then that of the Austrian engineer, M. Wex, both advocating the preference of the 
St. George; that of the Prussian engineer, sent out last summer, who is in favour of the 
Sulina; and lastly, a project submitted by Captain Spratt, R.N., suggesting the Ochakoff 
Mouth of the Kiliabranch. 

Venice. — The operations for deepening the canals of Spignone have been so successful, 
that large vessels can enter it at low water without difficulty or danger, and at any time of 
the day or night. Dredging is carried on with great energy on the sandbank of Rochetta. 
Before' the end of the year, the largest war frigates will be able to cast anchor before the 
Place of St. Mark. 

Southampton Dock Company. — An extension of the works is proposed. 

GAS ENGINEERING, &c. 

Soapstone Gas Burners. — In gas burners made of iron or brass, the heat of the flame 
expands the metal and enlarges the opening, causing some waste of gas, and besides, the 
metal is liable to corrode. To obviate these evils, M. Schwarz, of Nuremberg, has lately 
manufactured gas burners from soapstone (steatite). This stone is cut up into small four- 
sided slabs put into hermetically sealed cases, and exposed to a slow fire until it becomes 
red hot. Great care is exercised in thus roasting the stone, because if quickly heated, it will 
rupture by the sudden expansion of small particles of moisture in it. The steatite slabs are 
exposed to this heat for about two hours, slowly cooled, and are then easily turned to the 
proper shape in a lathe. After this, they are boiled in oil until they acquire a deep brown 
colour, when they are taken out, dried, and made to assume a beautiful polish by simply 
rubbing them with a woollen rag. Liebig gives these burners a very high character, and 
advises all chemists to employ them in their laboratories. 

Keytssham.— Messrs. Atkins and Son, of Chepstow, have just completed the erection 
of new gas works capable of producing 24,000 cubic ft. in twenty-four hours. The ovens 
are on Cliffs patent. 

Longford (Ireland) has been lighted with gas. 

New Works are about to be commenced at Bray, county Wicklow, and Dublin. 

The Copiapo Gas Company" have received a complete certificate of registration under 
the Limited Liability Act. 

Lighting Street Lamps by Electricity. Messrs. Keogh have patented a new system. 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, &c. 

The Norfolk Agricultural Society has resolved that all money prizes for 
implements shall be given to collections, and not to individual implements. 

Australian Agricultural Company. — A dividend has been declared of£l per 
share. The chairman, in alluding to the various proposed rail and tram ways, for the 
development of the resources of the Company, observed thatthe directors are well disposed 
to assist independent parties in the construction of such works, but were unanimously of 
opinion that, before embarking- capital in a new project, their existing operations should be 
brought to a successful issue. The machinery sent out for the coal mines has turned out 
defective, and the loss from this cause will be about £2,500. It was purchased from the 
British Iron Company. 

A County Agricultural Society has been established in Essex. 

The Suffolk Agricultural Society will hold their annual exhibition at Bury 
St. Edmund's, on Wednesday, July 7. It was proposed to award a premium of £30 for the 
best application of steam to cultivation, but the proposition was negatived on the ground 
that the exhibitors objected to the prize system. 

BOILERS, FURNACES, SMOKE PREVENTION, &c. 

Preventing Incrustation in Boilers. — R. McCafferty, of Lancaster, Pa., patontod 
a new process for this purpose on the 14th April, 1857. It consists in putting half a pound 
of black gum catechu in a boiler of 100 H.P., until the water becomes the colour of pale 
brandy, and during the week the water is kept as nearly that colour as possible. 



Notes and Novelties. — Notices to Correspondents. 



r The Aiitizax. 
I; March 1,1858, 



Boiler Explosion.— Llanelly and Llandilo Railway, which runs into the South 
Wales line at the former place. The engine was an old one. It was waiting, with steam 
np, at the fiarnant station for a train, and several passengers were on the platform. The 
stoker had just put on a fresh supply of coals, when suddenly, without any previous warn- 
ing, the hoiler burst. The dome of the engine, and some iron attached, weighing nearly 
. half a ton, were blown to a distance of nearly 150 yards. Three persons were killed. 

Smoke Prevention. — The premium of .-£500, offered by the Steam Colliers' Associa- 
tion, in the North of England, for the prevention of smoke during the combustion of Hurt- 
ley coals in steam boilers, has been awarded to Mr. C. Wye Williams, of Liverpool. 

Among the improvements which have recently been adopted in Woolwich Arsenal are 
smoke-burning furnaces, erected by Mr. Armstrong, civil engineer, many years in the 
employ of Government. One of these, termed a Rcverbcrative Forge Furnace, lias been tor 
some months past in use in the Royal carriage department smithery, experimentally, so as 
to test its power and efficiency in remedying the smoke nuisance, now become so formid- 
able, in consequence of the newly-erected establishments having commenced operations. 
Proof being given of its favourable results in materially diminishing the amount of smoke, 
in accordance with the clause contained in the. Act of Parliament, it was at the same time 
ascertained that an economy of about 4 per cent, in the use of fuel was an additional 
advantage. A second furnace |on the same principle has been ordered to be constructed 
in the Royal gun factory department, and is nearly ready for trial. The system of 
consuming the smoke is carried out by means of an ordinary brick furnace, supplied 
■with small valves, or air channels, by which the air is introduced into a series of heated 
tubes along the roof. By this expedient the smoke becomes inflamed, and little more than 
a mere vapour appears at the top of the chimney. Unlike, however, the ordinary furnace, 
the fire is fed from a door near the roof. A second furnace, patented by Major Vandeleur, 
R.A., has also been erected in the same department, having similar pretensions to the 
above, but constructed with certain internal arrangements, so as to cause the smoke to 
redescend from the roof and pass through the body of the fire. 

Using Coke in Smithies.— The Liverpool. Smoke Inspector has made a series of 
experiments, which proved that coke might be advantageously used in smithies in place of 
slack. The inspector has also induced the men at the Northumberland Works to use coke, 
and they found that it was better to work with than slack, while its use also put a stop to 
the constant emission of dense smoke. 

APPLIED CHEMISTRY, &c. 

A New Discolorising Agent.— M. Ch. Mene, chemist, of the Metallurgical Esta- 
blishment at Greuzot, has recently made various experiments, which seem to prove that 
hydrated alumina may be substituted for animal charcoal for the discoloration of liquids. 
He prepared hydrated alumina by decomposing alum by carbonate of soda ; then, filtering 
and washing this alumina, mixed in excess with different colouring matters in ebullition, 
tincture of litmus or carmine, syrups, and molasses, he found it to give rise to coloured 
lakes, which fall to the bottom, while the liquor becomes entirely colourless. For dis- 
coloring the syrups of sugar they use in the establishments large tubes of sheet iron, capable 
of containing from lj to 2 tons of animal charcoal. The liquid brought into contact with 
this charcoal percolates it very slowly. If the charcoal were replaced by alumina, com- 
pletely insoluble, and tasteless, the operation of discoloration would be reduced to a simple 
cooking, followed by a filtering through a simple cloth. 15 grammes of alumina replaced 
250 grammes of animal charcoal in the discoloration of a quart of water, coloured by 10 
grammes of litmus. For a solution of sugar, coloured by molasses, 7 grammes' of alumina 
were equivalent to 125 of animal charcoal. The revivification of the alumina will, more- 
over, be much easier than that of the charcoal. 

Waterproof Paper for Packages.— Take 24oz.of alum and 4oz. of white soap, 
and dissolve them in 2 lbs. of water; into another vessel dissolve 2 oz. of gum-arabic and 
6 oz. of glue, in the same quantity of water as the former, and add the two solutions 
together, which is now to be kept warm, and the paper intended to be made waterproof 
•dipped into it, passed between rollers, and dried, or, without the use of rollers, the paper 
may be suspended until it is perfectly dripped, and then dried. The alum, soap, glue, and 
gum, form a kind of artificial leather, which protects the surface of the paper from the 
action of water, and also renders it somewhat fireproof. 

Starch prom Horse Chestnuts.— Considerable quantities of horse chestnuts are 
wanted from our departments, at a price equal to that which the starch factories paid for 
potatoes last year. These fruits are destined for a factory at Nanterre, to be converted into 
starch. We have already remarked that there would be a great advantage in replacing the 
starch derived from the grains by a starch extracted from an otherwise useless fruit. The 
horse chestnut is acclimated everywhere, grows rapidly, and on the most sterile soils ; is 
not attacked by insects ; and now that an excellent starch is extracted from its fruit, there 
"will be a certain profit in multiplying the tree, which is one of the most beautiful in 
Europe, along our roads, promenades, and public places. — Cosmos. 

Process for Printing from Veneers.— A process of veneering by transfer is 
mentioned with approval in the French journals. The sheets of veneer, or inlaying to be 
copied, is to he exposed for a few minutes to the vapour of hydrochloric acid. This novel 
plate is then laid upon calico or paper, and impressions struck off with a printing press. 
Heat is to he applied immediately after the sheet is printed, when a perfect impression of 
all the marks, figures, and convoluted lines of the veneer is said to be instantaneously 
produced. The process, it is affirmed, may be repeated for an almost indefinite number of 
times. The designs thus produced are said all to exhibit a general wood-like tint, most 
natural when oak, walnut, maple, and the light-coloured woods have been employed. 

Spirit for Blowpipe Lamp.— Mr. F. Tisani suggests the use of a mixture of six parts of 
alcohol, sp. gr. 0'848, with one part oil of turpentine, and a few drops of ether. Wood 
spirit may be used instead of the alcohol, and of it four parts will suffice. The mixture 
must be perfectly clear, for the undissolved glohules of turpentine cause the lamp to 
smoke. 

Clarifying Sugar by Soap. — This new process, invented by Mr. Garcia, a sugar refiner, 
late of Louisiana, was brought under the notice of the Academy of Sciences, at Paris, by 
M. Basset, a few days ago. It is founded on the well-known property of lime, which 
combines with fatty substances, whether free or transformed, into alkaline soap. When the 
saccharate ot lime is brought into contact with a solution of soap of soda, the sugar is 
set at liberty, the lime combines with the acid of the soap, and the soda remains in dissolu- 
tion m the liquid. When the clarification has been effected with an excess of lime, and the 
liquid has been skimmed a first time, it must be allowed to cool to below 104 deg. Fahr., 
and the solution of soap is then poured in, the liquid being gently stirred all the while. 
When the whole has been weU incorporated, it is brought again to the boiling point, after 
which the temperature is suddenly lowered again by the suppression of the steam current, 
and the new scum is removed. The latter consists entirely of a calcareous soap, which, in 
rising to the surface, lias carried away with it all the impurities and extraneous substances 
contained in the liquid, and has an excellent taste. This process requires no new appa- 
ratus, increases the beauty of the sugar, yields more, and is, consequently, more 
■economical. 

Arsenic in Paperiiangings. — Dr. Alfred Swaine Taylor, in his evidence before the 
beiect Comnrttee of the House, of Lords last Session, on the Sale of Poisons BUT, after 



pointing out that arsenic was much used in several manufactures— such as In the manufac- 
ture of glass, especially opal glass, of shot, in the steeping of grain, and in killing the fly in 
sheep— states that the largest quantity of arsenic used inthis country is used in the- manu- 
facture of paper for covering walls. He considered it very injurious both to those living in 
a house papered with this article, as well as to those employed iu the manufacture. 

MINES, METALLURGY, &c. 

LAKE SurERIOR COPPER Mines.— The amount of copper shipped from Ontonagon, 
by the various mines of that district, during the season of navigation of 1850 and 1857, was 
upwards of 3,280 tons, the estimated value of which is not less than 1,000,000 dols. 

Ireland. — It is proposed to work three beds of silex, in a sett leased to Mr. Deering, 
C.E., at Rostellan, Cork Harbour. Silex is substituted for ground flint and Cornish stone 
in the manufacture of porcelain and earthenware. 

Advices from Australia to December 15 state that a staff of Prussian mining 
engineers are making a tour through the mining districts of the Colony. 

Loss of Lead and Silver Ores in Washing. — M. Fouruct calls attention to 
the loss arising from the difficulty of thoroughly wetting the ore .at once, and the con- 
sequent fact that the air entangled in the powder causes a considerable quantity to float 
and pass off with the water. This is seen in pouring water over any powder — <•.;/., magnesia. 
He shows that this effect takes place with lead and silver ores in pure and salt water, but 
not in oil or in alcohol. He proposes no practical remedy. — Complex Itendut. 

Strengthening Klectro Magnets. — M. Schefeik, Engineer of the Imperial 

Telegraphs (Austria), has endeavoured to remedy the inconveniences arising from the 
inconsiderable diameter of the copper wire, with which the core of iron lias hitherto been 
wrapped, when powerful electro magnetic effects were to be obtained. He has perfectly 
succeeded by wrapping the core with ribbons of copper, presenting their edges to the core, 
This new apparatus occupies much less space than an apparatus with thick cores, and 
produces powerful effects by means of a galvanic current developed by a battery of few, 
but large elements. — Geological Institute of Vienna {tlnstitut). 

Oreide — A New Brass. — M.M. Mcurier and Valient, of Paris, have succeeded in 
making an alloy which imitates gold sufficiently near to merit the name Oreide. The 
properties are as follow : — Pure copper, 100 parts by weight ; zinc, 17 ; magnesia 6; sal 
ammoniac, 3 ; quick lime, 1 '80 ; tartar of commerce, 9. The copper is first melted, then 

the magnesia, sal ammoniac, lime, and tartar in powder, little by little ; the crucible is 
briskly stirred for about half an hour, so as to mix thoroughly, and then the zinc is added 
in small grains by throwing it on the surface, and stirring until it is entirely fused, the 
crucible is then covered and fusion maintained for about 35 minutes; the crucible is then 
uncovered, skimmed carefully, and the alloy 'cast in a mould of damp sand or metal. The 
oreide melts at a temperature low enough to allow its application to all kinds of ornamenta- 
tion ; it has a tine grain, is malleable, and capable of taking the most brilliant polish. 
When after a time it becomes tarnished from oxidation, its brilliancy may be restored by a 
little acidulated water. If the zinc is replaced by tin the metal will be still more brilliant. 
— Cosmos. 

Iron Sands in New Zealand. — The coast abounds with iron sands, such as the 
best iron is made of in Sweden; and the Colonial Government offer a reward XI, 000 for 
the production of the first 100 tons of merchantable wrought or cast iron, made from 
this sand. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

H. B. F. (Rio). — The Mr. Vignoles to whom you refer is Mr. Charles Vignoles, C.E., who 
built the Kieff Suspension Bridge, e rected across the Dnieper in Russia. We believe he has 
visited Brazil for the purpose of making some railway surveys ; and although we have on 
a former occasion given most of the dimensions of the Kieff Bridge, we will comply with 
your request, as you may not have the opportunity of referring to the Numbers con- 
taining those particulars ; the following are, therefore, the principal dimensions and par- 
ticulars : — 

Extreme length, 854 yards— (nearly lialf-a-mile), or 2,5G2 feet 

(3G6 Russian sagenes — 776 French metres.) 

Extreme breadth, 17J yards, or 52J „ 

(7£ Russian sagenes — 10 French metres.) 
Each of the four large openings, from centre to centre of 

the river suspension towers or piers 440 „ 

Spans ■< Each of the two side openings, from centre of the suspen- 
sion tower to the face of the abutment 225 „ 

• Swivel bridge opening, in the clear 50 „ 

Clear waterway at highest floods 2,140 „ 

Height of platform above ordinary summer water-line 30 „ 

■ Greatest rise of floods (after the melting of the snows in the spring) 

above the ordinary summer water level 20 „ 

Greatest depth of water in the channel at summer level 40 „ 

Ditto at highest floods GO „ 

Extreme height from deepest river foundations to the top of caps of 

the suspension towers or piers 112 „ 

Breadth of the portals piercing the suspension towers 28 ,, 

Height of ditto 35 „ 

Chord of chains of large openings, clear of piers 416 „ 

Tersed sine of ditto 30 „ 

Total length of all the suspended platforms, clear of piers 2,090 , , 

Total weight of all the platforms and rods, clear of piers (48 lb. per 

square foot) 2,350 tons. 

Weight of chains and pins, suspended clear of the piers 1,076 „ 

Total weight of the four chains and pins only (length of each 

chain, 2,280 feet) 1,578 „ 

Minimum sectional area of the four chains, excluding pins and over- 
laps 328 sq. in. 

Total weight of iron of all kinds used in the works 3,500 tons. 

Total quantity of timber used, including temporary works 500,000 c. ft. 

Total quantity of masonry, brickwork, and concrete in the works . . 1,500,000 „ 

Proof load per available square foot of suspended platform ." . 63 lbs. 

Total proof load calculated to be laid on the bridge for testing 2,350 tons. 

Actual load laid on the bridge for the test— 60,000 cubic feet of sand 
— which, being much wetted by heavy rain during the test, 
weighed 1 cwt. per cubic foot, being equivalent to the' weight of 

50,000 infantry soldiers, or about 3,000 „ 

Total expenditure, about £432,000 sterling. 
The works were commenced in April, 1848, whilst the first stone was laid with great 
ceremony, September 9th, 1848, and the bridge was opened October 10th, 1853. The 
test load for the platform was nearly 60,000 cubic feet of; wet sand, which was allowed to 



The Artizak, "1 
March 1, 1853. J 



List of Designs. 



75 



remain several days. The chains are composed of links, eaoh 12 feet long, weighing 
about 4J cwt, the breadth of each chain being equal to the thickness of eight of these 
links, placed side by side ; and the total length of chain employed is about 3,500 yards, 
there being four principal openings, each of 440 feet, and two side openings, of 225 feet 
each : there is also an additional opening close to one of the shores for the passage of 
river craft— this is 50 feet wide, and is spanned by a swivel bridge. The width of the plat- 
form is about 52 feet, which is suspended by four chains, two on each side of the road ; 
the carriage-way being 35 feet wide, and the footpath on each side projects outside of the 
chains. 

The total weight of iron used in the construction of the bridge is stated to be about 
3,500 tons. The suspension chains being made by the late firm of Fox, Henderson, and 
Co., the other iron-work ty Messrs. Musgrove, of Bolton. 

Q. — The Abbe Moigno, of Paris, described a series of experiments which were made by him 
for the purpose of determining the practical value of super-heating steam. The experi- 
ments referred to were made upon the plan of Wethered. Unfortunately, the 
learned Abbe's very rapid delivery, added to its being in the French language, rendered 
it almost impossible to follow him ; and many of the members of Section G of the 
British Association, who were present, were unable to realise the advantages insisted 
upon as pertaining to the Honourable John Wethered's system of super-heating steam, 
but the following is an extract from the statement made by the Abbe Moigno : — 



Kind of Steam. 


Pressure. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


Revolutions. 


Consumption 
of Coal. 


Coal consumed 
per revolution. 




Atmosphrs. 
2" 


128° 


7,892 


Kilos. 
151 


Grammes. 
19-2 


Surcharged ... 


2-4 


160° 


7,886 


99 


12- 


Combined .... 


23 


157° 


7,886 


72 


9' 



The first horizontal line relates to ordinary steam ; the second relates to steam sur- 
charged with heat, the bottom line gives the result of the combinations of two steams 
when brought together and mixed at the cylinder ; the third vertical column shows the 



number of revolutions to have been the same — namely, 7,886 with the surcharged steam . 
and with the combined steam respectively, whilst with the ordinary steam, 7,892 revolu- 
tions were recorded, being six more than in the other two experiments. Thus, whilst 
the consumption of coal was 151 kilos., with ordinary steam for 7,892 revolutions, the 
number of revolutions being 7,886 with surcharged steam, at the temperature and pres- 
sure given, exhibits a consumption of 99 kilos, only, whilst the combined steam, at a 
slightly reduced pressure and temperature gave a consumption of 72 kilos, of coal 
for 7,886 revolutions. The coal consumption reduced to grammes per revolution shows 
respectively 19-2, 120, and 90, as the equivalents. Now, if these experiments were pro- 
perly conducted and carefully recorded, and it can be shown that no prejudicial action 
ensued from the use of super-heated steam, and, indeed, that no practical drawbacks of 
equal or greater magnitude and importance, as compared with the economy of fuel, the 
system of super-heating exhibits advantages which speak for themselves ; and although 
we are loth to express an opinion unfavourable to the employment of super-heated steam 
under circumstances where it would be of the greatest advantage, yet we are unable to 
record any thoroughly satisfactory experiments of a practical character which have 
been successfully made, or which have resulted in the daily use of this system. 

We believe we are correct in stating that a series of experiments have, for some time 
past, been in progress at one of Her Majesty's Dockyards, for the purpose of practically 
testing the question, although we understand that the plan of the Hon. John Wethered 
is not the one which is being tried. 

When anything in the shape of a satisfactory result is announced, we will pub- 
lish it. 
C. Pearcy. — By reference to an answer given to " Radix " in the Notices to Correspondents 
for February, you will find one of your questions answered. With reference to the others, 
we cannot do better than refer you to the very able work, by Mr. Daniel Kinnear Clark, 
C.E.,on " Railway Machinery," where you will find, under Section 2, "Physiology of 
the Locomotive," the link motion is treated of in Chapters 3 and 4, pp. 39 — 53, as 
it would be an extravagant expenditure of space were we to cite in our columns what 
Mr. Clark in his work says upon the subject ; and, moreover, it would be unfair to our 
subscribers, considering the very limited space we have at our disposal each month for 
replying to inquiries. 

Take our advice, and buy Mr. Clark's book. You will find it very useful. 

A. B., ex. — We regret we have not yet been able to obtain for you, and for other corre- 
spondents, the information as to the tangent wheel referred to. 



LIST OF NEW PATENTS AND DESIGNS FOE ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 



APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION 
ALLOWEB. 
Dated 8th December, 1857. 
3038. W. J. Ward, Chorlton-on-Medlock, Manchester — Dye- 
ing and printing textile fabrics and materials, and 
in apparatus connected therewith. 

Dated 19th December, 1857. 
3117. T. Hart, jun., and A. Jones, Blackburn— Improve- 
ments in looms. 

Dated 21st December, 1857. 
3127. W. Thrift and A. High, Stepney — Improved self- 
acting ship's water closet. 

Dated 23rd December, 1857. 
3148. W. Nunn, Hackney, Middlesex— Stereoscopic appa- 
ratus. 

Dated 24th December, 1857. 
3160. G. W. Hart, 5, Osborne-terrace, Southsea— Locks. 

Dated 28th December, 1857. 
3174. H. Desmoutis, Paris — New metallic alloys. 

Dated 30th December, 1857. 

3184 J. Blake and R. D. Kay, Accrington — Apparatus for 
reducing and regulating the quantity, force, or 
pressure of steam. 

3192. J. Clinton, 35, Percy-street, Middlesex — Improve- 
ments in wind musical instruments played by the 
mouth, and in mandrils used in such manufacture. 

3195. H. Hanson, Stockport — Manufacture and finish of 

cotton-band, twine, band, rope, cordage, and other 
fibrous substances, and in machinery or apparatus 
employed therein. 

3196. P. W. Barlow, 26, Great George-street, Westminster — 

Permanent way of railways. 

3197. A. J. M. Ramar, 49, Broad-st., Golden-sq.,— Orna- 

mental and portable fountains. 

3198. G. Wilson, Sheffield— Furnaces or fire-places of steam 

boilers. 

3199. W. Middleship, Grove-ter., South-grove, Mile end — 

Machinery for obtaining motive power. 

3200. J. Long, Gorleston, Yarmouth, Norfolk — Construction 

of sewers, and in the means of discharging the 
contents thereof. 

Dated 1st January, 1858. 
1. J. Henry, Friday-street— Weaving fabrics for ladies' 
dresses and petticoats. 

3. L. J. A. Brun, Paris — Instruments for measuring 

angles, applicable to nautical and other purposes. 

4. G. Gorle, Handsworth — A service-box for water- 

closets. 

5. A. Parkes and H. Parkes, Birmingham — Manufacture 

of rods, wire, nails, and tubes. 

6. J. W. Clare, Surrey-sq. — Steam engines and boilers, 

part of which improvement is applicable to furnaces. 

7. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fitlds — Penholders, 

pencil cases, and other articles sliding in cases of a 
like nature. 

Dated 2nd January, 1858. 

8. R. Harvey, Glasgow — Steam hammers. 

9. A. Slate, Adelaide-road, Haverstock-hill — Apparatus 

for supplying fuel to blast furnaces. 

Dated 4th January, 1858. 

10. T. Scott, Drnmmond-street, Euston-square — Cleaning, 

separating, and mixing seeds, and apparatus. 



11 



11. E. T. Tiliam, St. Mary's Hospital, Paddington— Ap- 

paratus for ventilating buildings. 

12. F. Walton, Haughton Dale-mills, Manchester— Manu- 

facture of sheets or plates made of plastic composi- 
tions and other materials, and in the application 
thereof, either alone or in combination with other 
substances. 

13. E. H. Kiddle, Broad-street, Lambeth — Smut ma- 

chines. 

Dated 5th January, 1858. 

14. J. Ellis and J. H. Ellis, Leicester — Machinery for 

subdividing masses of rock and minerals. 

15. J. N. W. Twigg, Coventry, and W. Adkins, Bir- 

mingham — Self-acting railway-breaks. 

16. J. Leeming and J. C. Ramsden, Bradford — Looms for 

weaving. 

18. G. E. Dering, Lockleys, Hertford — Electric tele- 

graphs, and manufacture of insulated wire and 
cables. 

Dated 6th January, 1858.' 

19. T. F. Cocker, Sheffield — Manufacture of wire applic- 

able to umbrellas and parasols, and to articles of 
dress. 

20. R. A.Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Lock buckle. 

21. H. C. Jennings, 8, Great Tower-street — Application of 

tannin or tannic acid. 

22. J. D. Malcolm, 47, Leicester-square — Apparatus for 

ornamenting fabrics and other surfaces. 

Dated 1th January, 1858. 

23. M. L. J. Lavater, 23, Holywell-lane, Shoreditch— 

The application of the principle of exhausting air, 
as used in plate holders, breast pumps for pegs. 

25. C. A. Thiry, Paris — Improved oyster holder. 

26. P. P. Cappon, Marans, France — Self-acting pads for 

doors, shutters, windows, or other similar shut- 
tings. 

27. J. Reilly, jun., Manchester -Improvements in chairs 

and seats. 

28. E. Graham, 14, Noel-st., River-terrace, Islington — 

Apparatus for threading needles. 

29. R. and J. Philp, Norwood House, Cheltenham— Pro- 

pellers for propelling ships, boats, and other vessels 
in water. 

30. E. Maw, Doncaster Iron works, Cheshire— Construc- 

tion of metallic bedsteads, and other surfaces to sit 
or recline on. 

31. G. J. D. W. DeWinton, Junior United Service Club, 

Charles-street, St. James's, Westminster — Copying 
apparatus. 

Dated 8th January, 1858. 

32. S. Lees, Salford — Manufacture of mineral oil. 

33. H. Raymond, Bristol— Propelling ships or vessels. 

34. P. Soaines and J. C. Evans, Morden Iron Works, 

East Greenwich — Steam cranes. 

35. R. A.Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— A method of, and 

apparatus for, teaching music and arithmetic. 

36. H. Atkins, Nottingham — Producing scarfs, neck-ties, 

and other articles from the warp machine. 

37. T. Greenwood and J. Batley, Leeds— Machinery lor 

heckling flax and other fibrous materials. 

Dated 9th January, 1858. 

38. R. Brown, Liverpool — Water-closets. 

39. W. Church, Birmingham — -Measuring rules, com- 

passes, and in the machinery. 



40. T. Rowell, Sunderland— Furnaces. 

41. W. Parsons and J. Attree, Brighton — Measuring of 

water and other liquids, and an improved water 
and liquid meter. 

42. J. A. M. Chaufour, Paris— Improvements in the con- 

struction of axle-boxes and axle-bearings. 

Dated 11th January, 1858. 

W. Tregaskis, 37, St. Andrew's-hill, Thames-street— 
Printing press. 

T. Knowles, Hollingrove, Bury, and W. Ogilvic, 
Manchester — Looms. 

I. Taylor, Stanford Rivers, Essex— Manufacturing 
metallic cylinders used in printing calico and other 
fabrics, and in imparting engravings to metallic- 
cylinders used for such purposes. 

W. Hartree, Lewisham-road— Furnaces or fireplaces. 



43. 
44. 
45. 

46. 
47. 

48. 
49 



89, Chancery-lane —Registering water 



Dated 12th January, 1858. 

E. H. Bentall, Heybridge, near Maldon, Essex 

Improved arrangement of portable gearing appa- 
ratus for the application of horse power, principally 
for driving various kinds of agricultural machines 
or implements. 
A. F. E. Robert, Paris— Manufacture of curtains and 
hangings for walls and other places. 
. J.H.Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn -fields — Boilers and 
heating apparatus. 

Dated 13th January, 1858. 

50. G. C. Greenwell, Radstock, near Bath — Improved 

pigment. 

51. C. Barlow, 

meter. 

52. G. W. Muir, Manehestei — Wanning and ventilating. 

53. 11. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-st. — Preparation of coal 

and other fuel. 

54. E. B. Bright, Liverpool — Communicating signals bv 

electricity, and in the apparatuses employed 
therein. 

55. P. Robertson, 1, Sun-court, C'ornhill— Inkstands. 

56. W. Parsons, Pratt-street, Old Lambeth— Apparatus 

for supplying water to, and for preventing explo- 
sions of steam-boilers. 
C. E. Matson, Charles-st., Deptford— Roughing horses' 
shoes. 
B. A. Couder, Paris— Shawls. 

Dated 14th January, 1858. 
. E. Jeanroy, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris— Manufac- 
ture of net lace. 

f. Woodcock and T. Blackburn, Sough, near Black- 
burn, and J. Smalley, Blackburn — Machinery for 
heating and circulating air, to be applied to all pur- 
poses where heating is required. 
A. Manning, Inner Temple, Middlesex — Treatment 
of sewage and other polluted liquids. 
Broadley, Saltaire, near Bradford — Apparatus used 
in weaving. 

Stenson, Northampton— Manufacture of wrought 
iron. 

. Ingle, Shoe-lane — Printing machines. 
. Clark, 53, Chancery-lane — Improvements appli- 
cable to the paying out of submarine or submerged 
telegraph wires or cables. 

Dated loth January, 1858. 
, J. Yarley, Albion Iron Work6, Radcliffe— Steam 
engines. 



57 


C. 


58. 


J. 


59. 


N 


60 


W 


61. 


J. 


62. 


J. 


63. 


J. 


64. 
65. 


H. 
W 



76 



List of New Patents. 



tTHE Autizan, 
March 1, Iti58. 



72. 


J. 


73. 


R 


74. 


G. 


75. 


F 



87. G. Schinz, Camden, New Jersey, U.S.— Apparatus 
for manufacturing prussiate of potash. 

68. J. Macintosh, Aberdeen— Articles of confectionary. 

69. D. Bowlas, Reddish, Lancashire— Machinery for pre- 

paring and spinning cotton and other fibrous sub- 
stances. 

Sated 16th January, 1858. 

71. R. J. Badge, Newton-heath, near Manchester— Ma- 
chinery for drawing or extracting spikes or trenails 
from railway sleepers and chairs, and other similar 
purposes. 

Austin, Millisle Mills, Donaghadee, Ireland— Ma- 
chinery for ploughing or eultivattug land. 
Archibald, Devon-vale, Tillicoultry, N.B.— Treat- 
ment or preparation of wool, and other fibrous 
materials for being spun. 

Macbeth, Manchester— Improvement applicable to 
sewing machine. 

, Hyde, Glossop— Machinery for spinning, doubling, 
twisting, or throwing cotton, silk, wool, flax, and 
other fibrous substances. 

78. E. Hills, Warsash, Southampton— Process for manu- 
facturing sulphate of ammonia. 

77. P. Robertson, Sun-court, Cornhill — Lamps. 

78. C. A. de L. tie la Brosse, Paris— Machinery for the 

manufacture of looped or knitted fabrics. 

79. E. Rosa, Edinbugh, N.B. — Manufacture of dough and 

other plastic or porous substances. 

Dated 18th January, 1858. 

80. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Pipes and tubes. 

Dated 19th January, 1858. 

81. T. Hamilton and J. Hamilton, Glasgow — Holders or 

bobbins for holding or containing yarn or thread, 
and in turning, cutting, shaping, and reducing wood 
and other substances. 

82. A. Walker and T. Walker, Shotts, Lanark, N.B.— 

Treatment or preparation of moulds for casting 
metals. 

83. E. Wilson, 9, Rainbow-terrace, Worcester — Pistons 

for steam engines driven by steam or any other 
elastic fluid, which improvements are also applicable 
to the pistons or plungers of pumps. 

84. W. Waller, Uddingston, near Glasgow — Machinery 

for grinding, bruising, breaking, and cutting cereals, 
grasses, and other vegetable substances. 

85. W. Waller, Uddingston, near Glasgow — Threshing 

machines, or machinery for thrashing and dressing 
grain. 

86. V. De Tivoli, 67, Lower Thames-street — Omnibus. 

87. P. S. Bruff, Ipswich — Construction of submerged 

tunnels. 

88. C. G. A. Tremeschini, Vicenza, Venetian Lombardy — 

Mechanical arrangements for applying card board 
to the weaving of figured fabrics, and for arranging 
the card-board for this purpose. 

89. B. B. Wells, Strand— Ordnance. 

90. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields — Boxes and 

journals of carriage wheels and axles. 

81. T. Pirie, Nether Kinmundy, Aberdeen, N.B. — Ma- 
chinery for thrashing and separating grain, 

92. P. Capon, Chancery-lane — Apparatus for binding 
together pamphlets, letters, music, and other loose 
documents or sheets. 

S3. 0. V. Corvin, Alfred-pl., Alexander-sq., Brompton — 
Mode of inlaying or ornamenting in metals and 
other materials. 

Dated 20th January, 1858. 

94. C. N. Nixon, Ramsgate — Application of screw 

power, being applicable to steering apparatus, cap- 
stans, windlasses, cranes, winches and other me- 
chanical purposes. 

95. R. Martin, Glasgow — Apparatus for effecting th 

shipping of minerals in tidal situations. 

96. T. Heppleston, Manchester — Improvements in ma- 

chinery for winding yarns or threads. 

97. W. Muir, Strangeways, Manchester— Stands for letter 

copying presses and other small machines. 
99. J. Dyson, E. W. Shirt, and H. Shirt, Tinsley Works, 
near Sheffield — Spring for resisting sudden and 
continuous pressure. 

300. C. Rishworth, Sheffield— Improved construction of 

spring for sustaining loads and moderating con- 
cussion. 

301. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street— Preservation of 

animal and vegetable substances. 
102. J. J. Russell, Weduesbury, Staffordshire— Apparatus 
used in the manufacture of welded tubes. 

303. W. Conisbee, King-street, Queen-street, South wark- 

bridge-road— Printing machines. 

304. P. Robertson, 1, Sun-st., Cornhill— Manufacture of 

paints. 

Dated 21st January, 1858. 

305. J. H. Wheatley, 15, Jacob's-well, Barbican, City- 

Printing machines. 

106. W. White, Adelaide-street, South Shields— Machi- 
nery for making moulds or matrices employed in 
casting metals. 

J07. T. Ivory, Edinburgh — Steam boilers. 

309. J. Murdoch, 7, Staple-inn — Breaks for railway and 

other carriages. 

310. P. Wilson, S. Northall, and T. James, Birmingham — 

Locks and latches. 



111. E. Rawlings, Birmingham, and J. Briden, Aston- 

iuxta-Birminghiim-Impi'Gved method of working 
stamps used for stamping or raising metals, and 
other s ch like purposes. 

112. H. Smith, Brierley Hill Iron Works, Dudley— Im- 

provements in the manufacture of iron hurdles and 
fencing. 

113. J. S. Brown, Cirencester— Mills for grinding corn or 

other substances. 

114. W. Clark. 53, Chancery-lane— Lubricating apparatus. 

1 15. H. Hermagis, Paris — Stereoscopes. 

Dated 22nd January, 1858. 
It6. W. M. Raine, 34, Bucklersbury— Purifying and in- 
creasing the illuminating power of gas. 

117. W. B. Haigh and J. Cheetham, Oldham— Valves for 

steam-engines and in superheating the steam. 

118. J. Brown, Coventry — Looms. 

1 19. J. Brown, Coventry— Jacquard machines. 

120. W. Basford, Longport, Staffordshire— Improvements 

in kilns or ovens for burning or firing bricks, tiles, 
pipes, and pottery or earthenware, and in the mode 
of charging the ovens or placing or setting the 
articles that are to be fired therein. 

121. A. Story, Gorwydd Colliery, Swansea— Safety lamps. 

122. W. Weild, Manchester— Machinery for winding yarn 

or thread on to bobbins, spools, cards, or other 
similar surfaces. 
I 123. T. W. Mellor, Ashton-under-Lyne — Apparatus for 
measuring water and other fluids. 

Dated 23rd January, 1858. 

N. A. Drouet, and P. P. Le Coq, Paris — Treating 
chloride of sodium for obtaining therefrom certain 
useful products. 

C. F. Vasserot, 45, Essex-street, Strand— A single 
and double acting machine, with electro-magnttic 
motive power. 

J. Samwells, Dunstable, Bedfordshire, and C. H. 
Jones and C. Pickurd, Leeds — Blocking and shaping 
hat*, bonnets, and other coverings for the head. 

J. Gordon, 3, Railway»place, Fenchurch-street — Ap- 
paratus for pulping coffee. 

J. Johnston, Paisley — lionnets, caps, and other cover- 
ings fur the head. 

C. Burn, Blomficld-crescent, Westbourne-terrace, 
Paddinpton — Improvements in the manufacture of 
iron cables and chains, which improvements are 
applicable to the manufacture of gold and other 
chains. 

J. Craven, Bradford, and W. Hey and C. Worsrtnp, 
Manningham, near Bradford — Actuating rotary 
shuttle boxes of looms. 

E. Slack, Glasgow — Treatment or preservation of 
potatoes and other amylaceous vegetable sub- 
stances. 

J. J. Welch and J. S. Margetson, Cheapside— Folding 
travelling bag or wallet. 

J. J. Huber, 14, Boulevart Montmartre, Paris — Con- 
struction of brooches, bracelets, pins, and other 
articles of jewellery. 

Dated 25th January, 1858. 

A. Wall, East India-road, Poplar— Lubricator for the 
moving parts of machinery. 

G. E. Dering, Lockleys, Hertfordshire— Permanent 
way of railways. 



124, 

125, 

120. 

127. 
128. 
129, 

130. 

lai. 

132. 
133. 

834, 

135. 

136. 
137. 
138. 
139. 
140. 
141. 
142. 
143. 
144. 
145. 

146. 

147. 
148. 
149. 



151. 
153. 



Dated 26th January, 1858. 

J. Gamett, Otley, and ?. Garnett, Jan., Cleckheaton, 
Yorkshire— Felt. 

P. Hill, Hampstead, Middlesex — Machinery for mak- 
ing cams and for cutting and shaping metals. 

Sir H. Stracey, Bart., Blackheath-hall, Norfolk— Car- 
tridge. 

G. P. Simcox, Hcndham Vale Works, Harpurhey, 
Manchester — Carpets. 

W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — A new fabric in- 
tended principally as a substitute for leather. 

W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Machinery for 
mining coal. 

L. F. Corbelii, Florence, Tuscany — A new process for 
obtaining aluminium. 

W. D. Hirst, Mount-street, Grosvenor-square — A stand 
for soda-water bottles. 

J. Harthan and E. Harthan, Timbersbrook, near 
Congleton— Engine for obtaining motive power. 

R. Heaton, jun., and G. Heaton, Birmingham — An- 
nealing metals. 

Dated 27th January, 1858. 

T. Mottram, J. Edwards, and J. Mitchell, Yorkshire — 
Rolling steel, iron, and other metals and also for 
tilting the same for cutlery and other purposes. 

A. Bird, Birmingham— Spring platform or mattress 
for bedsteads. 

G. J, Wainwright, Dukinfield — Drawing fibrous 
materials. 

J. W. Midgley, Keighley, Yorkshire — Covered roller 
to be used in preparing and spinning machinery. 

Dated 28th January, 1858. 

J. M. Napier, Vine-street, York-road, and W. Thor- 
burn, 19, Sussex-place, Vine-street, York-road — 
Machinery for planing, shaping, and slotting. 

C. N. Kottula, Li verpool — Neutral soap. 

L. Caernmerer, Ghent, Belgium— Apparatus for clean- 
ing the top rollers and fluted rollers of the different 
spinning machines. 



154. 

155. 
156, 
157. 



159, 

160, 

102. 

iu.-j. 

164. 

10.-,. 
166. 

167. 

168. 

169. 
170. 
171 
172. 

173, 

174. 



178. 
180. 

182. 

184, 



188. 



W. 8pence,50, Chancery-lane— Pots fur chimneys and 
ventilation. 

E. Liouvil, Paris — Apparatus for aerated liquids. 

J. H. Johnson, 47,Lincoln's-inn-fields - Metul pipes. 

T. Armi'.aje, Hood-street, Co/entry — Elastic fabrics 
Dated 2Mh January, 1858. 

W. T. Fox, Birkenhead— Bending and reefing of ships 
and other vessels' sails, together with a new appli- 
cation for the leeches and foot. 

J. Bethell, 8, Parliament-street, Westminster— Manu- 
facture of coke and fuel. 

W. H. Tooth, 9, Summer-street, Southwark— Polish- 
ing plate glass, sheet glass, and other substances. 

J. Elder, Glasgow — Construction of steam engines and 
boilers. 

G. Chapman, Leicestor — Socks and drawers. 

R. A. Brooman, 106, Fleet-street — Apparatus for 
measuring water and gas. 

R. Ware, Plumstead, Kent — Galvanic batteries. 

J. Wotherspoon, Glengarnotk Iron Works, Ayr, N.B. 
— Railway brakes. 

J. Goodwin, Milton, N.B. — Treatment, preparation, 
and cleansing of textile fabrics and materials. 

H. W. Hart, Birmingham — Regulating the pressure of 
gas. 

Dated 30th January, 1858. 

W. Kaye and C. Kaye, Lockwood, near Huddersfleld 
— Mattocks, picks, hoes, and hammers. 

G. G. Nicol, 37, New Broad-street — Balls or projec- 
tiles. 

C. Niellon, 50, Lime-street — Manure from sewage 
waters. 

J. Newling, Park-street, Grosvenor-square — Truss 
for hernia. 

R. Coleman, Chelmsford — Agricultural implements. 

J. A. Bouck, Manchester — Manufacture of sulphate 
of copper, and in obtaining useful products. 

T. Taylor, sen., T. Taylor, jun., and H. Nelson, Man- 
chester, and H. Spencer, Rochdale — Steam engines, 
and apparatus connected therewith. 

P. Ashcroft, Engineer to the South Eastern Railway — 
Supporting the rails of railways in their chairs. 

Dated let February, 1858. 

W. K. Hall 36, Cannon-street — Artificial leather. 

G. Bartholomew, Linlithgow, N.B. — Horseshoes. 

W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Clasp or fastening 
for joining the ends of belts or bands. 

R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street — Burners for gene- 
rating and burning gas from hydro-carbon fluids. 

W. J. Hay, Southsea — Composition suitable for cover- 
ing the caulking of ships and other like purposes, 
for uniting wood and other substances, for Ailing 
up seams, and for use as a waterproof composition 
generally. 

Dated 2nd February, 1858. 

W. E. Newton, 66, Chancery-lane — Obtaining certain 
compounds of nitrogen to be applied in the compo- 
sition of artificial manures, and for other useful 
purposes. 

J. Sholl, Victoria-grove west, Stoke Newington — 
Manufacture of paper for writing and copying pur- 
poses. 



INVENTIONS WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATION 

FILED. 

70. M. A. F. Mennons, 4, South-street, Finsbury — Im- 
provements in gas retorts. — 16th January, 1858. 



DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY. 



4044. Jan 

4045. „ 

4046. „ 

4047. „ 

4048. „ 

4049. Feb, 

4050. „ 

4051. „ 



4052. 
4053. 



4054. 
4055. 
4056. 
4057. 



4058. 
4050. 



16. E. Page, Birmingham, " Improved Link or 
Fastener for Shirts, Gloves, and other 
articles of Wearing ^pparel." 

21. W. Bartleet and Sons, Redditch, " The 
Princess Royal Envelope for Needles." 

22. G. F. Morrell, 149, Fleet-street, " A Rule, 
Pencil, and Penholder Combined." 

23. W. Tonksand Son, Birmingham, " A Case- 
ment Stay." 

29. A. Todd, Ardwick, near Manchester, " In- 
valid Bed Table." 
i. 2. Murray and Heath, 43, Piccadilly, " Re- 
flectors for Stereoscopes." 

2. W. Cooper, Birmingham, " Improved Stud 
or Fastener." 

4. Rudall, Rose, Carte and Co., 20, Charing- 
cross, " Improved Configuration of a 
Drum." 

6. H. F. Lawes, Bristol, " The Paragon Shirt." 

8. The Edinburgh Machine Sewing Company, 
Edinburgh, " Royal Princess Corset Fas- 
tener." 

8. Thewlis and Griffith, Warrington, " Churn 
Driving Apparatus and Stand," 

8. J. P. Oates, Erdington, "An Improved 
Piston for Valved Musical Instruments." 

12. J. Hoare, Old Fishbourne, Rosham, Sussex, 

" The Hand Seed Planting Machine." 

13. R. Sorby and Sons, Sheffield, " The Im- 

proved Sheep Shears." 

16. J. Armstrong, Irthington, " Life Preserver." 

17. J. Che.oterman, Sheffield, "Spring Hat Sus- 

pender." 



' 




;-;■ -, .:' . C.JE.&vrea: 



THE ABTIZAN, A P R I L , I !! 1 858. 








' 



PU^Ifl® y]l£W Ai-vb ©21/AJLS ot SSSU/JD PSiZPA'A J ,1 L, MAZM 1 iiZ. 



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Flat®, 222. 





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iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilliiiiiiiiiinwii 



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THE ARTIZ AN, A PR I L. I?T 1858. 



V/yUU PL A WDM© jVJ A S >J J j v I £ 
Is Manufactured bj 

JAS HORN, ENS] N E E R, WHITE < HAP E L 

i, :-■' h i- Br. 



F I C. I, SIDE ELEVATION. 




THE ARTIZAN. 

No. CLXXXIIL— Vol. XVI.— APRIL 1st, 1858. 



HORN'S IMPROVED WOOD-PLANING MACHINE. 

(Illustrated by Plate cxxi.) 

We briefly noticed in our last Number Mr. Horn's excellent wood- 
planing machine, but were prevented from giving the copper-plate 
engraving thereof, and so deferred giving any further description of the 
machine until the present Number. 

On reference to Plate cxxi., it will be perceived that this machine is 
differently constructed to those usually fed by rolls, inasmuch as in all 
the working gearing spur-wheels are applied ; those driving the upper 
feed-rolls radiate upon the spindle by which they are driven, and, con- 
sequently, keep properly in gear, being a great improvement upon those 
driven by bevel wheels, which are frequently out of order. 

The double set of binding rollers, e, e, with levers and weights, /, /, 
allow for the unevenness of the wood, being loosely fitted on their axis, 
and made to slide freely in the grooves made to receive the carriage ; 
they are sure to bear upon the board, and prevent its passing the irons 
unplaned, although it may be unevenly cut. 

The plane-iron box, in which the irons, i, i, are fixed, is made to 
slide in and out; and as the machine is supplied with two, when one set 
of irons become dull, it may instantly be removed, and a set of sharp 
ones (ready fixed) in the other box be substituted, without loss of time. 

Any description of cutter for the side edges may be used, for grooving, 
tongueing, bevelling, or squaring up of the edges. 

The operation of changing the feed-rolls from one thickness of board 
to another can be performed in much less time on this machine than on 
any other we have tried. 

The sliding bearings of the large top adze have the strain taken off 
them by the four bolts and nuts, which slide in their respective slots, 
which, when raised to the height required, are made fast, rendering 
the adze spindle very firm, and equal to the severe work it has to do 
at times. 

The following are the literal references to the several parts of the 
machine :— 

a, the fast and loose pullies for driving feed rolls. 

6, b, b, the three spur wheels for transmitting motion to feed rolls. 

c, c, gut-pullies for driving back roller. 

d, d, feed-rolls for propelling the wood. 
c, e, binding rollers over plane irons. 

/, /, levers and weights for binding rollers. 

g, g, g, weights for binding rollers in front and back of adzes. 

h, h, spur pinions, by means of which the feed-rolls are driven, 

i, i, moveable plane-iron box, with irons dotted in. 

j,j, side adzes for grooving, tongueing, &c, &c. 

k, top adze for thicknessing the boards. 

I, counter-shaft for driving top and side adzes. 

m, transverse slides for giving different widths to side adzes. 

n, n, weights for giving the necessary pressure to the top feed-rolls. 

o, levers for raising the weights. 

p, long rod for connecting all the top rolls with levers and weights. 

q, handle for working the long rod, so as to raise the five top feed- 
rolls to the thickness of the wood required. 

r, levers with bearings for top feed-rolls, each radiating upon the 
spindle which drives it by means of spur gear. 



s, lever and pressing roller for entering boards. 

t, t, fence or guide for boards while being planed. 

u, driving-pulley for counter-shaft. 

v, flange-pulley for top adze. 

w, w, flange-pulley for driving side adzes. 



HEMP AND FLAX SPINNING MACHINERY. 

(Illustrated by Plate cxix.) 

In The Aetizan for February we gave a copper-plate engraving, 
exhibiting a side and end elevation of a second preparing machine ; and 
at page 25, of the same Number, we gave a description of the machine. 
We now present our readers with a copper-plate engraving, exhibiting 
at Fig. 1, a plan ; Fig. 2, an end view ; and Figs. 3, 4, and 5, enlarged 
details of parts of the machine, a is the frame work ; b, the driving 
pulleys or riggers by which motion is communicated to the machine ; 
c, the guide frames, by which the ends of the heckle bars slide, as shown 
at e, Fig. 3 ; d d, the heckle links, also shown in detail, Fig. 5. 

IRON WAREHOUSE ROOF, &c, AT ROUEN. 

The accomjianying illustrations are details of a warehouse erected by 
Mr. E. Burel, C.E., upon the Quay, at Rouen. The building has been 
very much admired, and is a very good example of a scientific combina- 
tion of materials for the particular purpose; and the trellis girders are 
examples of the combined flat and "T-iron bars, recommended by Mr. 
William Fairbairn, in his " Treatise on Wrought-Iron Beams," the fiat 
bars taking the tension, and the T bars the thrust. 

The roof is supported on eight octagonal hollow cast-iron columns, 
resting upon stone blocks, which are bored for admitting the passage 
of water, which, falling on the roof, is allowed to flow down the columns, 
which act as rain-water pipes, the water being collected by a suitable 
drain, which runs round the bases of the columns. 

The construction of the roof needs no description, as, on reference 
to the illustrations, it will be readily understood. 

The combination of flat and "f -iron bars in the trellis girders running 
round the building, presents on one side only the appearance of "|" and 
flat iron; whilst, on the outside, it presents the appearance of two flat 
bars crossing each other longitudinally in each compartment. The 
dimensions of the warehouse are: 114 ft. long and 32 ft. wide, and 11 ft. 
from the ground to the girders. Each of the six side girders is 40 ft. 
long and 20 in. deep The top angle irons are l£in., and the bottom 2 in. 
The vertical struts between the trellis bars are + iron, and the weight 
of each girder is about 520 lbs. English. 

The roof is supported, as shown by Fig. 3, there being eleven regular 
couples of T"i ron jointed together in the centre by a cast-iron socket, 
and resting in corresponding sockets, either cast with the columns or 
separate, for the intermediates. Each of these sets, with its tye-rods, 
centre piece, and rings, weighs about 254 lbs. 

The small wooden intermediate rafters are provided for supporting 
the diagonal match-boring or covering of the roof, this in turn being 
covered with sheet zinc. The sides of the shed are closed with sliding 
gates. The whole has been admirably executed under the direction of 
the designer, Mr. Burel. It covers a space of about 420 square yards 
English, and has cost about 16,000 francs. 



78 



Construction of Iron Warehouse at Rouen. 



t'iUK Artizan, 
April 1, "" 



1858. 




The Artizan, "1 
April 1, 1838. J 



New Graving Dock, Dublin. 



79 



DUBLIN GRAVING DOCK. 




I ■ | i I t ; ■ i , ■ r- 






so 



- In pursuance of the promise made in last month's Number, we present 
to our readers the first of our illustrations of the Dublin Graving Dock 
— a cross section through the dock between the timber slides. The 
piles, as shown in the section, are placed 7 ft. 3 in. from centre to centre, 
excepting the centre piles, which are 6 ft.; the shoeing of these piles was 
effected in the most careful manner, and the piles themselves are of 
crown memel, adopted after a cautious selection by experienced 
persons. 

Over the longitudinal bearers, the platform, consisting of 4-in. planking, 
was laid, spiked down to the bearers, and on this was built the masonry, 
which consisted first of a 12-in. course of black stone or calp, procured 
principally'in the quarries at Donnybrook ; on this course was set the 
floor of Killiney granite, 3 ft. 6 in. in thickness or depth in the middle, and 
falling off at either side to 3 ft. Along each side is a drain, 12 in. in 
width by 6 in. in depth. The floor consists of nineteen courses of granite, 
the three central courses being level, the others falling with a slight 
inclination to either side. 

From this floor rise the steps and altars, each 2 ft. high by 2 ft. wide; 
five of these bring us up to the broad altar, which is 6 ft. wide, and from 
whieh the next series of steps, four in number, rise with a face batter 
of one in twelve; the step next to the altar is 5 ft., and the other three, 
3 ft. in height. 

The width of the dock at the floor-level is 37 ft. 8 in., and at the 
coping, 80 ft. in the clear. By the very judicious arrangement of the 
steps and altars, a large amount of light will be enjoyed by shipwrights 
in this dock, which has also a great advantage in being built of granite 
of a beautiful light colour. The backing, and all the under work, is of 
calpe. 

The culverts, shown in the section, are for the purpose of emptying 
the dock ; they are very carefully constructed, and completely surround 
it, meeting in a point at the head where they will communicate with the 
well of the pumping engine, which is not yet built. 

At invervals, as will be seen, are placed cast-iron posts or bollards, 
which will be found of the greatest service in mooring vessels and 
adjusting them in their position on the blocks. There are also slides 
formed along the sides and head for the purpose of the more easily 
letting down the bent timbers, &c, for vessels. 



The total depth in the centre is 23 ft. 6 in., and the centre of the floor 
is 5 ft. lower than the low water of spring tides in Dublin Harbour; the 
average rise of which is about 13 ft. 



AN INQUIRY INTO THE STRENGTH OF BEAMS AND GIRDERS 
OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS, FROM THE MOST SIMPLE AND 
ELEMENTARY FORMS, UP TO THE COMPLEX ARRANGE- 
MENTS WHICH OBTAIN IN GIRDER BRIDGES OF WROUGHT 
AND CAST IRON. 

By Samuei. Hughes, C.E., P.G.S., &c. 
(Continued from page 31.) 

[Erratum at Page 29. — The hydraulic proving machine, and the 
lever apparatus, of which engravings are given at page 29, have been 
marked erroneously as Fig. 27 and Fig. 28. Mr. Fairbairn's lever 
machine should be Fig. 27, and the hydraulic proving machine should 
be Fig. 28.] 

Mitcheson's Hydraulic Proving Machine. 

In this apparatus, which was described at page 30, there is a further 
contrivance for reading off small pressures, which has not been alluded 
to. I have already explained that 1 lb. weight placed in the scale at d 
would indicate a pressure on the piston A = 3,041 lbs. Hence, an ounce 
in the scale would indicate 190 lbs. pressure; and as it would be trouble- 
some to employ weights so small as an ounce, with its subdivisions, the 
determination of small pressures is provided for in another manner. 
Thus the lever, bj, is divided into 320 equal parts, each of which indi- 
cates one quarter of a cwt., and by means of a small moveable weight, 
which can be moved from b to J, any pressure up to 4 tons can be read 
off on the lever without using the scale, d, at all. By means of this 
division of the lever, a pressure of 28 lbs. can be readily distinguished, 
as the divisions which indicate quarter cwts. are one-third of an inch 
apart. It will be observed that this mode of ascertaining small pres- 
sures is much more convenient than using weights in the scale, because 
the weight to indicate 28 lbs. would be extremely small — not much more 
than the eighth part of an ounce. 



80 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders. 



' r The Aktizait, 

L j 



April 1, 1858. 



Tests or Tensile Strength. 

It has been usual to test the links and vertical rods of suspension 
bridges with 9 or 10 tons per square inch of section. Several of the 
earlier authorities, however, have asserted that iron of good quality will 
bear a much higher tensile strain than this without stretching. Mr. 
Telford found in his experiments on bars which withstood a breaking 
weight of 29 tons per inch, that the iron began to stretch in the best 
specimens with -j^ of the breaking weight ; and in the worst specimens 
with T 4 ^, or 12-74 tons per square inch. Mr. Donkin once stated in evi- 
dence before the House of Commons, that he had witnessed experiments 
in which iron bars 1 in. square did not begin to stretch till loaded with 
16 tons. This was probably 60 per cent, of their ultimate strength. 

In these earlier experiments, it is most likely incorrect to say there 
was no extension with the weights which were applied, because such an 
assertion would be directly contradicted by Mr. Hodgkinson's more 
recent and much more accurate investigations. All that was meant is 
probably this — that, up to the weights named, the elasticity of the bar 
was not injured : that is, there was no permanent set, and that the bar 
on being released from the weight returned to its original length. Thus 
we find in Mr. Hodgkinson's experiments that, although wrought iron 
began to stretch with considerably less than 10 tons, yet that up to this 
weight the elasticity was not at all injured. Drewry asserts in his book, 
already quoted, that wrought iron will bear a weight of 9 tons per square 
inch without stretching at all ; that is, without permanently stretching, 
or having its elasticity injured. 

Mr. Edwin Clark observes, that a circular rod, an inch in diameter, will 
bear a tensile strain of 16 tons, which is equal to 20 tons per square 
inch : that the rod will be damaged by a weight equal to 8 d 2 in tons, 

or 10 tons per square inch ; and that the usual load in practice is — — , 

or nearly 7 tons per square inch. 

Mr. Page states, in his Report on Chelsea Bridge, dated April, 1856, 
that he has fixed a proof test of 13£ tons per square inch for the bars 
of the chains, and that more than 1,100 bars have been proved to this 
test, with a permanent extension of ^ of an inch per foot. As this 
extension is equal to ^ of the whole length, and is produced by 
13 J tons, it follows that the iron must be of very superior quality. We 
have seen that for ordinary bar iron the extension has been -^ m per ton; 
so that the extension for 13^ tons at this rate would be more than ^ m 
whereas the proof extension is only ^ m of the whole length. Mr. Page 
observes that, in experiments which he has made on the tension of iron, 
" he found, that by comparing the stretch and permanent set on ordinary 
iron and the best iron, prepared for the purpose of experiment, there 
was no perceptible difference up to 1 1 tons on the square inch of sec- 
tion ; even up to 12 tons the difference was very slight ; but at 13 tons 
the permanent set in the common iron was very decided ; and at 23 tons 
on the inch, when the ordinary iron broke, having stretched 6 in. in 4 ft., 
the best iron had not stretched permanently one-twelfth of an inch in 
4 ft. The permanent set of this iron with 29 tons was one-fiftieth of an 
inch ; and it broke with 31 tons." 

All the iron used in the Menai Bridge was proved with a tensile strain 
of 11 tons per square inch. — Drewry. 

The bars used in the Hammersmith Suspension Bridge were proved 
for tensile strength up to a weight of 9 tons per square inch. — Ibid 

Mr. William Clay, of the Mersey Steel and Iron Works, has lately 
published some experiments to show that bar iron increases in strengtli 
with each successive piling, heating, and rolling, up to a certain number 
of times, after which it diminishes at about an equal rate. 

Thus, he found that an ordinary puddled bar of fibrous iron broke 
with a tensile strain of 196 tons per square inch, and that iron from this 
bar gradually increased in strength after each re-piling, until it had been 
worked five times over, when it had attained a tensile strength sufficient 
to bear a weight of 27"6 tons, or nearly 50 per cent, more than the 
strength of the simply puddled bar. The iron was again and again 
piled, heated, and rolled, the strength being tested as before at each 
operation, when it was found to decrease each time, till it had undergone 
in all twelve workings, when the strength was just the same as that of 
the original puddled bar. Mr. Clay states that a somewhat similar effect 
takes place in puddled steel bars, which [before piling had a tensile 
strength of 43-2 tons. After the first piling, when the bar had become 
solid, the strength was more than 54 tons, from which it gradually dimi- 
nished, till, after being worked five times, the strength was somewhat less 
than that of the puddled bar; after which four additional pilings and 
rollings produced neither increase nor diminution of strength. 

As the strength of steel is from two and a half to three times that of 
wrought iron, the possibility has been entertained of introducing it into 
some of the parts of iron bridges, particularly for those on the principle 
of suspension. The great desideratum is, of course, to obtain the article 
at a price which would enable it to compete commercially with wrought 
iron. The following are ascertained strengths for various descriptions of 
steel, as quoted by Mr. Clay in his recent Paper read before the Society 
of Arts.— See The Artizan, page 36. 



The War Department at Berlin found the strength of Krupp's cast 
steel, from three experiments, equal to 49-9 tons per square inch. Mr. 
Mallet found the highest tensile strength of tilted cast-steel bar3 equal 
to 63-49 tons, the mean strength being 39-58 tons. Other authorities 
give the strength of shear steel and blistered steel from 55-5 to. 67 tons 
per square inch; and Mr. Clay himself has particularly experimented 
on wrought-steel bars, the tensile strength of which he found as 
follows : — 

Tensile strength' 
in tons per 
square inch. 

Mersey Steel and Iron Company's puddled steel, highest... 77-59 

Do. do. another sample 7V80 

Average of three samples tested at the Liverpool Corpora- 
tion Testing Machine _ 50-00 

On Trussed Cast-Iron Girders. 

The compound form of beam known as the cast-iron girder, trussed 
with rods or bars of wrought iron, owes its origin to the remarkably dis- 
tinctive manner in which cast and wrought iron severally resist com- 
pression and extension. When it became known that cast iron resisted 
compression with six times the force which it opposed to extension, and 
that, on the other hand, it required much more force to extend wrought 
iron than to compress it, the value of a beam in which these opposite 
properties should be brought into profitable action could not fail to pre- 
sent itself to the ingenious minds of those who for many years have 
turned their attention to this subject. Accordingly, the trussed beam 
was designed to take advantage at the same time of the high resisting 
power with which cast iron opposes a crushing force, and the high 
resisting power which wrought iron opposes to a tensile or tearing 
force. 

Truss rods of wrought iron have been variously applied to cast-iron 
beams. Sometimes their extremities are attached below the top flange 
of the beam, and sometimes considerably above. The truss rod is either 
in one piece or several. The lower part of the truss-rod sometimes 
passes entirely under the beam, and is occasionally just above the bottom 
flange. The truss rods can be screwed up or unscrewed at their points 
of attachment at each extremity of the beam, so as to give them any 
required degree of tension, and to adjust them for variations of tem- 
perature, &c. 

Mr. Fairbairn is of opinion that considerable economy of material 
would be effected if a truss beam could be so constructed that the two 
kinds of iron should act in concert — namely, that the cast iron should be 
on the point of crushing just when the wrought-iron rods are on the 
point of extension. He states, however, that this is impracticable; and 
observes, that if too great a tension be given to the rods they will break 
before the beam has arrived at the condition of rupture; while, on the 
contrary, if too small a tension be given to the rods, the beam will break 
before they have arrived at their condition of rupture. 

It is probable that public attention was first called to the defects of 
trussed beams by the failure of the bridge over the Dee, on the Chester 
and Holyhead Railway. Mr. James Walker and Captain Simmons, in 
reporting on this accident, observe, after describing the construction of 
the bridge, that " it is evident, if the wrought-iron tension rods act at 
all, they become stretched out and lengthened, while the cast-iron girder 
does not lengthen to the same extent. This is the natural tendency, 
from the different ways in which the weight acts upon them, the one 
being by a strain or pull in the direction of the length, the other by a 
transverse pressure, which tends to lengthen the lower flange, and to 
compress the upper one, the neutral axis lying between them." In this 
bridge, as will hereafter be seen, the tension bars were suspended from a 
point which was twice the depth of the girder above the bottom flange, 
and, therefore, the reporters observe, that the strain upon the girders, 
aided by the leverage thus given to the tension bars, had the effect of 
drawing closer the points of suspension, and thus loosening the tension 
bars; they found, in fact, that a load of 48 tons on the bridge caused the 
point of suspension on one side to move 7-16ths of an inch, and if the 
other point did the same, the distance between them would be lessened to 
the extent of 7-8ths of an inch, and the tension bars loosened in pro- 
portion. 

"Although at first the cast and wrought iron may act together, which 
is the strongest condition of the bridge, more of the pressure becomes by 
degrees transferred to the cast iron, causing a deflection. The vertical 
trussing bolts which pass through the girder may then be screwed up, 
the effect of which will be to raise the girder in the middle. This truss- 
ing process was adopted at the first adjustment of the bridge, before the 
piles or props were removed — the weight of the girders alone having 
caused a deflection from the straight line ; they were then raised by 
wedges, and otherwise, until they were 1 in. or 2 in. above the straight 
line, or cambered from 1 in. to 2 in. ; and while in this condition the 
truss or tension rods were applied. If, after this, a deflection took place, 
the screwing might be applied and continued until the lower flange of 
the girder was brought up so as to come into ' contact with the bolts or 



The Abtizan, " 
April I, 1858. . 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders. 



U 



with the links, which was the case with most of them at the time of our 
survey; but after the girder was thus raised, so that the bolt came into 
contact with either the bottom flange or with the bottom of the hole 
through the girder, there was no means of further adjustment to coun- 
teract the natural operation above described." — Report to the Board of 
Trade, by Mr. Walker and Captain Simmons. 

The objections taken by Messrs. "Walker and Simmons to beams 
trussed with wrought iron on account of the unequal extension produced 
by the same weights acting on each, have been much enlarged on by 
Mr. Fairbairn, who enters into a very ingenious examination of the effect 
produced on trussed beams under various circumstances. He first 
examines the case in which the truss rods have no initial strain or 
tension upon them when the beam is unloaded. He shows, on the sup- 
position that the whole length of the truss rod is equal to the length of 
the beam (which, owing to the great obliquity of the truss rods is suf- 
ficiently near for the purpose of calculation), that when the beam is 
loaded with a weight sufficient to produce a tensile strain on the cast 
iron of 2 \ tons per inch, the wrought iron will at the same time be subject 
to a tensile strain of 5J tons per square inch. Here it is assumed that 
both the cast iron and the wrought iron are equally extended; and it had 
previously been found by experiments on 10-ft. bars that 5 - 6 tons per 
square inch was required to produce in wrought iron the same extension 
that was produced in cast iron by 2 J tons. Taking the breaking weight 
of cast iron by tensile strain at 7£ tons, and that of wrought iron at 
24 tons per square inch, he observes, that in the case supposed, the cast 
iron is strained to one -third of its breaking weight, while the wrought 
iron is only strained to one-fifth of its ultimate strength. 

It appears from experiments on the permanent sets produced on the 
two kinds of iron, after the equal extension here supposed, that the cast 
iron would be permanently elongated about six times as much as the 
wrought iron. This will have the effect of giving a certain degree of 
tension to the truss rods, and this Mr. Fairbairn observes will not act 
unfavourably. 

Mr. Fairbairn next examines a case in which the beam is so loaded as 
to produce upon the cast iron a tensile strain of 5\ tons per square inch ; 
and here, again, as he assumes that two and a quarter times this weight 
are necessary to produce a similar extension of the wrought iron, he 
again finds, assuming the same high tensile strength for the wrought 
iron, the same disproportion between the strain on the cast iron and that 
acting on the wrought iron. 

The truth is, that within the limits of strain, which can be safely 
applied to cast-iron beams of any description, Mr. Fairbairn's objection 
to trussed girders is based on this fact, that the tensile strength 
of wrought iron bears a higher proportion to that of cast iron than the 
weights required to produce an equal extension in both cases. 

Thus he shows by experiments, that within the limits of 6 tons* tensile 
strain per square inch for cast iron, corresponding with 13J tons * for 
wrought iron, the tensile force applied to wrought iron must be two and 
a quarter times the tensile force applied to cast iron, in order to produce 
equal elongations. Now, if the relative strength of cast and wrought 
iron to resist a tensile force were also in the ratio of 1 : 2J, then each 
kind of iron would be equally strained by any weight which could be 
safely applied to a trussed girder. But as Mr. Fairbairn takes the 
relative tensile strength of cast and wrought iron to be in the ratio of 
7i to 24, or as 1 : 3 - 2, it follows that they are unequally strained, in all 
ordinary cases, where no initial tension is applied to the truss rods. 
"With respect to the comparative set of the wrought iron and the cast 
iron, it seems that within the limits of safe load, the former is much less 
than the latter; whence it may be concluded, that a heavy load applied to 
a trussed beam, if sufficient to produce a permanent set in the cast iron, 
would have the effect of tightening or producing a tension on the 
wrought iron, which, as before explained, Mr. Fairbairn considers rather 
an advantage than otherwise. 

When the beam is so loaded as to produce on the truss rods a tensile 
strain of 15 tons per square inch,"Mr. Fairbairn shows that the cast iron 
would be ruptured before this strain could come on the truss rods. He 
arrives at this conclusion from the fact that a strain of 15 tons on the 
truss rods produces an elongation in the cast iron equal to ^ part of its 
length. But the ultimate elongation of cast iron at the point of rupture 
is only -^ of its length, so that the cast iron will break before the strain 
of 15 tons per square inch can come on the truss rods. It must be 
observed, with reference to this conclusion, that practically it is not 
important, as 15 tons is far in excess of the safe strain per square inch 
of the truss rods. In fact, the limit of 1\ tons per square inch for the 
cast iron, or 7 tons for the wrought iron, is seldom exceeded in practice; 
and we have seen the conditions under which Mr. Fairbairn's objections 
to the trussed beam are capable of being sustained within these limits. 

Mr. Fairbairn next examines the case in which a high degree of 



* These limits are higher than the tensile strain to which it would be safe in practice to 
subject either cast or wrought iron, so that the law here laid down will hold good for all 
cases of actual practice. 



initial tension is given to the truss rods, and shows that when this ten- 
sion amounts to 8 tons per square inch, the truss rod will have an elonga- 
tion of "0077 in. per foot of its length. Now, suppose the cast iron about 
to fracture with a tensile strain of 7 5 tons upon it, this will extend both 
cast and wrought iron -022 in. per foot, and this elongation being added 
to the initial elongation of '0077, is equal to - 02976 in. per foot, which 
only corresponds to a strain of 16 tons per square inch on the wrought 
iron. Hence, Mr. Fairbairn concludes that no higher strain than 1 6 tons 
per square inch can be produced on the wrought iron at the moment 
when the cast iron is about to rupture. 

From reasoning of this kind, Mr. Fairbairn determines that it is 
impossible to have the two metals acting in concert at tensions ap- 
proaching their rupture. 

Having thus shown that no advantage is gained by the wrought-iron 
trusses, either when the tension rods are without an initial strain, nor 
when this initial strain is very high, Mr. Fairbairn lastly examines the 
intermediate case in which a moderate or slight initial tension is applied 
to the truss rods. Here he proposes to discover the tension which must 
be given to the truss rods, so that the different parts of the truss beam 
may each be loaded at the same moment, with one-third of their respec- 
j tive ultimate tensile resistances — namely, 2J tons per square inch for the 
I cast iron, and 8 tons per square inch for the wrought iron. 

Now, when the cast iron has a strain of 2\ tons, the wrought iron will 
require a strain two and a quarter times as great, or 2 J x2|= 5% tons per 
square inch ; hence, the initial strain should be 8 — 5|= 2|, or say 
1\ tons per square inch. Now, suppose this beam to be loaded so as 
to produce a tensile strain of 4 tons per square inch on the cast metal, 
then the truss rods, in order to be elongated to the same length, will 
undergo a strain of 4 x 2J = 9 tons ; this added to the initial strain of 
2 J is equal to 11 \ tons per square inch, at the moment when the cast 
iron is strained with a force of 4 tons. Mr. Fairbairn shows by experiment, 
that when the beam is so loaded, the sets of the two metals are nearly 
identical ; and he considers that each metal would, with this load, be 
strained to about half its breaking weight. 

Now, although Mr. Fairbairn thus determines that the most eligible 
adjustment is attained by giving an initial tension of about 2J tons per 
square inch to the truss rods, yet he observes that a load of 5\ tons per 
square inch on the cast metal would tend to destroy this adjustment, 
because this will produce a strain of about 13J tons per square inch on 
the wrought iron, and after the load is taken off the set of the truss 
rods would be three times that of the cast iron 

The following is Mr. Fairbairn's rule for computing the strength of 
these compound or trussed beams : — Add three times the section of the 
truss rod to the section of the bottom flange; substitute this sum for the 
bottom area in the usual formula for calculating the strength of cast-iron 
beams, and the result will be the breaking weight, or one-third will be 
the weight of safety. The usual formula which Mr. Fairbairn here 

speaks of is, W = — — — ; and putting a{ for the area of the truss rods, 
the formula for a trussed beam will be, W = ^Lt 12_ ; the in- 



6 - 5a, d 
I 



From a com- 



crease of strength produced by the trussing being 

parison of this with the ordinary formula, it appears that when the area 
of the truss rods is equal to one-third the area of the bottom flange, the 
strength of the beam is doubled. 

Mr. Fairbairn considers the defects of the truss beam are increased 
when the tension bars are suspended from points lying above the top 
flange of the beam; and in this he appears also to be supported by the 
opinions of Mr. Walker and Captain Simmons, as they remark on the 
increased leverage given by this high attachment in the case of the 
Dee Bridge. 

.1. Owing to the great difference of opinion as to the strength of trussed 
beams, and the extreme importance of the subject as affecting railway 
constructions, Mr. Fairbairn made some experiments on beams trussed 
and untrussed, which I now proceed to examine. 

The first set of experiments was made on a beam of the Hodgkinson 
form, placed on supports 4J ft. apart, and having the following dimen- 
sions : — 

Sq. in. 

Topflange 1" X -20 -20 ) Extreme depth 

Bottom ditto 2-5 X -42 1-05 \ of beam 

Rib 3-4 X -25 -85) 4 in. 

Whole area 2-10 

This beam, without truss rods, and with the bottom flange placed below, 
broke with a weight of 5,830 lbs. 

Now, the coefficient of this beam, reduced to unity of length in 
feet, and to unity of depth, and area of bottom flange in inches, is 



82 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders. 



1 r The Aktizak, 
L April 1,1858. 



4 ' 5 x 5 ' 830 = 2-79; also the coefficient reduced to unity of 

2240 X 1-05 X 4 

length in feet, and to unity of depth, and whole area in inches, is 

4-5 x 5-830 _ 1>39 
2240 X 2-10 X 4 

Three experiments were then made on the same beam with two truss 
rods, each half an inch diameter, suspended from the top flange of the 
beam, and passing at the centre beneath the bottom flange. In the first 
experiment the beam broke from one of the truss rods yielding to tension 
with only 5502 lbs., or a less weight than the beam had borne without 
truss rods at all. In the second and third experiments the beam broke 
respectively with 7944 lbs. and 8854 lbs., = 3-546, and 3953 tons. 

Taking experiment 2, in order to determine what multiple of the 
truss rod area must be added to the bottom flange in order to give the 
real breaking weight, it will be found that less than once the whole area 
must be taken, instead of three times, as Mr. Fairbairn assumes. Thus 
the beam without truss rods at all breaks with 5830 lbs., or 2-603 tons ; 
with truss rods, having a section of -3927 in., the beam breaks in experi- 
ment 2 with 3-546 tons, or it bears -943 tons more. Hence, putting c 
for the constant or multiple of the tension rod area, its value will evi- 



dently be found from the following equation, 



2-79 d X -3927 c 
I 



= -943, 



reducing which, and substituting the proper value for d and /, we find 
c = "97. In fact, if we substitute unity for c in the formula for the 
bottom flange, we shall find it give something more than the weight 
which actually broke the beam with the tension bars. Thus W = 

2-79 (a +«,)<* = 2-79 X.l'4427_Xj* =- 3 -578 tons; whereas, the weight 



/ 



4-5 



which actually broke the beam was only 3-546 tons ; so that once the area 
of the tension rod is too much. Next, if we treat experiment 3 in the 
same manner, we find that the beam here was 1-35 tons stronger than 



without the tension bars. Hence, 



2-79 d X -3927 c 



= 1-35, and, reducing 



this as before, we find c = 1-386, or still very far from three times. 

An experiment was next made on the same kind of beam with the 
broad flange uppermost, and two truss rods, each three quarters of an 
inch diameter. This beam broke with a weight of 12,316 lbs., or 
5-498 tons. Now it is useless to compare this breaking weight with 
that which broke the inverted beam without truss rods, because this is 
a form in which the beam would never be used in practice. The only 
comparison worth making is with the breaking weight of 2-603 tons, 
where the beam was tried in its strongest position without truss rods. 

The difference, or 5-498 — 2-603, being 2-895, and the area of the 
three-quarter inch truss rods being -88, we find, as before, the value of 

c from the equation 2 ' 79 d ~ 88 c = 2-895. Hence, c = 1-327, which is 

something less than its value in the last experiment; so that no advantage 
appears to be gained by reversing the beam, while very great danger 
would be incurred, supposing the load to come on the beam at a time 
when the tension rods are slack. 

It seems from these experiments that, in computing the strength of 
a beam with tension rods, it would be very unsafe to add more than the 
simple area of the truss rods to that of the bottom flange in Mr. Fair- 
bairn's formula. 

"We have seen that in the beam experimented on, the coefficient for 
the whole area of the cast-iron beam is 1-39, or exactly half of that for 
the bottom area ; hence, when the beam has truss rods, double the area 
of these may be added to the area of the cast-iron beam in computing 
its strength by means of a coefficient applied to the whole area. 

The proportions of material are such in ordinary railway girders that 
the coefficient applied to the whole area should seldom exceed unity. 

Hence, calling a, the area of the truss rods, the expression — ^ — i — < h) 

= breaking weight in tons for a trussed girder (41). 

Mr. Fairbairn's formula for a length in feet and area of bottom flange 

is > a "J ^— = breaking weight; whereas it appears to me, from 

his own experiments above quoted, that this should be l a ~r a ' ' ■ . 

It will be observed that these conclusions, as to the small value of the 
tension bars, as actually derived from Mr. Fairbairn's experiments, are 
further dependant on the proper and simultaneous resistance of the 
wrought iron; whereas, it has been shown already, and will be made 
more apparent hereafter, that this simultaneous action is, in many cases, 
very doubtful?and uncertain. On the whole, I perfectly agree with Mr. 
Fairbairn that there is not much gained in the strength of cast-iron 



beams by the addition of malleable iron truss rods, and that well-con- 
structed wrought-iron beams are infinitely preferable. 

Mr. Glynn seems to be of the same opinion as Mr. Fairbairn with 
respect to these compound girders. In a communication to the Commis- 
sioners of 1849, he objects to the use of wrought iron as an auxiliary to 
cast iron, because he thinks each of the two metals cannot be made to 
take its own share of the burden, but that either one or the other must 
first bear it. 

The built cast-iron girder, composed of several pieces, and strengthened 
with wrought-iron tension rods, has been employed extensively by Mr. 
Eobert Stephenson and Mr. Bidder : for instance, in the bridge over the 
Minories, for the Blackwall Railway, and in the bridge over the River 
Lea, near the Rye House, on the Cambridge line of the Eastern Counties 
Railway. They were also used in many bridges on the Midland 
Railway. 

The following are some of the principal examples of trussed girder 
bridges which were extensively adopted for railways previous to 1847, 
when the failure took place in a bridge of this kind on the Chester and 
Holyhead Railway. Since this time the cast-iron trussed girders have 
been abandoned. 

Built Girder Bridge, or Viaduct, with Tension Rods, on the York 

and Scarborough Branch of the York and North Midland 

Railway. 

This viaduct consists of two openings, each of 09 ft. span on the 
square, and 74 ft. on the skew. Each opening is covered by four lines of 
girders, which are not equidistant, the two centre ones being 5 ft. apart, 
while the two outer ones are each 9 ft. apart; the centre interval of 5 ft. 
is used as a public footpath across the River Ouse. Each line of girders 
over both the openings is composed of three separate pieces, bolted 
together, and these are strengthened by wrought-iron tension bars, one 
on each side, also in three lengths, connected at the two joints by a short 
round transverse bolt, passing through an opening at the meeting of the 
corresponding bottom joints of the girders, but without penetrating the 
iron of the latter. The centre part of each tension rod is horizontal, and 
lies almost on the bottom flange of the girder. The end bar of each 
tension rod is attached at the extremity to the top of the girder, and is 
inclined to the horizon at an angle of about 8°. The girder at the ends 
and at the two joints is 4 ft. 6 in. deep, and in the centre is 3 ft. deep. 

The top flange is 8 in. by 2 in.; the middle rib is 1\ in. thick, 

and the bottom flange is 24 in. wide by 1\ in. Hence, the area of 

the girder at the end and joints is 182 sq. in., and in the middle 

142 sq. in. The area of the bottom flange is 54 sq. in. throughout. The 

tension bar on each side is 6 in. deep by 2 in. wide, and therefore the two 

bars have an area or cross section of 24 sq. in, for each line of girders. 

Taking the smallest section of this beam, it will probably not be safe 

A d 
to use a higher coefficient than 1 ; hence, the breaking weight = = 



142 X 36 
74 



I 
69 tons, for the breaking weight of the cast-iron girder 



alone, without the tension bar. 
According to Mr. Fairbairn's formula, the breaking weight of the cast- 

• j i u . Mx 36 X 2-16 

iron girder alone would be - 



74 



weight for the tension rods would be 



= 56 tons, and the breaking 



24 X 3 X 36 X2-16 
74"" 



76 tons. 



Hence, the breaking weight of the whole girder complete, with tension 
bars, will be either 145 tons or 132 tons, according as we adopt one or 
other of the formula above used; but if it be true (as I believe it is, from 
Mr. Fairbairn's experiments,) that the truss rods only contribute a 
strength equal to one-third of 76 tons, then the breaking weight of one 
trussed girder will not exceed 92 tons, which does not seem enough for a 
span of 74 ft. 

Computing the breaking weight of the trussed girder by formula (41) 

. 36 (142 + 48) 

we have 



74 



92 tons. 



Cast-iron Bridge, with Tension Bars, over the River Dee, on 
the Chester and Holyhead Railway. 

The failure of this bridge affords an example which it may be useful 
to examine. It fell under the weight of a passing train in May, 1847 — 
an accident which probably contributed to cause the appointment of the 
famous Commission to inquire into the strength of iron in railway 
structures, whose labours I have already alluded to at some length. 

This bridge consisted of three openings, each of 72 ft. span on the 
square, and 98 ft. on the skew. Each opening is covered by four lines 
of girders, the two centre ones being placed almost close together, and 
the two outer ones 12 ft. apart. Every line of girders over each open- 
ing is composed of three pieces, well secured by bolts and flanges at 
their junction, and strengthened by wrought-iron rods, which will pre- 



The Artizan, 1 
April 1, 1858. J 



An Inquiry into the Strength of Beams and Girders. 



83 



sently be described. The depth of each girder is 3 ft. 9 in., and the 

dimensions and area as follows : — 

Top flange 7" X 2" 14 

Eib 40 X2 80 

Bottom flange 24 X 2f 66 

Total area 160 sq. in. 

The girders are strengthened at the ends and junctions, but the above 
is the section which must be considered in calculating their strength. 

Every line of girders has on each side of it eight parallel plates of 
wrought iron, each 6 in. x -ft- These bars are disposed on each side of 
the girder so as to form a chain of three links, the upper extremity 
being suspended from a casting attached at the end and top of the girder, 
and the middle part of the chain being horizontal. The upper end, or 
point of suspension, is 7 ft. above the bottom of the girder, and the 
chain, therefore, declines 7 ft. in one-third of its entire length. The 
area of this chain for each girder is 6 x -^ X 16 = 30 sq. in. 

According to the formula ~, the breaking weight of one line ot gir- 
ders in the centre, is x = 74 tons ; and according to Fairbairn's 
98 



66 X 45 X 2-16 
98 



= 64 tons. 



formula the breaking weight is 

According to Mr. Stephenson's evidence on trie inquiry which took 
place into this accident, the breaking weight in the centre of the girder 
would be 70 tons ; and the engineers, Mr. "Walker and Captain Simmons, 
who reported on the accident to the Board of Trade, calculated the 
breaking weight at 80 tons. 

Messrs. Walker and Simmons appear to have considered what the 
strength of the cast iron should have been, if entirely unaided by the 
tension bars ; and they came to the conclusion that the pair of girders 
supporting one line of railway should be capable of bearing a distri- 
buted load of 540 tons, so that the breaking weight of each girder in the 

centre would be — = 135 tons, instead of 64 to 80. 
4 
Let us now see what resistance would be given by the tension bars 
according to Mr. Fairbairn's formula. The area for each girder being 

90 X 45 X 2 - 16' 
30 in., we have — = 89 tons. Messrs. Walker and Sim- 

mons, however, only estimate the tension rods for one line of railway as 
capable of supporting a distributed weight of 260 tons, which is only 
equal to 65 tons in the eentre. 

Hence, according to Mr. Fairbairn, the entire strength of one girder 
would be represented by a breaking weight in the centre of 64 + 89 = 
153 tons; and according to Messrs. Walker and Simmons, the strength 
would be represented by a breaking weight in the centre equal to 
80 + 66 = 146 tons. Now the span being 98 ft., this breaking weight 
is only about 1J- tons for each foot of span; whereas we have seen (page 
268, of The Artizan, Vol. XV.) that the breaking weight in most of the 
Great Northern bridges is actually double this, or 3 tons per foot 
of span. 

Either the Great Northern bridges are all unnecessarily strong, or 
this bridge on the Chester and Holyhead must have been most danger- 
ously weak ; since, even allowing the fullest value ever assigned to the 
tension rods, and assuming their resisting action to be perfect at all 
times, the bridge is only half as strong as those on the Great Northern 
Eailway. 

Messrs. Walker and Simmons, in their report, expressed very grave 
doubt as to the beneficial action of the truss rods ; in fact, they threw 
out the very same suggestions as to the different extensibility of the two 
metals, which have since been so much enlarged on by Mr. Fairbairn. 
They state, as the result of their observations and experiments, that the 
tension rods probably acted at first and performed their share in 
strengthening the girder; but they are of opinion that when the girder 
gave way, the whole load was borne by itself alone. The following 
paragraph from their Report, will explain the view which they enter- 
tained as to the value of the tension rods. 

" We have no evidence of the fact of the chains being loose, but we 
think it probable, that previous to the accident the girder might have 
been supporting the whole of the weight ; and we fear that practically 
the tension bars aTe of but little use, or at least, that so little depen- 
dance is to be placed on them, that in a case of this nature the cast-iron 
girders ought to be of sufficient strength without them." 

Notwithstanding several circumstances which are set forth in the 
Beport, as affecting the strength of these girders, the load which actually 
broke down the bridge, must appear marvellously small. The engine 
and tender of the train which broke down weighed 30 tons ; and the 
weight of the whole train, in addition to 18 tons of stone which were 
lying on the rails, does not seem to have exceeded 60 tons. 

The bridge had frequently borne as heavy weights before without 



accident ; and on the day it occurred, six trains had previously passed 
without any symptom of danger. The train which broke down, passed 
safely over the first and centre openings, and reached the middle of the 
third opening, when one of the girders gave way. Thus, allowing for a 
little concentration of weight under the engine, which, of course, is the 
heaviest part of the train, the breaking weight in the centre would not 
amount by calculation to more than 20 tons in the centre of the girder; 
whereas, by the lowest calculation, the girder alone should have borne 
more than 60. This example seems to show, not only that tension rods 
are extremely dangerous and not to be depended on in railway struc- 
tures, but that the strength of the girder should be equal to at least six 
times the greatest lead that can ever come upon it. 

Me. Hawkshaw's Bridge over the River Calder, on the 
Wakefield, Pontefract, and Goole Railway. 

This is a skew bridge of three arches, each being about 50 ft. span on 
the square, and about 53 ft. on the skew face. Each girder is 31 ft. in 
length; and the bridge consists of three lines of girders. The six girders 
forming one line are laid with the ends closely abutting, so that each 
bay is spanned by two girders in length, and the two opposite ends of 
each girder rest, one on the pier, and the other in the centre of the span. 
Each girder at the end has the following dimensions : — 

Top flange 8 in. x 2^ in. 

Bottom ditto 24 „ X2J„ 

Central rib 2 in. thick ; total depth of middle girder, 6 ft. 2 in. ; and 
of the side girders, 5 ft. 2 in. 
The girders at the centre have the following dimensions : — 

Top flange 8 in. x 2^ in. 

Bottom ditto 24 „ X2|„ 

Central rib 2 in. thick ; total depth of middle girder, 4 ft. 8 in. ; and of 
side girders, 3 ft. 8 in. Each girder has on each side of it a wrought- 
iron tension bar, or truss rod, 6 in. in depth, by an inch in breadth. In 
this bridge each rib, covering a single span, is composed of two pieces, or 
the span may be said to be covered by a built girder, in two pieces. ... 
Calculation of the Strength of this Bridge. 
The middle girder has an area in the centre as follows :— 

Top flange 8 X 2| 20 in. 

Bottom ditto 24 X 2J 60 „ 

Rib 51 X 2 102 „ 

Total 182 in. 

The side girders : — 

Top flange 8 X 2| 20 in. 

Bottom ditto 24 X 2J 60 „ 

Rib 39X2 78 „ 

Total 158 in. 

Thus, by Mr. Fairbairn's formula, the breaking weight for the middle 
rib is — 

2-16 (60 + 12 X 3) 56 _ 22Q tons 

53 
And for the side rib — 

2-16 (60 + 12 X 3) 44 _ m 

53 

Breaking weight for one line of way .... 393 tons 
or 196^ tons for each line of rail, being less than 4 tons per foot of span. 
By formula 41, the breaking weight for the middle rib is — 
56 (182 + 12 X 2) _ 01 - 

53 
and for the side ribs, 

44 (158 + 12 X 2) _ _ 151 

53 

For both girders 368 tons 

Mr. Hawksiiaw's Bridge over the Knottingley and Goole Canal, 
on the Wakefield, Pontefract, and Goole Railway. 

This is a skew bridge of 77 ft. span on the square, and 88 ft. on the 
skew face. It consists of four' girders, each cast in three lengths. The 
depth in the centre is 4 ft. 6 in., and the following are the dimensions :— 

Top flange 8x2 16 

Bottom ditto 24 x 2| 66 

Rib 49x21 HO 

Total area 192 



84 



Observations upon Deposit of Silt in New York Harbour. 



rTiiE Artizaw, 
L April 1, 1868. 



The depth of the pieces at the ends, and where holted together, is 
7 ft. 6 in. 

Each compound girder has a single line of three tension bars on each 
side, with an area of 7 in. by 1 in. = 14 in. for each girder. The break- 
ing weight of this girder, by Mr. Fairbairn's formula, would be 

+ -^— =144 tons; and as this is probably much in excess 

88 

of the real strength of the bridge, there does not appear to be much 

margin for contingencies. 

Calculated according to formula 41, the breaking weight in the centre 

is only 54 < 192 + 28 > = 135 tons. 
' 88 

Mr. Hawkshaw has built, in the North of England and elsewhere, a 
number of other bridges on the same principle. 

Mr. Fairbairn's experiments, already quoted, were made on beams 
having trusses with only one angular point; but in most of the large 
cast-iron trussed girder bridges, the truss has two angular points, being 
in three pieces, the middle of which is horizontal. 

It is probable this is a worse form than the truss with one angle, and 
more unlikely to realise a simultaneous action in the two metals. Expe- 
riments have been made by Professor Barlow on trusses acting by com- 
pression, from which it appears that no increase of strength is gained by 
queen-bolt trusses of this description. A similar result was found in 
some very elaborate experiments made in America on inverted trusses, 
or those acting by tension. 

Wooden beams, trussed in various forms, were experimented on, when 
it was found that no strength whatever was gained by using trusses with 
two angular points ; but in trusses with one angular point an increase of 
strength equal to 50 per cent, was gained in certain cases, where a simul- 
taneous resistance was obtained. — (See " Journal of the Franklin Insti- 
tute," 1842. 



REPORT OF THE RESULT OF OBSERVATIONS UPON THE 
DEPOSIT OF SILT IN THE HARBOUR OF NEW YORK. 

Bj- Charles H. Haswell, Civil and Marine Engineer. 
[Made during the years 1854-1857.] 

New York, Dec. 21, 1857. 

Sir, — In the summer of 1854, I verbally called the attention of the late 
President of your Board, Walter R. Joues, Esq., to the wash of earth from the 
streets and sewers of this city and Brooklyn, into the slips bordering thereon, 
by which not only this harbour was being injuriously affected, but that the 
width of the channel inside of the bar at Sandy Hook had become seriously 
narrowed, and ultimately the depth of water on the bar must become lessened ; 
and that, in view of the great interests that would be affected by any reduction 
of the depth of water there, it was proper that some investigation should be 
made of the extent of the deposit of silt into the rivers bordering our city, for 
the purpose of placing- the results before the public, in order that its attention 
might be directed to the consideration of an element in our commercial position, 
secondary to none other, viz., the maintenance of a depth of water at the 
entrance of our harbour equal to the full requirements of our commerce. 

Mr. Jones readily entertained my proposals, and under his direction I at once 
proceeded to make such observations as I thought best calculated to furnish the 
essential elements in the case, restricting myself to the subject of deposits in 
our harbour ; the encroachment upon the boundaries thereof, by the extension 
of bulkheads and piers, and the injurious effects therefrom, I did not propose to 
consider, for the two-fold fact, that the necessity of restraining these encroach- 
ments had become so manifest to the public, that not only had the attention of 
our Legislature been called to the subject, but that it was then receiving the 
consideration of a committee appointed for the purpose of investigating and 
reporting thereon; and secondly, that the operation of such encroachment was 
so similar to that which I proposed to investigate, viz., the reduction of the 
tidal volume of our harbour, that the deductions in one case would be equally 
applicable to the other. 

As a prelude to my task, I assumed it to be indisputable that the bar at 
Sandy Hook, in its general features, like the bars of all tidal rivers, presented 
a series of irregular obstructions stretching across the entrance into the lower 
bay, with a varying and less depth of water upon it than in the channels 
within it. 

The causes admitted to produce this general result are numerous, but the 
following apply, in my opinion, peculiarly to the locality under consideration : — 

1st. To the arrest of the current of the last of the ebb tide from the bay, 
where it meets the first of the sea flood when it surrenders the detritus it holds 
in suspension. 

2nd. To the difference of the flood and ebb currents in their direction. 

3rd. To the action of ground swells from the sea, which, if heavy and flowing 
from the southward and eastward, deposit sand and gravel upon the bar, and 
at all times, when aided by the current of the flood, within the entrance 
thereof. 

4th. To the occasional diminution of the back water of the bays and rivers 
leading thereto from drought, and the reduction of the tidal volume by the pre- 
sence of ice upon flats and the shores. 

5th. To a reduction of the tidal area by the] constant accretion of detritus 
upon the shores. 

The first three positions are similar in a great degree to those entertained by 
E. K. Calver, R.N. ; the 5th one by Sir Henry De la Beche. 



In the prosecution of my observations I selected sixteen locations which I 
thought best suited to furnish me with the elements desired, and provided 
myself with an equal number of bottles, of like capacity (30 cubic inches) I 
repeatedly filled one of them with water from each of these localities at half 
tide (both ebb and flow), both in dry and wet weather, and at different seasons 
of the year; such water was then filtered and the residuum weighed and noted 
m grains, the average results of which, deduced from the operations of several 
years, furnish the following : — 

Weight, in grains, of deposits in 30 cubic inches of water from the following 
localities : — ° 

__ , Grains. 

Manhattanville -578 

Harlem Bridge 1 -031 

Hell Gate 1-093 

30th Street East 1-265 

23rd Street East 2-968 

Grand Street 4-000 

Wall Street 5-187 

Broad Street 6-375 

The mean result of which is 2-633 grains in every 30 cubic inches of water. 

Excluding therefrom all the city localities, but one upon each side of it, for 
the purpose of arriving at a mean of the average presence of silt in the water 
of our harbour above the Narrows, the following result is obtained :— 



Grains. 

Sandy Hook -109 

Narrows -265 

Robbin's Reef -367 

Ellis' Island -811 

Battery ]-687 

Liberty Street 6927 

Canal Street 8-531 

30th Street West -937 



Grains. 

Narrows -265 

Robbin's Reef -367 

Ellis' Island -811 

Battery 1-687 

3-130 



Grains. 

Brought forward 3-130 

Manhattanville -578 

Harlem Bridge 1-031 

Grand Street 4-000 

30th Street West -937 



8)9-076 
1-209 



From which it appears that the average annual flow of silt into the rivers 
bordering this city, reaches the enormous rate of 1-209 grains in every 30 cubic 
inches of water ; and assuming the quantity of the former to be equal to 125 lbs 
per cubic foot, a cubic inch of it will weigh -072 lbs. The volume of this deposit 
compared with water is, therefore, as 1 to 12,565. 

Confining my observations to the city of New York alone, and taking the 
deposits shown in the water from the several localities around the city, the 
mean amount of silt in every 30 cubic inches of water is as follows :— 

Battery 1-687 

Liberty Street 6-937 

Canal Street 8-531 

30th Street East 1-265 

23rd Street East 2-968 

Grand Street 4-000 

Wall Street 5-187 

Broad Street 6-375 

30th Street West -937 




9)37-887 



4-209 



Hence, by the elements before given, it appears that the volume of the 
deposit from the water in the slips of this city between 30th Street East and 
West and the Battery, compared with that of the water (at half tide), is as 
1 to 3,610. 

Startling as these results appear, it must be borne in mind that they do not 
give a full exhibition of the facts of the case, for the observations made were 
necessarily confined to the presence of silt, and embraced only that portion 
which was retained in suspension by the flow of currents, whilst the deposit of 
detritus from the flow of gravel, sand, &c, could not be arrived at, unless by a 
different system of observation, and it is consequently not embraced in the 
above results. 

The detractions from these results to be taken in view, are — 

1st. That the strength of the current at certain points is sufficiently rapid to 
keep much of the silt in motion at both the ebb and flow of the tide ; hence, 
although its presence is shown, yet its rapid deposit does not occur. 

2nd. That the water taken from the several locations between 30th Street, on 
each side of the city, was taken from between the piers ; and although the 
deposit of silt noted, is just as regards the location from where the water was 
taken, a greater deposit is exhibited than if taken from the ends of the piers ; 
this, however, does not affect the results here given, but refers only to the 
extent of the area of deposit. 

In corroboration of these results, and in illustration of the effects under con- 
sideration, the proprietors of the N. Y. Sectional Dock assure me that the 
deposit of silt upon their tanks between the piers of Market and Pike streets, 
averages full five-sixteenths to three-eighths of an inch in one flow of tide, and 
they are thereby subjected to the delay and cost of dredging under their dock 
to the depth of seven feet every two years. 

In illustration of the effects of a reduction, by the encroachments upon our 
rivers, and the deposit therein, of the quantity of water which flowed into our 
harbour, the flood-tide through the East River and Hell Gate, once flowing to 
Sand's Point, is now arrested at Fort Schuyler; the width of the ship channel 
inside of the bar had narrowed in 1855 half a mile, since the survey of 1836; 
by a report of A. Boschke, of U. S. Coast Survey, made to Professor A. D. 
Bache, the Superintendent thereof, it appears that in the main ship channel 
alone, from the S. W. Spit to Gedney's Channel, there has been an actual deposit 



The Artizan, "1 
April 1, 1858. J 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



85 



in twenty years of a volume of sand of 2,532,600 cubic feet ; and from the late 
report of the Harbour Commissioners, made to the Legislature of the State, it 
appears that the Jersey Flats are rapidly silting up. 

This is, in my opinion, an alarming exhibition, and one involving considerations 
demanding the immediate attention of all who feel interested in the commercial 
interests of this city ; for without remedial action the width of the channel and 
depth of water on our bar will become so reduced as to preclude the admission 
of vessels of the largest size into our harbour. 

The course of remedial action most readily and effectually introduced at this 
time that occurs to me, is the effective cleaning of our streeti; and piers, in 
order to remove the wash into the rivers therefrom, and putting an end to the 
present practice of depositing the dredging of our slips into the channel of the 
rivers : and I opine that no one who gives the subject his attention will for a 
moment permit the temporarily increased expenditure consequent upon the 
measure here suggested to be weighed for a moment, or in value with the 
advantages to be derived therefrom. 

The operation of dredging slips as now performed is briefly as follows : — 
The deposits in the slips are removed to the channels of the north or east 
rivers, when the silt, or mud, is swept by the current of the tide back to the 
slips, and upon the flats of New Jersey and Long Island, and the stones, 
bricks, and such other matter too heavy to be moved by the detrital action of 
the current, fill the channel in proportion to their volume. 

The opinion appears to prevail with the public that the discharge from our 
sewers, and the deposit removed from the slips into the rivers, are icashed, as 
it is termed, into the sea and Long Island Sound : if this were the operation it 
would be well for the interests involved in the subject under discussion ; but, 
as it happens, a very brief examination of the case presents a very different 
result. Thus, the deposits in our slips, i.e., mud, independently of stones, 
bricks, &c, is composed of gravel, sand, clay, and feculent matter, which, 
when transferred to the channels of the rivers, is submitted to the detrital 
action of a current of from three to four knots per hour, 18 miles distant from 
the sea ; with these elements, then, it would be difficult to show how any por- 
tion of this mud, other than the soluble part of it, and the colouring matter 
therein, could ever reach Sandy Hook. 

A review, then, of the elements submitted, and a consideration of their 
operation furnishes, the following deductions : — 

1st. That the deposit of silt and detrital matter into the rivers bordering 
this city is so considerable in amount that the slips of this city are very rapidly 
being filled ; the bays, indentations, and flats upon the shores of Long Island 
and New Jersey, the Harlem River, and all places where the currents are 
comparatively feeble, are being rapidly silted up by the tidal currents, and 
along with the accretions of the wash upon the shores of our harbour, the 
tidal volume thereof is being reduced, upon the extent of which tidal volume 
depends the volume of water passing the bar at Sandy Hook, a point involving 
the commercial value, if not the physical existence, of this harbour. 

2nd. That the system of the dredging of our slips as now pursued, viz., the 
removal of the deposits therein from below low- water depth, to be exposed to 
the currents in the rivers, ends in but a transfer of them to other slips and 
shoal places ; the effect of which is to involve the loss of time and cost of a 
re-removal of the deposits from the slips. 

3rd. That by the thorough cleaning of the streets and piers of this city, 
Brooklyn, and neighbouring cities, that the deposits into the slips would 
be lessened, and the necessity for dredging them would be rendered less 
frequent. 

Finally. That economy in the current expenditures of cleaning our streets 
and dredging slips, demands that the streets and piers of our city should be 
thoroughly cleaned, and that the transfer of the materials dredged from our 
slips to the channel of the rivers should be forthwith forbidden, since the 
increased cost consequent upon the removal of the mud to the main land, is 
quite inconsiderable compared with that of its repeated removal by being- 
deposited hi the channels of the rivers. 

In order that I may not be subjected to the charge of attaching too much 
importance to this subject, I beg leave to submit a few of the results of investi- 
gations held by the |Tidal Harbour Commission, &c, &c, &c, in England, 
together with the opinions of the necessity of the maintenance of the tidal 
volume in all maritime ports, as furnished by Calver in his invaluable work 
upou "Tidal Rivers," whose thesis is, " That the navigable condition of the 
outlet of a tidal river can only be maintained by tidal water, and that its extent 
as to sectional capacity will be proportioned to the amount admitted." 

"We consider the magnitude of every tide harbour, both as to width and depth, is 
generally proportionate to the quantity of such flowing and reflowing water, and every 
subtraction from such quantity by embankment tends to decrease the magnitude of the 
outlet to the harbour." [Benuie and Jess<>2>. Report on Bye Harbour. 1801.] 

" I am not aware that any remedy can be substituted for the deprivation of back-water." 
[Bennie. Report on Southivold Harbour. 1820.] 

" It is not to be forgotten that as the sands and mud accumulate, and marsh lands are 
formed in the upper part of the estuary, the power of scouring the lower portions (the 
entrance) is diminished." [Telford. Report on river Dee. 1821.] 

" If there wer« no receptacle for tidal waters to pass in and out at every tide, the harbour 
would cease to exist." " If with the same width between the piers, we reduce the quantity 
of water which has to pass in or out in the same time, we diminish at once the required 
velocity or power to remove obstructions, and a decrease of deptli follows almost im- 
mediately." " It is to be lamented that when the owners of estates were, perhaps 
balancing in their minds whether the land they could reclaim would pay the expense of re- 
claimig it, they were not advised of the injury they were about to do to the public and 
themselves by a reduction of the Back-water, upon which their harbour is dependent." 
[Wallicr. Report on Soutlmold Harbour. 1841.1 

" Liverpool, Yarmouth, Montrose, and many of our great harbours, depend for their 
existence upon the tidal current, and therefore the receptacle for tidal water ought to be 
preserved with jealous care." [Walker. Report on river Toy. 1845.] 

" Q. Are the Commission to understand that enclosures stopping the flow of tidal 

13 



water, must gradually injure the bar of the harbour to which that formerly served as 
a scour? 

" A. Yes, it will do so." [Cubiit. Evidence before Tidal Harbours Commission. 
1845.] 

"As the maintenance of the navigation and the keeping down the bar depends mainly 
on the quantity of water passing over it, * * * * * care should be 
taken that no further embankments over which the tide is accustomed to flow, be per- 
mitted. * * * » On the contrary, care should be taken to increase, either 
in width or depth, the space for the reception of tidal water." [Sir John Rennie. Report 
mi Wexford Harbour. 1831.] 

" I think that any effect from a fresh at the bar is a mere bagatelle compared with the 
scouring of tidal water." [Leslie. Evidence before Tidal Harbours Commission. 1845.] 

" Q. Are you of opinion that depths in rivers and their power of scouring are chiefly 
due to the volume of water brought down in freshes, or to the tidal waters? A. I should 
say to the tidal waters." [D. Stevenson. Evidence before Tidal Harbours Commission. 
1845.] 

" I do consider it highly injurious to any river to shut out even 1 in. of the tidal water." 
[Bald. Evidence before Tidal Harbours Commission. 1845.] 

" The area of the estuary of the Dee was formerly about 12,000 acres, covered at every 
spring tide; of this space 8,000 acres have been enclosed, and the tidal water excluded. 
The Act of Parliament that sanctioned this extensive encroachment required that a depth of 
15 ft., at ordinary spring tides, should be maintained up to Chester; but the river was in 
so bad a state in December, 1844, that a vessel drawing only 8J ft. water could not go up 
to Chester on a spring tide." 

"At Parkgate, 12 miles below Chester, which formerly was one of the principal mail 
packet stations between England and Ireland, a dry sand now extends almost across the 
estuary." [Second Report of Tidal Harbours Commission. 1846.] 

" Blakeney and Clay, on the north-east of Norfolk, have a common entrance from the 
sea, within the memory of some of the present pilots; 140 coasting vessels have taken 
refuge in this port during one tide ; yet in the place where these vessels lay afloat at low 
water, there is now only a depth of 4 or 5 ft., and the utility of the harbour has consequently 
been almost destroyed." 

" It is stated that this evil has been caused by the enclosure, at different times, of more 
than 1,200 acres of land, over which the tidal waters formerly flowed." [Second Beport 
of Tidal Harbours Commission. 1846.] 

" Rye Harbour has been ruined by embankments ; it appears in evidence that formerly 
a 64-gun ship could use that harhour, which is now ruined." [Rennie. Evidence before 
Bochester Bridge Co»imittee. 1820.] 

" Mr. Walker states in evidence before the Tidal Harbours Commission, 'the diminishing 
the reservoir for the tidal water in the Thames has had, in my opinion, the effect of 
increasing the shoals at its mouth;' and Mr. Abernethy, in his report upon the Dee, the 
enormous obstructions from which river we have already noticed, remarks, 'the lower 
portion of the navigation is gradually filling up ;' thus proving the correctness of Telford's 
prediction." 

Further. The fatal error of a common opinion that the flow of water from 
the Hudson River by freshets, is all sufficient to keep the bar at Sandy Hook 
navigable, is thus dissipated by elements furnished by Mr. Walker, in his 
evidence before the Tidal Harbours Commission. 

In the Tay, the discharge, including that of the Earn, amounts during 
freshets to one million cubic feet per minute, or 240 millions during four hours. 
The tidal water passing Dundee in the same time is above 7,000 millions, or 
thirty times that of the river water, and making the calculation at the bar, the 
tidal water is upwards of forty times that of the river water. It is well ob- 
served by Mr. Walker, that it is only when the quantities are reduced to 
figures in this way that the vast disparity is seen; and by Mr. Leslie, who says 
that a,ny effect from a fresh at the bar is a mere bagatelle compared with the 
scouring of the tidal water. 

Now, if this test of a measurement, of the proportionate flow of the tide and 
of the freshets were made in the Hudson or Delaware, or any other of our tidal 
rivers of magnitude, a much greater disparity would be found to exist ; for in 
this country, where the annual fall of rains is much below that of England, the 
volume of the river freshets would be proportionally decreased, which, when 
estimated in connection with the datum of Mr. Walker, above cited, would be 
conclusive as to the inefficiency of the scouring of a freshet, in comparison 
with that of the flow of the tides. 

Regarding the effect of the presence of ice in a harbour, it must not be lost ' 
sight of, that although ice in suspension in the water does not reduce the tidal 
volume, other than by presenting a resistance to the surface current of the tidal 
flow, that when it is fixed, as when npon flats and shores, that it reduces the 
tidal volume in direct proportion with its own. 

Trusting that the results furnished and the views here given will meet with 
your approbation, and a concurrence in the opinion as to the importance of the 
subject, I am, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
A. B. Neilson, Esq., Chas. H. Hasweil, 

President Board of Underwriters, New Yorlt. Engineer. 



INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 
January 26, 1858. 
Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 
The papers read, were " On Shearing, Punching, Rivetting, and 

OTHER SIMILAR MACHINERY EMPLOYED IN THE MANUFACTURE OP 

Steam Boilers," and " On the Self-acting Tools employed in 
the construction of Steam Engines, &c." By Mr. T. S. Sawyer. 

In the first paper the author proceeded to describe the comparatively rude 
machinery employed, until within a recent period, in the construction of boilers ; 
such as the arrangement for punching plates, which consisted of a punchsimply 
mounted in guides, the matrix being secured in a block below, and the necessary 
force for the operation being the blow from a hammer. This was superseded by 
a lever raised by an eccentric cam. The introduction of more improved machi- 
nery was then particularly noticed, and the various arrangements of apparatus 
for punching and shearing vertically in one machine described, those manu- 
factured by Messrs. J. Whitworth arid Co. being instanced. 



86 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



["The Artizan, 
L April 1, 1 



1808. 



"""An account of the machinery for rivetting was then given, and it was consi- 
dered, that the introduction of the direct action of steam for this purpose was 
most important, and that the arrangement of a separate engine to work each 
machine had proved to be more advantageous than working several machines 
by straps, gearing, &c. A brief description of the machinery for forging rivets, 
&c, was then given, and by one example it was shown that a ton of well-formed 
rivets, all exactly similar, could be produced in ten hours. The machinery for 
forging bolts and other similar articles was then described, together with the 
various arrangements of air-hammers suitable for larger work — the principal 
feature of which consisted in allowing a hammer or block to fall by its own 
gravity against the pressure of air in a cylinder, so as to produce an elastic 
blow. The mode, however, generally adopted for lifting the piston and hammer 
was not considered satisfactory, as it produced a jarring action, which soon 
caused deterioration to the machine. An arrangement of apparatus was also 
described for forging nuts of various sizes with exactness, the plan introduced 
by Messrs. Collier being particularly alluded to and explained, samples of the 
nuts so made being exhibited. The author thought that there was yet much 
to be accomplished by a further introduction of machinery in the construction 
of boilers, so as to insure correctness of form and detail. 

With regard to the " Self-acting Tools employed in the construction of 
Steam Engines and other machinery," they were thus classified and de- 
scribed : — 

First. — The machines employed in the construction of steam engines. 

Secondly. — Those used in the manufacture of general machinery, including 
that employed in cotton mills. 

The tools employed in the construction of steam engines were again divided 
into the following sections : — 

First. — Drilling, boring, and other similar machines. 

Secondly. — Turning and screw-cutting machines. 

Thirdly. — Shaping, planing, slotting, and key-grooving machines. 

After describing the simplest form of drilling machines, the author proceeded 
to point out the advantages of the radial drill, together with the great inge- 
nuity displayed in the motion for producing the feed. The arrangement of 
mechanism for producing the feed in the large machines for operating upon the 
cylinders and air pumps . of steam engines was then particularised, with the 
system of wheels required for this purpose. Other modifications of these tools, 
as applied in the manufacture of cotton machinery, was then noticed. 

Under the second section the various arrangements of lathes, such as those 
employed in ordinary turning and screw cutting, the break lathe, and those 
introduced by Whitworth, in which two or more tools or cutters were adopted 
on opposite sides of the centres, were minutely described. 

In the third section a detailed description of the shaping and slotting 
machines was given under the following heads : — 

First. — Shaping, in which the tool was mounted so as to be adjustable to 
various angles. 

Secondly. — Those iu which a varied speed of the cutting tool was adopted, 
and the work to be operated upon traversed vertically, or horizontally. The 
slotting machines, in which the cutter traversed vertically, and in which the 
table or rest was adjustable for the feed, were described. The various purposes 
for which they were used were also referred to. 

Thirdly. — Planing machines, with the apparatus for adjusting the tool or 
cutter, and the means adopted for effecting the required change of the tra- 
versing table, together with the driving medium. 

The author stated that great advantages had resulted from the introduction 
of labour-saving machines; a better class of work was produced; and although 
it had often been urged against the use of such machines, that employment for 
workmen would be diminished, yet in no instance had this been found to be the 
case. It had, however, a tendency to render lighter the labour of the work- 
man, and to stimulate 1dm to become more a master of his art, as well as allow- 
ing more time for mental improvement. 

In the discussion, it was remarked that Mr. Richard Roberts had been one 
of the earliest introducers of self-acting tools, such as the planing, slotting, and 
machines for metals. Within the last few years he had also made improvements 
in punching and rivetting machines. His " Jacquard," or multifarious per- 
forating machine, was now employed at the Canada Works, Birkenhead, for 
punching the boiler plates to be used in the construction of the Victoria Bridge 
over the River St. Lawrence, Canada. The machine was now punching 
seventy-two holes in each plate of 10 ft. iu length, 8 ft. 6 in. in width, and 
5-16thsin. in thickness. It could punch ninety of these plates per day of ten 
hours and a half, under the management of one mechanic, three labourers to 
lift the plates on and off, and one boy to oil the punches. The same sized plate, 
when punched by hand, would require four men marking with templates, and 
eight men at the machine itself — and yet it would not do anything like the same 
quantity of work as the Jacquard machine, especially when a large number of 
holes had to be made. The dies and punches in the Jacquard machine, when 
fairly at work, were also less costly. Specimens were exhibited by Mr. Roberts, 
of what he termed spiral planing — and Messrs. Batho and Bauer showed models 
explanatory of their reciprocating drilling machine and small planing machine, 
in elucidation of the descriptions given in the paper. It was shown, that by 
five of these improved planing machines, as much work could be done as by 
six of the ordinary machines. 

The reciprocating drilling machine was stated to have been very successfully 
used at the manufactory of Messrs. Robert Stephenson and Co., where an im- 
provement, had been introduced by the addition of a rocking frame, by means 
of which the machine could cut taper key holes, in piston and other rods; and 
now all the key-holes were made to one given angle best adapted for drawing 
and holding. 

It was noticed that to Maudslay, Clement, and Bramah, was due the praise 
of nearly the first introduction of self-acting tools. Then came Fox (of Derby), 



Whitworth, and Roberts, and recently a great number of very ingenious inven- 
tions had been brought forward by the numerous makers, whose names were 
how so well known. 

The ingenious machinery for punching boiler plates, invented nearly forty 
years ago by Mr. Maudslay, for making water-tanks for "the navy, was de- 
scribed ; and it was shown that up to the present time that same machinery 
was almost unrivalled for the precision of its action and the quantity of work 
it performed. 

It was stated that great care should be exercised in the use of rivetting 
machines, as, if undue pressure were employed, the rivets were too much coin- 
pressed, and instances were given of plates being split throughout their length, 
under the process of rivetting. On the other hand it was shown that Garforth's 
steam rivetting machine could, by the careful adjustment of the dies-, be ren- 
dered a most efficient and valuable adjunct in making boilers. 

Instances were adduced of the great accuracy to be attained by the use of 
self-acting tools ; and as an instance of the economy thus introduced, it was 
stated that a surface of iron for the chipping and filing of which, by hand, 
a clever workman was formerly paid twelve shillings, was now ordinarily done 
by the planing machine for three halfpence. 

The subject was so large, and so very interesting, that it was hoped a paper 
would be given on the history of the introduction of these self-acting tools, 
which had produced such a revolution in the manufacture of machinery. 



February 2, 18-58. 

Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 

The paper read, was " On the Methods generally adopted in 
Cornwall, in Dressing Tin and Copper Ores," by Mr. James 
Henderson, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 

The author introduced the subject by stating, that since the paper by the 
late Mr. W. J. Henwood, read before the Royal Geological Society of Corn- 
wall, in October, 1828, he was not aware of any detailed account of such opera- 
tions having been brought under the notice of the public. This might, pro- 
bably, be accounted for by the fact, that very few improvements had, during 
late years, taken place, in either the dressing- of tin or of copper ores. It was 
to be regretted that Mr. Henwood's able paper had not been illustrated by 
diagrams, so necessary in matters of detail. These, the author of the present 
paper endeavoured to supply. He felt much indebted to the kindness of the 
agents of St. Day United Mines, Cam Brea, Porkellis, Tin Croft, Par Consols, 
and North Basset Mines, in permitting a minute inspection of the whole of the 
machinery under their management, and from which many of the illustrations 
were derived. 

In the account of tin dressing, the operations were described in detail, com- 
mencing with the " spalling," or breaking up the ore with hammers, as it 
came up from the mine to the surface. Then " vanning," or testing the value 
of the ore, by bruising on a shovel and agitating with water a small portion 
from the pile. The difficulty of separating the wolfram, or the tungstate of 
iron and manganese from the tin ore was then commented on. 

The " stamps," so indispensable to every tin mine, were then minutely 
described. In some of the large tin mines in Cornwall, as many as one hundred 
and four stamp heads were driven by one steam-engine. The importance of 
attention to the suitable size of the holes in the " stamp grates" was noticed, 
as on that point depended entirely the degree of fineness, to which, the ore 
would be pulverised. After a description of the " strips," into which the ore 
in the shape of fine sand and water passed on leaving the stamps, it was stated 
that the ore was divided in the strips into three parts — the " head," " middle," 
and the " tail." The " slime," forming a fourth portion of the tin stuff, 
passed into another pit. The operations huddling, tossing, and packing, to 
which the " head" or " crop" was subjected, were then described. 

The " middle" of the strips was then followed through the various manipu- 
lations to which it was subjected. Circular buddies were also described. 

In describing the dressing of the " tail" of the strips, the ordinary " Sepa- 
rator" was explained, as also Wilkins' Separator, which was strongly recom- 
mended for its great efficacy and cheapness. The methods of " trunking" and 
" framing" were then described. An excellent though expensive arrangement 
of frames, used at St. Day United Mines, was explained, and also a novel con- 
struction of hand frarne. 

The burning-house operations were then detailed, and a description was 
given of the calcining now gradually coming into use in the Cornish Mines; 
with an account of the arsenic-flues, through which the fumes from the oven 
or calciner were made to pass. " Chimming" and " dilluing" were then 
described; thus completing the dressing operations of tin ore. 

The operations of dressing copper ore were much more simple and less nume- 
rous than those of tin dressing. The revolving " griddle" was explained, as 
also the process of " bucking ;" and the " Crusher" machine, which had super- 
seded the bucking mill, was described, as well as the methods of " cobbing" and 
" picking." 

Several " jigging" machines were described, and minute details were given 
of " Petherick's Separator," with a tabular statement, clearly showing the 
superiority of the latter over the old fashioned machines. It was a matter for 
surprise that so valuable a machine was scarcely known in the West of Corn- 
wall. 

The whole of the numerous operations detailed, were fully illustrated by a 
series of large and interesting diagrams on a scale of one inch to the foot. 

At the monthly ballot, the following candidates were duly elected :— Mr. 
W. H. Bartholomew, Member, and Messrs. J. F. Churchill, R. Downing, W. J. 
Kingsbury, G. Lyon, J. M. Skater, and W. W. Wardell, Associates. 



The Artizan, 
April 1, 1858. 



Institution of Civil Engineers. 



87 



■ February 9, 1858. 

Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 

The discussion upon Mr. Henderson's paper, " On the Methods GENE- 
BALLY EMPLOYED IN CORNWALL, IN DRESSING TlN AND COPPER 

Ores," was continued throughout the evening. 

In commencing' the discussion, allusion was made to Oxland's process for 
removing wolfram from tin, as practised at the Drake Walls Tin Mine. The 
tin stuff being roasted with soda, the wolfram combined with it, and formed 
tungstate of soda, which being soluble in water could be easily removed. This 
was important, as it appeared probable that tungsten would be, by Jacob's pro- 
cess, rendered available in the manufacture of steel, and would also be used in 
the arts generally. 

It was stated that the universal feeling among the better informed " dressing 
Captains " in Cornwall was, that the present methods of dressing ores, requiring 
such a large proportion of manual labor, were a reflection on the mechanical 
progress of the age. Mention was made of Mr. Herbert Mackworth's machine 
for washing coal, by a slow, continuously ascending current of water. The 
machines, six of which had been set to work since May, 1857, were said to be 
almost automatic. The difference in the specific gravity of shale and coal being 
as 2-6 to 1*3, there would evidently be less difficulty in separating the ordinary 
minerals of Cornwall, and experiments on a small scale promised successful 
results. 

Allusion was made to the machine for washing coal, introduced into this 
country by Monsieur Berard, of St. Etienne, at the period of the Great Exhi- 
bition, in 1851, when a Council Medal was awarded to it. Improvements had 
already been made in it by Petherick, and this latter machine had been already 
improved upon by Edwards, whose machine consisted of two cisterns, each 
having in their side an aperture covered by a flexible diaphragm, which could 
be projected inwards by a connecting rod having a stroke of 6 inches. This 
motion pressed upwards the mass of water in the cistern, projecting it 
through the gratings covering the cisterns, upon which the coal was consecu- 
tively laid in a film. The coal, being of less specific gravity than the shale and 
pyrites, was, by the action of the water beneath, pressed upwards, and was 
removed by scrapers having a slow motion, whilst the heavier particles fell 
through the gratings into the cisterns below. In extracting ores the reverse 
action occurred, the valuable portions falling into the cisterns, whilst the 
lighter refuse was washed away from above the gratings. 

Various improvements in the ordinary machines were suggested, and regret 
was expressed that machinery generally was not in the advanced state in 
Cornwall that was desirable for the treatment of such valuable minerals. It 
was stated that the utmost nicety was required in the separation of metal from 
the ores of tin and of copper, especially as in the case of the latter mineral, the 
present average quantity of metal extracted did not exceed 6 per cent, of the 
quantity of ore raised. Instances were given of only 17^ lbs. and 17 T 7 B lbs. of 
tin being extracted from each ton of ore raised, and yet from that apparently 
small return an adequate profit was made. 

The coal-washing machine was stated to have been originally invented in the 
North of England, and to have been introduced into the West ' of England by 
Mr. John Taylor, by whom it had been adapted as a separator for the ores of 
tin and copper. The deficiencies of the present processes in Cornwall were ad- 
mitted, and it was suggested that the great point was to continue the crushed 
and triturated stuff from the stamps in constant progress onwards, through all 
its stages, so that the mass should not be allowed to come to rest ; this, it was 
urged, was very practicable, wherever there were copious supplies of water, 
and the machinery was improved with that object in view. Upon this prin- 
ciple the success of' the coal-washing machine was based. Great improvements 
had been introduced into the machines in the Austrian mines, and very successful 
results had been obtained. It was shown that it was not desirable to reduce some 
ores to too fine a powder ; this error had been committed in some of the gold 
crushing mills, and to this cause must, in some degree, be attributed the failures 
that had occurred during the gold mania. 

It was practicable to extract with profit minute fractions of gold from a poor 
matrix. A mine in Hungary was instanced, whence, from a depth of 200 
fathoms, the gold matrix was raised, and so skilfully manipulated as to work 
at a profit, although only producing one-tenth of an ounce of gold from a 
ton of the matrix. 

The great merit of Mr. Henderson's paper was generally admitted, and it 
was hoped that it would be followed by other papers descriptive of the im- 
proved crushing and other machines, which required to be more generally 
known. 



February 16, 1858. 
Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 

The paper read, was " On Submerging Telegraphic Cables," by 
Mr. J. A. Longridge, M. Inst. C.E., and Mr. C. H. Brooks. The authors 
desired their attempt to investigate the laws, to which the operation of sub- 
merging telegraphic cables were subject, to be considered only as a partial 
solution of an interesting and somewhat complicated problem. It was evident 
that much misapprehension existed on the subject, and it had been stated in 
the journals relating the proceedings at the meeting of the British Association 
at Dublin, in the year 1857, that " it seemed to be universally admitted that 
it was mathematically impossible, unless the speed of the vessel, from which 
the cable was payed out, could be almost infinitely increased, to lay out a cable 
in deep waters, say two miles or more, in such a way as not to require a length 
much greater than that of the actual distance, as from the inclined direction 
of the yet sinking part of the cable, the successive portions payed out, must, 



when they reach the bottom, arrange themselves in wavy folds, since the actual 
length is greater than the entire horizontal distance." 

It was desirable to ascertain how far such a proposition was correct, and if 
correct, what amount of " slack," or of surplus cable should be provided to 
meet the waste, in varying depths of water. 

The questions discussed in the paper, and of which the mathematical investi- 
gations were given in an appendix, were : — 

1. The possibility of laying out a cable straight along the bottom, in deep 
water, free from the action of currents. 

2. What degree of tension would be required in the process ? 

3. What would be the effect, as regarded strain, under the varying circum- 
stances of the depth of water, of the specific gravity of the cable, and of the 
velocity of the paying-out vessel 1 

4. What would" be the relative velocities of the cable and of the paying-out 
vessel, requisite to reduce the strain, or tension to any given amount, and what 
would be the consequent waste of cable ? 

5. The effect of currents, and the consequent waste of cable. 

6. How far it would be necessary, or safe, to check the velocity of paying 
out, when passing currents, so as to avoid, as far as possible, waste of cable ? 

7. Would it be safe, and if so, under what circumstances, to stop the paying- 
out, and to attempt to haul in the cable from great depths 1 

8. The effect of the pitching of the vessel in a heavy sea. 

9. The principal desiderata in the paying-out apparatus. 

10. The effect of floats, or resisters. 

11. The best, means for saving the cable, in case of fracture. 

12. The best mechanical construction of a submarine cable. 

After investigating the laws of bodies, such as cables, sinking in a resisting 
medium, the paper proceeded to show the great waste of cable attendant upon 
paying out free from tension at the ship. The form of the curve assumed by a 
descending cable was then examined, and the amount of tension at the paying- 
out vessel, requisite to lay the cable without slack along the bottom, estimated 
under various conditions. The effect of the friction of the water in decreasing 
this tension, and the result, as regarded the tension, of increasiag the velocity of 
the cable beyond that of- the ship, were then pointed out. It was shown, that 
the decrease thus obtained was of small amount, unless the speed of the pay- 
ing-out vessel was considerable, and that a decrease of tension should rather be 
sought in a diminution of the specific gravity of the table. 

The tension at the ship in 2,000 fathoms water was stated to be about 35 cwt. 
for a cable similar to the Atlantic cable, but with a cable of the specific gravity 
of 1*5 it would not exceed 7f cwt. 

_ The effect of currents was then considered, and it was maintained that they 
did not bring any additional strain upon a cable, and involved only a small loss 
of length on first entering them. In a hypothetical case of a current extending 
to a depth of 200 fathoms, and running with a velocity of 1J ft. per second, at 
right angles to the ship's course, it was calculated that the extra length of cable 
due to the deflecting action of the current would not exceed 28 fathoms, the 
velocity of the ship being 6 ft. per second. 

The effect of stopping the paying out was next treated of, and it was shown 
that it would be to bring a very heavy catenarian strain on the cable, depending 
upon the depth of water, and the velocity of the paying-out vessel. The 
amount of this strain for the Atlantic cable in a depth of 2,000 fathoms, and at 
a velocity of the paying-out vessel of 6 ft. per second, was calculated at above 
7 tons. 

The question of hauling in the cable was then adverted to, and the conditions 
under which it might be safely attempted, were pointed out. 

After discussing, briefly, the effect of the pitching of the vessel upon the 
strain of the cable, the paying-out apparatus was referred to ; and the im- 
portance of reducing its inertia, and of so constructing the brakes that they 
should act freely, was maintained. Two plans were then mentioned for saving 
the end of the cable in case of fracture, and tables were given, showing 
the velocity and direction taken by the end of the cable under such circum- 
stances. 

The authors then proceeded to offer some remarks upon the mechanical 
structure of the cable, and strongly advocated a light cable. The distinguish- 
ing feature of this system of construction was, that the whole of the metallic 
portion was placed in the centre, and was surrounded by the insulating material ; 
whereas, hi the Atlantic cable, there was an outer sheathing of wire rope 
twisted spirally round the insulating medium. It was shown that whilst the 
absolute weights of the two cables were as 2H to 10, their relative strengths 
were as ll to 25, so that the light cable, weighing scarcely one-half of the 
heavy one, had nearly two and a half times its relative strength. 

The effect of compression and tension on the two constructions was then 
referred to, and it was maintained, that in this respect also, the light cable 
possessed advantages over the other. 

In conclusion, the authors, while disclaiming any intention to find fault, 
expressed their strong conviction, that though the Atlantic cable was a step in 
the right direction, as compared with the heavier cables of former days, it yet 
fell far short, in mechanical structure and condition, of the light system recom- 
mended by Mr. Allan and others. 

The practicability of safely submerging the present Atlantic cable was not 
denied, but it was strongly urged, that with a cable of its specific gravity, 
success would be greatly dependent upon the nature of the paying-out ap- 
paratus, and the sedulous attention of those in charge of the brakes. 

It was considered advisable to postpone the discussion on this subject until 
the following Paper, which was announced to be taken at the next meeting, 
Tuesday, February 23rd, had been read — On the Practical Operations 

CONNECTED WITH THE PAYING-OUT AND REPAIRING OF SUBMARINE 

Telegraph Cables, by Mr. F. C. Webb, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 



88 



New Construction of Furnace applicable to Intense Heat. 



['The Arti/.ax, 
I A|.nl ], 18RH. 



February 23, 1858. 
Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., President, in the Chair. 

The paper read was On the Practical Operations connected 
with Paying-Out and Repairing Submarine Telegraph Cables, 
by Mr. F. C. Webb, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 

The author explained, in the first place, that through the hesitation of those 
who had charge of the works in publishing facts which might affect the com- 
mercial value of such enterprises,, he was unable to supply complete details of 
the operations performed in submerging those cables upon which he had not 
been practically employed. 

He then enumerated and described, in general terms, the operations con- 
nected with the cables laid down from Dover to Calais in 1850 and 1851 : that 
from Holyhead to Howth — that between Port Patrick and Donaghadee, and 
the cable to Ostend, relating at the same, time. the causes of the various failures 
to which some of them had been subject. 

He then pointed out the route proposed for the Hague Cables, describing 
their construction, and the reasons which induced the engineer, Mr. Edwin 
Clark (M. Inst. C.E.), to determine on adopting the small single cable system. 
After alluding to the advantages and disadvantages of the simple over the com- 
pound cable, he expressed the opinion that this system was undoubtedly correct, 
but that the cables were made too light for this particular locality, and were not 
laid sufficiently far apart from each other. The arrangement adopted for 
testing the cable during the process of construction was then explained, and 
the serious error of submerging cables, in their final position, without having 
previously tested their perfection by suitable means, was noticed. The Atlantic 
cable was not tested under water, from the fear of its strength being impaired 
by the formation of rust. This might have been avoided by galvanizing, which 
was shown not to have the effect of weakening wire to the extent generally 
supposed. 

The arrangements for coiling the cable on board the Monarch steamer for 
the Hague route were then detailed, and some remarks were made on the con- 
ditions of a coiled rope, showing the necessity of carrying the cable from the 
hold of the ship, when elliptical coils were used, over shears, fixed above the 
hatch-ways, to give the rope sufficient height to enable the twist, which the 
cable had received in coiling, to he neutralised : and also, the advantage of cir- 
cular over elliptical coils, and the difference between a rope wound on a drum 
and that coiled up in itself. The manner of buoying or ranging off the course 
from England to Holland, the progress of the Monarch, and the manner of 
testing the cable during the period'of paying out, were then narrated. 

The act of speaking through a cable was not considered a sufficient test of its 
perfection. The case of the Atlantic cable was instanced, where, from Professor 
Morse's Report, the author concluded that a serious fault had passed unnoticed. 

The aper then proceeded to remark upon the steering of vessels across tide- 
ways, for the purpose of paying out cables, as opposed to the manner of steering 
for an ordinary passage; showing the curve that would be taken by a cable, if 
an alio wance was not made for the effect of tides. A practical method was 
given, by which the required rate and direction of the vessel across a tide could 
be quickly ascertained. 

The operation of laying down the thick shore ends on the English and Dutch 
coasts was then detailed, as well as those of the Irish cables. The shore ends, 
similar to those of the Atlantic cable, tapered off from large sized wire to the 
same size as the cable. 

In making arrangements for paying out a cable, the first point for considera- 
tion was the selection of a ship. The paper discussed the relative merits of 
screw and paddle-wheel steamers, giving the preference to the latter, except in 
the case of a screw where the engines were placed well aft, thus giving plenty 
of accommodation for stowing the cable. The next point for consideration was 
the disposition of the cable in the most convenient form for paying out freely. 
Accidents arising from improper coiling were quoted ; and the necessity of 
careful coiling was dwelt upon. The great advantages of Mr. NewalPs cone 
and rings for paying out were described. 

The brake was the next consideration. The drum brake, of which an illus- 
tration was aiven, was that used on all cables hitherto successfully laid. Mr. 
C. Bright's "brake was also mentioned, and its advantages and disadvantages 
were pointed out. Its chief disadvantages appeared to be its weight, or 
vis inertice, and the time required to release the pressure on the brake pulley. 
The importance of brakes in deep water operations, to regulate the speed at 
which the cable was being paid out, as compared with the rate of the ship on 
her course, and the necessity of providing for irregular strains, was adverted to. 
Mechanical contrivances to supersede manipulation in the quick release of the 
brake were disapproved. 

The curve taken by the cable in descending great depths was discussed, 
showing it to be concave towards the ship, in every part, but approaching a 
straight line as it neared the ground. The angle which the cable made with the 
horizon when being paid out was about 9° or 10° ; while the waste varied from 
30 per cent, to 50 per cent. 

The necessity of supplying buoys, with suitable moorings, to provide against 
accidents, was next urged. Several cases were cited where the use of buoys 
would have prevented the loss of cables and the consequent waste of property. 
The buoyage arrangements of the Atlantic cable were described. 

The difficulty and danger of stopping the egress of the cable during the 
process of paying out were urged, and the means of providing against such 
accidents were represented. 

The tendency of a cable astern a ship to swing it round in opposition to the 
action of the helm, with its effect in two or three instances, together with the 
means of avoiding such an event, by placing the free point of the cable as near 
the centre of the ship as practicable, were discussed. 

Whilst proper allowance was given to the importance of possessing perfect 
machinery, the author was of opinion that sufficient value was not placed upon 



the necessity of having an organised and efficient staff. It was indispensable 
that those having the management of submerging cables should possess a nautical 
knowledge. The difficulty that would have been experienced in the late attempt 
to lay down the Atlantic cable, when the end had to be passed from the Niagara. 
to the Agamemnon, was explained. 

The paper then proceeded to describe various operations connected with the 
repairs ot cables ; showing, first, the means to be taken to detect the position 
and nature of the fault, and then those adopted to make the cable good; 
several operations of this nature, executed by the author in the North Sea, were 
described. Cables which had been broken by anchors, &c, were mended at 
points varying from two to fifty miles from land; at one time in a tug, at 
another time in a Dutch fishing boat ; and, lastly, in the Monarch steamer, 
whose fittings for the purpose of general repairs were detailed. The operations 
of grappling, under-running, buoying, and picking up, were minutely de- 
scribed. In one instance 120 miles of cable were picked up, repaired on land, 
and relaid. 

The paper concluded by pointing' out that by such means cables could be 
regularly repaired, and that submarine wires, in sballow seas, became a much 
less precarious property than they were at first supposed to be. 



ON A NEW CONSTRUCTION OF FURNACE, PARTICULARLY 
APPLICABLE WHERE INTENSE HEAT IS REQUIRED. 

By Mr. C. WILLIAM Sieiibjib, of London.* 

The high importance of the stores of combustible material Jwhich are distri- 
buted upon the surface of the earth renders their wasteful expenditure and 
rapid diminution in quantity in many parts a serious subject for consideration ; 
and in the writer's opinion there is no object more worthy of the earnest atten- 
tion of engineers and men of science generally than that of causing the genera- 
tion and application of heat to be conducted upon scientific and economical 
principles. Our knowledge of the nature of heat has been greatly advanced of 
late years by the investigations of Mr. J. P. Joule, of Manchester, and others, 
which have enabled us to appreciate correctly the theoretical equivalent of 
mechanical effect or power for a given expenditure of heat. We are enabled 
by this new dynamic theory of heat to tell, for iastance, that in working an 
engine of the most approved description we utilise at most only one-sixth to 
one-eighth part of the heat that is actually communicated to the boiler, allow- 
ing the remainder to be washed away by a flood of cold water in the condenser. 
If we investigate the operations of melting and heating metals, and, indeed, any 
operation where intense heat is required, we find that a still larger proportion 
of heat is lost, amounting, in some cases,'_to more than 90 per cent, of the total 
heat produced. 

Impressed by these views the writer has for many years devoted much atten- 
tion to carrying out some conceptions of his own for obtaining the proper 
equivalent of effect from heat : some of the results he has obtained are known 
to the members of the Institution, amongst which are the Regenerative Steam 
Engine and Condenser, the Regenerative Evaporator, and an apparatus for the 
economic production of ice. The regenerative principle appears to be of very 
great importance, and capable of almost universal application ; and the object 
of the present paper is to describe an application of this principle to furnaces of 
every description. 

The invention of the Regenerative Furnace is due to the writer's brother, 
Mr. Frederick Siemens ; and it has been matured and variously applied by the 
writer within the last few months. The result has in all cases been a large 
saving in fuel over the plans in common use, amounting to from 70 to 80 per 
cent, of the total quantity of fuel hitherto consumed. The apparatus employed 
is moreover of a very simple and permanent description, and combines economy 
of fuel with other advantages, amongst which are the total prevention of smoke 
and a general improvement in the quality of the work produced. 

Figs. 1 to 4 represent the new furnace in the form applicable to piling iron, or 
heating iron, steel, or other substances. 

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of the furnace, and Fig. 2 a sectional plan ; 
Figs. 3 and 4 are transverse sections. 

The furnace consists of the heated chamber, a, and of two fireplaces or solid 
hearths, b and c, communicating respectively with the two regenerators, 
d and e. Each regenerator consists of a series of walls of firebrick, laid in 
open Flemish bond, in such a manner that the pigeon-holes of each wall are 
opposite the solid parts of the succeeding wall, the object being to form a 
number of zigzag or tortuous passages through the regenerators, leading to 
opposite sides of the valve, f, shown dotted in Fig. 1, at the bottom of the 
chimney, g. The valve, F, consists of a rectangular box of iron open at the two 
sides to the two regenerators, D and E, at the bottom to the atmosphere, and at 
the top to the chimney, G. A spindle passes through the centre of the two 
remaining close sides of the box, and carries a rectangular flap or moveable 
plate, fitting the box sideways, and bearing against one of its upper and one of 
its lower edges, according to the position of the tumbling lever and weight, ii, 
which are fixed upon the spindle outside. 

When the valve is in the position shown dotted in Fig. 1, the atmospheric 
air entering from below, proceeds in the direction indicated by the arrows, 
passing' through the regenerator, d, over the fireplace, B, through the heated 
chamber, a, over the fireplace, c, through the regenerator, e, and by the valve, 
F, into the chimney, G. 

A fire having been lighted upon the hearth, b, through the side opening, k, 
the flame passes through the furnace and through the regenerator, e, to the 



* Paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



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April 1,1858. J 



Institution of Engineers in Scotland. 



89 



chimney, g. In its passage through the regenerator, e, the first perforated wall 
that the flame strikes against will be heated to a considerable degree, the second 
wall to a lower degree, and so on in succession, the heat of the current being 
thoroughly exhausted by the time it reaches the chimney. 
After about one hour's work the position of the valve, f, is reversed, and fuel 

REGENERATIVE FURNACE. 




Pip;. 3. — Transverse Section 
through Heated Chamber. 



Fig. 4. — Transverse Section 
through Fireplace and Regenerator 

is sup; lied through the opening, l, to the second fireplace, c, which is then acted 
npon by a current proceeding in the opposite direction to that indicated by the 
arrows. The cold atmospheric air comes in contact first with the least heated 
wall of the regenerator, e, and then with the more heated walls successively, 
acquiring thereby a degree of temperature approaching the temperature of the 
heated current which previously entered the same regenerator. The heat thus 
imparted to the fresh air greatly increases the temperature of the flame which 
is now being produced upon the hearth, c, and consequently the nearest end of 
the regenerator, d, will be heated also to an increased degree, the current reach- 
ing the chimney comparatively cool. 

When the valve, f, is again reversed, the fresh air will be heated nearly to the 
increased temperature of the hot end of the regenerator, d, and will produce a 



still hotter flame with the fuel supplied to the hearth, B. It is evident that by 
a continuation of this process an accumulation of heat to any degree may be 
produced within the furnace, provided only the heat produced in combustion is 
greater than the heat lost by radiation and the heat absorbed by the metal or 
other substances in the heating chamber. 

In the regenerative furnace now described, the temperature 
at which the heat is communicated to the materials does not 
affect the quantity of fuel requisite, except so far as increased 
radiation is concerned ; for the products of combustion pass 
away in all cases at a temperature not above 200° or 300° 
Fahr. This new principle of furnace is therefore applicable 
with the greatest advantage in cases where intense heat is 
required. It has been applied to furnaces for reheating 
steel and iron, at the works of Messrs. Marriott and At- 
kinson, at Sheffield. One of these furnaces has now been in 
constant work for nearly three months ; and according to a 
statement received from Mr. Atkinson it has worked quite 
satisfactorily, and the result of a careful comparison has 
shown a saving of 79 per cent, to be effected over the old 
fu-rnace in heating the same quantity of metal. Mr. Atkin- 
son has also applied tliis principle of furnace for melting 
cast steel, and has obtained a still larger saving, although 
the new melting furnace has not yet been rendered entirely 
satisfactory for the workman. 

The regenerative furnace has also been applied to the 
purpose of puddling iron ; and though the new puddling 
furnace has been completed and worked only for a few days 
at the works of Messrs. Rushton and Eckersley, at Bolton, 
the writer is able to state that it converts a charge of 480 
lbs. of pig metal into wrought iron, with an expenditure of 
only 160 lbs. of common coal, as compared with 6 cwt. 
required in the ordinary furnaces : the net yield of wrought 
iron is higher than that of the ordinary puddling furnace, 
and the quality of the iron produced seems also to be superior. 
It is also worth mentioning that the chimney of this pud- 
dling furnace may be watched for hours, and no trace of 
smoke be seen issuing from it. Several other applications 
of this principle of furnace are contemplated by the writer, 
which it would be premature to enter upon on the present 
occasion. 

INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS IN SCOTLAND.* 
Session 1857-58. 

Professor. W. J. Macqgobn Rankine, LL.D., F.R.SS. L. & E„ 

President, in the Chair. 
The first meeting of the session was held in the Philo- 
sophical Society's Hall, Andersonian Buildings, George 
Street, Glasgow", on Wednesday, 28th October, 1857. 

The President delivered the following Introductory 
Address : — 

On the Nature and Objects of the Institution. 
Gentlemen, — We have had several general meetings 
already, but they were of a preliminary character, and this 
is the first meeting at which we are about to proceed to the 
transaction of our regular ordinary business — the reading 
of Papers, and the discussion of those subjects in which we 
are interested. Since this society was first formed, I am 
happy to see that many names of new members have been 
proposed, and many members who were not present at 
previous meetings are here now, and it is therefore desirable 
that I should make a short statement as to the nature and 
objects of this society, as distinguished from those of other 
scientific societies. 

We may consider that the various societies of a scientific 
natui'e are divided into three classes. In the first class are 
those which are devoted specially to the advancement of 
science, and to the keeping of the members informed of the 
progress that science makes elsewhere. To this class the 
Royal Society belongs, the Geological Society, and many 
others. In the second class are societies intended for the 
popular diffusion of scientific knowledge, and the cultiva- 
tion of a taste for science in those persons whose ordinary 
pursuits are not calculated to promote that knowledge, or 
to impart such a taste. Many societies combine the objects 
of those two classes, such as the British Association, and 
the Philosophical Society of Glasgow. In the third class 
is the society to which we belong : and the object of this 
class is the Improvement of Practice; and, com- 
bined with that, is another important object — that of 
keeping practical men informed of what is going on elsewhere in their art, and of 
the experiments made by others. And this is a most important object ; 
for much time and money may be wasted, and much trouble be thrown away, 
by making experiments that have been made already ; and an institution such 
as ours does much to prevent that evil. Now, this class of society is distinct 



from that whose object is specially the advancement of science ; for, in that 



* We have much pleasure in reprinting the inaugural address of Professor Macquorn 
Rankine before the Institution of Engineers in Scotland. We heartily wish the Institution 
success, and Tvill report, from time to time, sucl) parts of its proceedings as lve may find 
space for in our columns. 



90 



Institution of Engineers in Scotland. 



r The Ahtizan, 
L April 1, 1858. 



class, the practical results are only regarded as experiments from which scientific 
conclusions may be drawn ; they'are used merely as the data for some scientific 
investigation : whereas, in our society, practical results arc the main object. 
A society of this kind is different from those of the second class that I have 
mentioned/'which tend towards making science popular; for we shall, to a 
great extent, have to consider details uninteresting or unintelligible to the 
general public. One of the objects of this society is, that its members shall 
discuss details with which they could not venture to take up the time of a 
mixed and popular meeting. 

Having explained to you the nature of this Institution, I will state how it 
originated. Amongst previously existing institutions of the same class is the 
" Institution of Civil Engineers," which for many years has held its meetings 
in London, and the benefits arising from which are generally acknowledged ; 
also the "Institution of Mechanical Engineers," having its chief place of 
meeting at Birmingham, and holding its meetings at other places besides, such 
as Manchester, Newcastle, and (last year for the first time) in Glasgow. I 
may also refer to the " Institution of Civil Engineers in Ireland," which is of 
recentJate, but of great utility. I think I may trace the origin of the foun- 
dation of our present society to the effect of the meeting of the " Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers," held in Glasgow in the autumn of last year. Almost 
all the members here will recollect that meeting, which, for one of the kind, 
was almost unparalleled as to attendance, and excited immense interest among 
the practical men of this city. One thing remarkable about that meeting was 
the fact, that a large quantity of interesting and useful machinery was exhi- 
bited at it by Glasgow makers. Those proceedings very naturally produced 
the impression, that a society of engineers holding its meetings in Scotland, 
and in Glasgow as the chief seat of practical mechanics in Scotland, would be 
successful ; and that idea having occurred to a few individuals, was gradually 
discussed by more and more, until it led, about six niontlis ago, to the founda- 
tion of this Institution. 

We are distinguished from the Institution of Civil Engineers, and from the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, by combining those two branches, as well 
as mining engineering, founding, and iron shipbuilding; and I think that 
combination is a most judicious measure. In former times, one could draw a 
line between civil engineering and mechanical engineering. There was a time 
when civil engineering was confined to works in stone, earth, and timber, and 
when the use of iron was restricted to the purposes of the mechanical engineer. 
But now, iron has become so important a material in the great works of civil 
engineering, that the two branches have been very much assimilated, and it is 
difficult to draw the line where one pursuit ends and the other begins ; and the 
same may be said of various other branches of engineering. It is on this 
account that the Institution has included amongst its members, civil engineers, 
mechanical engineers, mining engineers, founders, and iron shipbuilders. 

The object of this society is the advancement of engineering and practical 
mechanics, and the keeping of the members informed of what is being done 
elsewhere -by other engineers, thereby enabling each one of our members to have 
the benefit of the experience of many. The advancement of engineering and 
practical mechanics comes from experimental knowledge. Experiments are of 
two kinds : — First, those which are made expressly for the purpose of testing 
the properties of some particular material, or ascertaining the laws governing 
some particular phenomenon, and which are intended for experiments and 
nothing more. Few men engaged in practical engineering have time enough 
at their disposal to carry on such experiments as these, and the leisure necessary 
for doing so is, for the most part, confined to a very limited number of persons. 
The second class of experiments comprises those which occur incidentally in the 
course of practice, and by which many important facts are brought to light, 
but which often pass unrecorded, and are, in that case, of no use to the great 
body of scientific and practical men. The observation of them may, indeed, be 
of use to the individual who observes them ; but unless they are collected and 
recorded, the benefit to he derived from them is lost to the profession and to the 
public at large. One of the objects of this Institution is to collect and combine 
all those different experiments which occur incidentally in the course of the 
practical experience of engineers, and to deduce useful conclusions from them. 
With regard to the benefit of combining the experience of many practical men, 
an excellent remark was made by Mr. Scott Russell at the meeting of the 
" Mechanical Engineers," in Glasgow, last autumn. He said, that in a society 
of, say one hundred members, a member bringing the experience of one man, 
gets in exchange the experience of ninety-nine. 

This is a most favourable time for the progress of such an institution as ours ; 
and to show you clearly that such is the case, I may direct your attention to 
one or two facts in connection with the history of practical mechanics. In the 
early part of this century, the discoveries of Watt more especially, and also 
those of Smeaton and others, gave a great impulse to engineering and practical 
mechanics. Then Tredgold, Rennie, and Telford, and many more eminent 
engineers, made still further improvements in mechanics. That period of 
improvement, however, was followed by a time less favourable to sound progress 
in mechanics : a time which has happily now expired, for we are again ad- 
vancing, and I shall tell you what appears to me to be the reason. 

If I were required to state in one word what constitutes the characteristic 
advantage of skilful and scientific practice in the useful arts, I should say— 
economy. By economy, I do not mean parsimony, or the use of inadequate 
means towards an end; neither do I mean economy in money only; but 
economy of means of all sorts — economy of materials, of power, of time. The 
, fact is, that perfect economy in any operation consists in accomplishing the 
end proposed by an amount of means just sufficient, without waste. For 
example, to construct a viaduct with just so much iron as is enough to support 
the required load safely, and no more ; or (to go to machinery for an illustra- 
tion) to drive a machine by just so much power as is necessary to do the work 
without waste :— that is economy :— to the attainment of it all'our skill should 
be directed, and I am glad to find that such is being done every day. Some 
years ago, however, the case was different. There was then a period of wild 



speculation, which was most detrimental to the development of that kind of 
skill that leads to economy. For speculation and extravagance lead to "(Be 
consequence, that where a structure is required to be strong, it is made so, net 
by skilful design, but by clumsy and costly massiveness; and that where a" 
machine is required to perform much work, it is enabled to do so, not by 
economical use of power, but by its lavish expenditure. At a period of that 
sort, there is a tendency to neglect, economy, and the inevitable result is the 
bringing about of a state of public opinion that discourages true skill in the 
useful arts. It leads to a prejudice in favour of structures and machines in. 
proportion to their cost, irrespective of the results accomplished by them. At 
such a period, a line of railway will be regarded as a great undertaking, mereh 
because it has cost a hundred thousand pounds per mile, and a bridge will be 
looked upon with admiration in proportion to the number of thousands of tons 
of superfluous material which it contains. The reaction after a period of 
extravagance tends to produce the opposite extreme — parsimony . the using 
of bad materials, and the attempting to effect ends by inadequate means. Bnt 
I have very little to say about a reaction of that kind ; for parsimony is a fault 
we very seldom fall into in this country : it is not in accordance with tin- 
British character. I think the period at which we have now arrived, is a 
period of prudence, when we have hit the right mean between economy and 
parsimony, and endeavour to produce all our results as effectively as possible. 
and without waste of any kind. In fact, we are now arrived at a time when 
there is every encouragement to form institutions like this, and to feel con- 
fidence that the result of our labours will be appreciated. 

It has been the practice on the opening of societies of this description, to ' 
give a sketch of the previous history of the art or science with a view to tin 
promotion of which the institution has been founded ; but it seems to me that, 
instead of congratulating ourselves upon past progress, it would be better that 
we should look forward and see what further improvements are yet to be made ; 
and, therefore, I will make a few remarks upon the various questions occurring 
to me on which knowledge is wanting, and to the elucidation of which our 
future labours may contribute. 

I shall begin by a few observations with regard to the properties of materials. 
True economy and true skill require the best possible material ; and the best 
material is that which is strongest in proportion to its weight ; and that is the 
quality which makes iron the most useful and important of all materials. Iron 
is the most difficult of all materials to obtain pure. We can easily obtain the 
other ordinary metals in a pure state — gold, copper, silver, lead, tin, zinc ; but 
the obtaining of pure iron, or iron even approaching to purity, is almost im- 
possible. We know that there are immense varieties of qualities of that metal 
as regards strength, and that those variations of strength arise from impurities. 
One mode of obtaining good iron, is to bring it from the localities which pro- 
duce it best — such as those where it is smelted with charcoal— Russia, Sweden, 
the British possessions in America; but the obtaining of it from these places is 
very expensive. Still, we know that in the weakest, as well as the strongest 
qualities, the iron itself is the same substance, and that its variations in strength 
arise from combination with other substances, such as carbon, manganese, 
sulphur, phosphorus, arsenic, silicon, calcium, &c. 

The question then arises, " Can iron produced in our own country be so 
improved as to remove those foreign substances that lessen its strength?" 
Now, I have no doubt that a strong light may be thrown on that im- 
portant question, by collecting the experience of the members of a society 
like tliis. 

There are other materials besides iron that, demand our attention — timber, 
for instance. A very important question may arise as to seasoning it, and 
preserving it from decay. For a long time it was thought that timber took 
years to season, and that the operation should take place in the open air ; but 
we now find that it can be done in a few days by means of an oven. Of course 
that process, being in its infancy, can be improved. As to the preservation of 
timber, it is of consequence that we should collect the results of as much 
practical experience on this head as we can. The manufacture of artificial 
stone, and the strengthening of natural stone, and improvements in the manu- 
facture of bricks, are also subjects of great importance. 

As to the strength of materials, I scarcely need say that it has for a long 
time been a subject of inquiry ; and much has been discovered in reference to 
it; but the discoveries themselves show how much yet remains to be discovered. 
I shall mention a few of the leading questions that have lately arisen on this 
subject. There is a very well-known rule for calculating the transverse 
strength of beams, founded on certain suppositions respecting the laws of the 
resistance which the particles of a bent beam oppose to the force which bend* 
it. The rule is as follows : — Divide what is called the moment of inertia of the 
cross section of the beam by the leverage of the load, and by the greatest 
distance of any particle from the neutral axis; and multiply the quotient so 
obtained by a constant multiplier, depending on the nature of the material. 
Now, it has always been well known to scientific men, that the suppositions 
upon which that rule is founded are, in some respects, not exactly true ; but it 
has been very generally taken for granted, that the error in the calculation is 
too small to be of importance in practice; and in order to obviate, in a 
measure, the defect that was apparent, different multipliers were used. Some 
recent experiments, by Mr. W. H. Barlow, have shown that no constant 
multiplier will give the strength. If we take several beams of similar figures, 
the same multiplier will answer; but as soon as we vaiy the form of the 
section of beam, we require a new multiplier for the same material ; and" 
Mr. Barlow has made considerable progress in determining what law the 
variations of the multiplier follow. But still, our knowledge of that subject 
is incomplete; and it yet remains to be discovered what is the exact and 
true law on which to found a rule for ascertaining the transverse strength of 
beams. As another example, I may refer to Mr. Fairbairn's experiments 
on the resistance of hollow cylinders against crushing, such as the flues of 
boilers. Mr. Fairbairn has found that by increasing the length of the cylinder 
the resistance is diminished; so that, within the limits of his experiments, the 



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April 1,1858. J 



Institution of Engineers in Scotland. 



91 



strength is inversely as the length; but this must be only an approximate 
law ; for, if it were exact, a tube, how thick soever, could be made so long 
that the slightest pressure would cause it to collapse : and we have yet to 
discover how the strength of a cylinder against outward pressure can be 
exactly computed. I have still another question to refer to with regard to the 
strength of materials ; and it is one that has attracted much attention, haying 
been discussed at great length at the late meeting of the "British Association" 
in Dublin. I refer to the stiffening of suspension bridges. This description of 
bridge is that which requires the smallest quantity of iron to support a given 
load ; but an objection to its use on railways is its vibration, which would be so 
great, on the passing over of a train at high speed, as to be dangerous. It has 
been proposed to stiffen those bridges ; and this has been done by means of 
lattice girders, that is to say, diagonal braces and horizontal bars alongeach 
side. It was formerly supposed that, to make a suspension bridge as stiff as a 
girder bridge, we should use lattice girders sufficiently strong to bear the load of 
themselves, and that, such being the case, there would be no use for the sus- 
pending chains. But Mr. P. W. Barlow, having made some experiments upon 
models, finds that very light girders, in comparison of what were supposed to 
be necessary, are quite sufficient to stiffen a suspension bridge ; that, in fact, 
girders of a certain stiffness, attached to a suspension bridge, require, in order 
to produce a given deflection, twenty-five times the weight that would produce 
the same deflection if they were not connected with the suspension chains. 
And it turns out that, if mathematicians had directed their attention to the 
subject, they might have anticipated this result. It is true that Mr. Barlow's 
experiments were made upon models only; and it remains to be determined, on 
a large scale, whether a suspension bridge, with girders to stiffen it, is more 
economical than other forms of bridge, and whether we ought to use plate 
girders, half-lattice girders, lattice girders, bowstring girders, stiffened chains, 
or girders of some other form. That is a question about which there is much 
controversy, and which can only lie settled by the collection and scientific dis- 
cussion of the experience of practical men. The progress that has of late years 
been made in the crossing of large valleys by means of viaducts of moderate 
cost, has been very great indeed. Not long ago, it was considered very 
moderate if a viaduct could be constructed at the rate of 7s. per cubic yard of 
space covered ; now the work can be done for 3s. (3d. or 4s. per cubic yard 
of space. 

The construction of iron ships is a topic of importance to which I shall call 
your attention. There are very many questions remaining unsettled on this 
subject. Mr. Scott Bussell pointed out, at the meeting of the British Associa- 
tion, the errors into which builders fall in constructing iron vessels on the same 
plan as they do wooden vessels, with keel, ribs, and planking, although the 
materials ot the two do not at all resemble each other. But although this error 
is evident, no one likes to be the first to run the risk of constructing a ship, or 
anything else of such magnitude, upou a new principle : and it must be 
regarded as showing gTeat courage on the part of Mr. Brunei and Mr. Scott 
Russell, that they have undertaken the building of so large a vessel as the 
Great Eastern* on an entirely new plan, substituting cells for ribs, and dis- 
pensing with the keel. There is much yet to be discovered in the art of build- 
ing iron ships ; and in this locality, where iron shipbuilding is practised on so 
extensive a scale, we look forward to the exertions of this society for the collec- 
tion of important results of experience. 

With regard to boiler explosions, I think it is most important that, in all 
cases of such accidents, the exact facts should be minutely recorded ; and that 
is one of the duties that should be performed by this society. 

I shall now pass to the consideration of the means which we use for the 
purpose of performing work, and for effecting changes in the condition and 
form of materials. The agent we chiefly use for that purpose is heat; and the 
great agent for the production of heat is the combustion of coal ; so that 
economy of fuel is, perhaps, the most important subject coming before any one 
studying practical mechanics. Numerous experiments are made upon this 
subject every day, by almost every person using a furnace ; but the benefit of 
these experiments is lost to the profession for want of their being recorded. I 
would suggest, therefore, that a register should be kept of the consumption of 
fuel in the different, furnaces of the city. The economy of fuel is a subject 
that, forty years ago. attracted the attention of the Rev". Dr. Robert Stilling, 
who invented an apparatus for saving heat, called the " regenerator," or 
" economises " This apparatus is intended to be used when any fluid, whether 
liquid or gaseous, requires to have its temperature alternately raised and 
lowered. The fluid is passed alternately backwards and forwards through a 
grating or network of some solid conducting substance, which alternately takes 
away from the fluid and gives back to it a large proportion of the heat 
required to produce the alternate changes of temperature. Heat which would 
otherwise be wasted is thus stored up and saved, to be used over and over 
again. This apparatus, though employed to a limited extent, has never been 
brought into general use. But recently Mr. Siemens devised an application of 
the same principle to furnaces, which seems to have answered well ; and it is to 
be hoped that the use of this principle may be farther developed. As another 
invention for the economy of fuel will be brought before you in a .paper to be 
read this evening, it is unnecessary for me further to advert to the matter. 

The subject of economy of fuel leads us naturally to the consideration of the 
steam-engine, and the economy of its power. All steam-engines now exten- 
sively used in practice are, in fact, Watt's engines, more or less developed and 
improved ; and it appears that, in some instances, an economy has now been 
attained, such that the consumption of coal is from 2 lbs. to ij lbs. per hour, 
per indicated horse-power. Theory shows that this is almost the greatest 
economy we can arrive at; and if we want to economise farther, we must 
introduce some new principle, such as the use of superheated steam, or heated 
;:ir, which is analogous to superheated steam, inasmuch as it can be worked at 



* Since named the Leviathan. 



a high temperature without attaining a dangerous pressure. The theory of this 
subject is now well understood ; and the only difficulty that exists is as to its 
convenient practical application. 

The use of electro-magnetic engines is also a subject for consideration ; and 
to show that these are not mere matters of speculation, I may mention that 
they are actually used in France for driving small and delicate machinery, and 
are found to be well adapted for nice workmanship, where great power is not 
required, as they are clean, easily managed, and cool. But they are more ex- 
pensive than steam-engines. To produce a given total amount of energy; the 
electro-magnetic engine consumes thirty-two pounds of zinc for every six 
pounds of coal that the steam-engine consumes ; but, from the better economy 
of power of which the electro-magnetic engine is capable, it is possible that, 
for a given useful effect, the ratio of consumption may be one pound of zinc 
for one pound of coal, which would still leave a great excess of cost against the 
electro-magnetic engine. The subject is, however, well worthy of attention. 

With regard to railways there are many questions yet to be decided ; for 
instance, we do not at present possess a perfectly satisfactory permanent way, 
and we require much more experience before we shall possess it. The quality of 
rails used, too, is unsatisfactory, and requires improvement. Another want in 
railways is the means of going up inclines as steep as those on common roads, 
without the use of stationary or auxiliary engines, and that is a thing which, 
I have no doubt, can be attained by perseverance and careful study. 

Improvements in canals ai'e also proper for our consideration, such as the 
form of boats causing the least resistance, and also the best mode of traction 
along canals. At this late hour of the evening, I shall only mention docks, 
harbours, and sea- works in general ; for the subject, if I went into it, would 
lead me to occupy your time too long. 

The electric telegraph is also a subject in which mechanical engineers are 
concerned — at least, with reference to the machinery required for the submer- 
sion of submarine cables. It is evidently a nroblem, what is the best macbinery 
for that purpose. 

Then there is sanitary engineering — drainage, cleansing, ventilation, water 
supply, and the ventilation of mines. There is the arrangement for the pro- 
duction and supply of gas; and on this subject I may say, that it is desirable 
the matter should be studied with a view to discover some mode of diminishing 
the cost of gas. 

The next subject upon which I shall touch is that of accurate workmanship, 
one of the most important means of promoting economy in machinery, for it is 
the means of diminishing friction, wear and tear, and breakage, and tends to 
economise power, money, and materials. It is simply by accurate workman- 
ship that Mr. Whitworth has produced a rifle that will carry a ball accurately 
a mile. This leads to the question of improvements in tools, another most im- 
portant matter, but so well appreciated in this great mechanical city, that I 
need not. do more than mention it. 

Another point of great interest is the reform of the present system of measures, 
especially those of length. The civil engineer uses the mile for measuring a 
long distance, the chain for a shorter distance, the yard for earth or rubble, 
the foot for ashlar masonry, timber, and the larger dimensions of iron struc- 
tures : for scantlings of timber and iron, he uses the inch, which is also the 
unit of the mechanical engineer, and this is divided into eighths, sixteenths, 
and thirty-second parts. Now this complexity is most inconvenient, and should 
be reformed ; but the difficulty is to get people to agree to a standard. 

Legislation, too, as it affects engineering, is a subject of most important 
moment for our consideration. The patent law, although now greatly better 
than it was some years ago, still requires improvement, as regards both the law 
itself and its administration ; and that is a topic that should be thoroughly dis- 
cussed by an institution of engineers — of persons who both hold patents of their 
own, and use those of others, and who are therefore liable to be concerned very 
frequently with the patent law. Another kind of legislation to which an insti- 
tution of engineers should turn its attention is that concerning the public 
safety. If any laws of the kind be provided, they should be such as shall not 
check the enterprise of engineers and mechanics, nor waste time, nor involve any 
greater restraint or inconvenience than is absolutely necessary. And in order 
that the Legislature may be fully informed of the facts that should guide them 
in framing laws on such matters, it is of the utmost importance that those sub- 
jects should be publicly discussed by such institutions as ours. I refer to this 
now, because I am sorry to observe a disposition on the part of some very 
eminent persons to recommend restrictions that I should think very injudicious. 
For instance, at a recent meeting at Birmingham, one of the most distinguished 
men in the world (Lord Brougham) suggested that the speed of railway trains 
should be limited to 25 or 30 miles an hour. Now, with proper care and good 
management, a speed of 70 miles an hour can be made as safe as one of 17. 
Accidents do not arise from the degree of speed, but from bad construction or 
mismanagement : and the putting of a restriction on the speed is not, therefore, 
the proper way to prevent them. Good workmanship and good management 
are what are required, and not a diminution of speed. To prevent a horse from 
running away we should not tie his legs, but put a good rider on his back. 

Having thus far touched upon a few of the subjects which it will be our pro- 
vince to elucidate, I shall conclude. The matters I have brought under your 
notice are but a few of those which lie in the vast field that is before us. The 
locality in whicli our Institution is established is probably the very best we 
could have selected, and on this point I cannot help repeating to yon the excel- 
lent observation that Sheriff Bell made at a public meeting last year. He 
remarked that Glasgow combined in itself the advantages of Manchester, 
Liverpool, Birmingham, and Newcastle, with some peculiar advantages of its 
own ; that it had the manufactures of Manchester, the shipping of Liverpool, 
the hardware of Birmingham, and the coal of Newcastle, along with its own 
advantages. In fact, considering the vast extent and great perfection with 
which some branches of practical mechanics are here carried on, more especi- 
ally in undertakings on a large scale, such as iron shipbuilding and steam- 
engine making, we may say that Glasgow is the Metropolis of Mecha- 



92 



Resistance of Steam Vessels. — Correspondence : Mass and Weight. 



Tin: Artizan, 
April 1, ISM. 



nics. If an institution of engineers is to make good progress anywhere, it 
ought to be in Glasgow. I trust that, in this respect, my most favourable 
anticipations will be before long fulfilled, and that our Institution will prove of 
benefit to practice, to science, and to the country. 

On the motion of Mr. Neil Robson, seconded by Mr. James Ferguson, 
a cordial vote of thanks was passed to the President for his address. 



OX CALCULATING THE RESISTANCE OF STEAM- 

: VESSELS.* 

By Dr. Eckhakdt, Privy Councillor, Darmstadt. 
(Concluded from page 55.) 
To simplify the demonstration of resistance of steam vessels, I had sup- 
posed, in the foregoing Paper, that the forebody and the afterbody are 
straight-lined prisms ; but the construction in wood and in iron demands 
a curvilinear junction of these parts with the midship, whose flanks must 
be tangents of it. We shall now show why the resistance of a curvi- 
linear prow and stern can be calculated by the given Table in the first 
chapter. 




& 



A. 



For this purpose, the axis A B must be divided in equal parts, A 1, 
A 2, which represent the abscisses, u, «', of the corresponding ordinates, 
y,y. By this construction we obtain the small prisms, I, m, n, &c, whose 
diagonals, /, n, can be regarded as straight lines, to which the given 

Table of resistance is applicable, if we put the rate = y ~~ y . The sim- 

u 1 — u 
plest combination would be a segment of a circle, B I C, touching the 

flank, C D, of the midship, whose radius is r = A B2 + A C 2 an a the 

2 AC 
ordinate of the segment y = v'C^ — «') — C. In this formula the con- 
stant is given by C = r — A C. For A B = 6, and A C = 1, we find 
r == 18-5, aud the constant C = 17-5. With these elements, we calculate 
the ordinates and the resistances of the single small prisms as follows: — 



u. 


y- 


Rate. Coefficient. 


Resistance of the Prow. 





1-00 


0-00 




1 


0-97 


0-03 x 0-400 


0-012 




0-88 


0-09 x 0-401 


0-030 


3 


0-75 


0-13 x 0-401 


0-052 


4 


0-50 


0-20 x 0-405 


0-081 


o 


30 


0-25 x 0-408 


' 0102 





0-00 


0-30 x 0-415 


0-125 






Sum 1-00 


Sum.... 0-408 



The sum of the single resistances = 0408 is the coefficient, with which 
the direct resistance of the midship must be multiplied, to obtain the 
moderation of resistance occasioned by the application of a circular 
prow. By a similar calculation, we find the propulsion of the curvilinear 
stern, if we employ the coefficients of the second column of the Table. 



j£? 




Another convenient curve for this purpose is the wave line, B I C, a 



AD 



species of cycloides, whose equation is y = ^-=- (1 + cos. _ u\ in 

2 n 

which n is the number of unities contained in the axis A B. If this axis 
is divided, for instance, in six parts, equal to A C = 1, the equation 
would be y = \ (1 + cos. 30° u). The resistance of the single prisms, 
/ m n, will be found in the same manner as in the foregoing example. 
* Errata in Dr. Eckhardt's Article in our March Number. 

Page 52, right column— Line 39, for " or one square foot English," read " or hy adding 
30 per cent., and reducing for one square foot English," &c. 

Page 53, left column— Line I, for "adopting,'' read "adapting;" Line 17, the same 
correction. 

Page 53, right column— Line 1, for " fraction," read " function," 



u. 


V- 


Rate. 


Coefficient. 


Resistance of the Prow. 





1-00 








1 


0-93 


0-07 


x 0-400 


0-028 


2 


0-75 


0-18 


x 0-403 


0-073 


3 


0-50 


0-2.5 


x 0-408 


0-102 


4 


0-25 


0-25 


x 0-408 


0-102 


5 


0-07 


0-18 


x 0-403 


0073 


6 


o-oo 


0-07 
Sum.. 1-00 


x 0-400 


0-028 



The rate of the straight- lined prism, A B C, by the same dimensions, 
will he = \ = 1-66, for which the Table gives the coefficient = 0-40:3, 
therefore, the resistances of these three combinations are: — 

1. For the segment of circle = 0-408 

2. For the wave line = 040(i 

3. For the straight-lined prism =0-403 

The difference of them is not considerable; but the wave line set-m9 to 
respond to the most conditions which practice demands.* 

Dr. Eckhardt. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

MASS AND WEIGHT. 
To the Editor of The Artizan. 

Sir, — The different letters written upon vis viva to convince " G. J. V " of 
the truth of this leading thsorem in dynamics, contain all that could possibly 
be said about it, without entering into more extensive calculations. He who is 
not convinced by the reading of these, will not easily be so ; I will not, there- 
fore, enter further into the subject; I will only state what I know of the history 
of our often mentioned principle. 

It appears for the first time in Huyghens' " Horologium Oscillatorium," 
printed in the year 1673. After this, Leibnitz and Daniel Bernoulli showed its 
truth to a larger extent ; the latter calculating with it, for the first time, the 
movement of fluids in vases. 

Lagrange, whose " Treatise upon Mechanics," printed in 1788, is to be con- 
sidered as the basis of all the books which have since appeared on this science, 
treats " le principe de conservation des forces vives " as one of his chief doc- 
trines, and praises Huyghens highly for the great benefit which science has 
derived from his discovery. After this time, the same principle has continued 
to be greatly used in all purely scientific calculations in theoretical mechanics. 
But with the development of engineering in our century, men of science applied 
it with great success in calculations for machinery, as Poncelet, in France, 
Redtenbacher and Weissbach, in Germany. 

I am acquainted only with French and German books, viz., Lagrange's 
" Mecanique Analytique," Duhamel's "MecaniqueAnalytique/'Redtenbacher's 
" Principien des Maschinenbaues," &c. However, I accept " G. J. Y.'s" advice 
to read and study, as this is in all cases a good thing. No book could, however, 
change my opinion of vis viva, and reading a mathematical dictionary is not 
the right way to get on in this science. 

Not only the ins viva, but also the term mass, and its application in my 
first letter, gave occasion for some rather unpleasant remarks on the part oi 
" G. J. Y.," and I must now try to explain myself. 

The best plan is to give no definition of mass, as Duhamel : — " We give ni> 
definition of mass, as this is as useless as a definition of time or space." His 
example, however, has been followed by few authors, and endeavours to give 
a truthful definition are to be found in many books. If it he necessary t>. 
adopt one, I should prefer the definition which has been given by Redtenbacher 
— the German Poncelet — according to which I called mass a " principle." A 
mass cannot begin to move when it is at rest, and it cannot change its velocity 
without the influence of a force. This quality of mass is its characteristic, and 
the definition alluded to says : — " The mass of a body is the quantity of that 
which has this quality." I am sorry to say that I could not find the English 
words which would serve as a proper translation of the German ; being, there- 
fore, unable to give you my definition, I state this to explain why I called mass 
a passive principle. 

However, " G. J. Y.'s" definition : that mass is the quantity of material, may 
be accepted, especially as it is easily evident to a person fond of definitions. 
Suppose it to be correct, the consequence that mass and weight are one and the 
same, is still an absurdity. If the mass of a body is the quantity of material, 
then it must remain constant, as long as the body is not altered. Therefore 
the transport from the pole of our globe to the equator can not change the mass 
of any body. Still it is a fact, that a piece of iron which would weigh 200 lbs. 
at the north pole, weighs only 199j lbs. here, and 199 lbs. on the equator, 
without even the most minute loss of material, so that the mass is the same. 
We should find the weight of the same piece of iron on the surface of the sun 
to be 5,900 lbs., and we shall be able to note a decrease in weight in bringing it 
to the top of a high mountain. The mass is always proportionate to the 
weight, and nowhere neither "equal " nor "identical." 

The accelaration, g, and the weight, P, change at the same time ; and as P 
is a force, a, the velocity produced by this force, P and g are undoubtedly pro- 

portionate. In terms : P = A g, or A = —. 

* By the publication of this little Treatise, it was only my purpose to complete in this 
peculiar case, the theory of resistance, as the base of a rational and scientifical determina- 
tion of the propelling power, for which the experimental results of the Leviathan will give, 
I hope, the necessary elements. 



The Artizan, 
April 1,1858. 



Correspondence: Resistance of Steam Vessels. — The "Leviathan." 



93 



A is a constant number ; it is proportionate to P, and, at the same time, 
independent of the changes which P has to undergo. These are the very same 
qualifications which we made for mass, and A will serve us in any way for its 
measure. I say now, 2 M = A, and others say, M = A ; hence, th3 two diffe- 

P P 

rent expressions, M = — , and M = —. I call the mass of a body 1, which 

2g 9 

body has here the weight of 64 lbs. ; others call the mass of a body 1, which body 
has here the weight of 32 lbs. ; and if we find it convenient to call the 
mass 1 which .weighs 100 lbs. or 200 lbs., &c, we can do so. We have liberty to 
choose unities, and a confusion can never arise if we bear in mind how we 
choose them. 

Besides, we transfer mass into weight, as this is handier for any calculation 
in numbers, and by both ways we get exactly the same results. 

All this is far from being a rigorous demonstration of the relations existing 
between force, mass, velocity, and time, which could not be given in a few 
lines. I want only to prove that even common sense must allow that the 
-difference between mass and weight is not a mere " hallucination as to the 
meaning- of words." 

If mass and weight were identical, then bodies which have no weight could 
have no mass. 

The hypothesis that an elastic and enormously thin fluid, called aether, is 
not only contained in the interior of everything on this planet, but that it fills 
up also the whole endless space, agrees so well with all experiments and dis- 
coveries in natural philosophy, and serves so strictly to explain all phenomena 
of light, that it is generally adopted by men of science. It is proved, with a 
certainty which sc